Presentation on theme: "Historical Background"— Presentation transcript:
1 Historical Background We Were Heroes:The Journal of Scott Pendleton Collins, a World War II Soldier, Normandy, France, 1944(My Name Is America)By Walter Dean Myers
2 American Leaders Franklin D. Roosevelt Dwight D. Eisenhower Harry S. TrumanGeorge S. Patton, Jr.
3 Franklin D. Roosevelt Name: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) Birth: Hyde Park, New YorkNickname: FDRFamily Relations: Related to Theodore Roosevelt - fifth cousinIllness: Roosevelt became disabled after suffering from Polio in 1921Career:Governor of New York from 1929 to 1932Thirty-second president of the United StatesSpouse: Eleanor Roosevelt (a distant cousin)Children: 6Achievements & Recognition: Roosevelt became president during the Great DepressionRoosevelt was the only president elected four times: 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944US Challenges:One out of every four workers had lost their jobsMany families had no money to buy foodOthers lost their homes because they could not make their house paymentsContributions:Created the New Deal to help the people new jobs and/or money from governmentWorld War II ( )1941, Japanese planes attacked U.S. Navy ships at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.The United States then went to war against Japan and entered World War II.Roosevelt was a strong leader throughout the warHe died shortly before the war ended in 1945
4 Harry S. Truman Name: Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) Birth Place: Lamar, MissouriPost-secondary Training: Business school in Kansas CityCareer:1st: Family farm in Grandview, Missouri, with his father from 1906 to 19172nd: During World War I ( ), Truman fought as a soldier in FranceThirty-third president of the United States (1945 – 1953)3rd: Bought a clothing store in 1919, but business failed due to hard times4th: Government workHe won his first election in 1922 as a judge in Jackson County, MissouriIn 1934, Truman was elected to the United States Senate, and he was reelected in 1940On January 20, 1945, Truman became vice president83 days later, on April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died, and Truman became presidentDuring this time, World War II ( ) was still being foughtTruman was president for only a few weeks when the Allies—the United States and the other countries that fought against Germany, Italy, and Japan—won victory in EuropeTruman then made the huge decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan to end World War II in AsiaIn 1948, Truman was elected presidentDuring his second term, Truman ordered U.S. soldiers to help fight for the independence of South KoreaHe retired after his second term
5 Dwight D. Eisenhower Name: Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) Birth: Born on October 14, 1890, in Denison, TexasNickname: His friends called him “Ike” (Eisenhower, 2013)Post-secondary Training: U.S. Military Academy at West PointCareer: He became an officer in the ArmySpouse: Mamie Geneva DoudChildren: two sonsAchievements & Recognition:Promoted to Army general in 1941, just before the United States entered World War II ( ).He became the leader of the armed forces in Europe. He planned the invasion of Europe that led to the end of the warAccomplishments as 34th President of the United States ( )Eisenhower believed that the United States should help the South Korean due to war between North & South Korea.Contributed to equal rightsPromoted “space age” programs in 1957 after Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1Improved the teaching of science in U.S. schools
6 George S. Patton, Jr. Name: George Smith Patton, Jr., (1885-1945) Birth: Born on Nov. 11, 1885, in San Gabriel, CaliforniaPost-secondary Training: Graduated from theU.S. Military Academy in 1909Awards: placed fifth in the 1912 Olympic pentathlon(track and field event)Nickname: "Old Blood and Guts" (Patton, 2013)Career: American General of World War II ( )Led the Allied invasion of North Africa in 1942He took command of the Seventh Army for the invasion of Sicily in July 1943In 1944, Patton led the Third Army across France and fought in the Battle of the Bulge in Belgium that DecemberWhen the Germans surrendered in 1945, Patton's army held a large part of what became the American occupation (possession after invasion) zoneDeath: On Dec. 21, 1945, Patton died of injuries from a car accidentHe was buried in Luxembourg.
7 Foreign Leaders Adolf Hitler Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Winston ChurchillHeinrich HimmlerHideki TojoBenito Mussolini
8 Adolf Hitler Name: Adolf Hitler (1889-1945 Birth: born in Braunau, AustriaLocation: He moved to Germany in 1913Career: Ruler of Germany from 1933 to 1945Led a group called the NazisWorld War II ( ) began when he sent soldiers to attack Poland in 1939Hitler's forces murdered more than 6 million Jews as well as an estimated 5 million other innocent men, women, and childrenJews are people who follow a religion called Judaism.Troops led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union fought Hitler's armies and won World War II in 1945Death: Hitler killed himself when he knew he would lose the war
9 Charles de GaulleName: De Gaulle <<duh GOHL or duh GAWL>>, Charles André Joseph Marie ( )Birth: born on Nov. 22, 1890, in LilleCareer: French patriot, soldier, and statesman of the 1900's( ) - led French resistance againstGermany in World War IIRestored order in France after the warGuided the formation of France's Fifth RepublicServed as its president until 1969Led his country through a difficult periodFrance granted independence to Algeriaand other overseas territoriesHis leadership restored political and economic stabilityand again made France one of Europe's leading powersDeath: He died on Nov. 9, 1970
10 Joseph Stalin Name: Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) His real name was Iosif Vissarionovich DjugashviliIn 1913, he adopted the name Stalin from a Russian word that means man of steelBirth: Dec. 21, 1879, in Gori, a town near Tbilisi in Georgia (Russian Empire)Career: Dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1929 until 1953In the late 1800’s, Stalin joined a Marxist revolutionary groupMarxists believed that the working classes should take controlof industry and governmentMarxists overthrew Russia’s czar (emperor) and set up the world's first Communist governmentStalin played a minor part in the revolutionAfter the Communists won a civil war, Stalin became an important leaderRussia became a part of the Soviet UnionV.I. Lenin, the head of the Soviet government, died, and Stalin began to take controlhe had become a dictatorStalin began programs to end private ownership of businesses and to begin government control of farmsStalin had millions of Russians killed or exiled (sent far away) because they opposed his plans or threatened his powerStalin’s style of government became known as StalinismIn the late 1930’s, Stalin and the German leader Adolf Hitler made a secret plan to divide Poland between the two countriesbut…Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941For most of World War II ( ), the Soviet Union fought against GermanyAfter the war ended, the Soviet army remained in many countries in Eastern Europe, and Stalin set up Communist governments thereDeath: Stalin died on March 5, 1953
11 Sir Winston L. S. Churchill Name: Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill ( )Birth: November 30, 1874, in Oxfordshire, EnglandPost-secondary Training: Graduated from military schoolCareer: He became an officer in the British cavalry (fought on horseback)Achievements & Recognition:Elected to the House of Commons in the British Parliament in 1900During World War I ( ), he served in several important military and government positionsPrime Minister (political leader) of Great Britain during World War II (1951, however, Churchill became prime minister for the second time in 1951He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1953an important award for his works of history and biographyChurchill stepped down as prime minister in 1955, but he kept his seat in the House of CommonsIn 1964, at the age of 89, Churchill retired from ParliamentDeath: He died in 1965
12 Heinrich Himmler Name: Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) Birth: Born on Oct. 7, 1900, in Munich, GermanyCareer: Powerful leader of Nazi GermanyThe Nazis, who belonged to the National Socialist German Workers' Party, controlled Germany’s government from 1933 to 1945Chief of police for all Germany in 1936Himmler was head of the German police, including the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police forceHe became minister of the interior in 1943 and minister of home defense in 1944He ordered the deaths of millions of people before and during World War II ( )Those killed included some high-level Nazis and many prisoners in concentration campsA concentration camp is a place where people are imprisoned, and in some cases killed, without legal proceedingsThe Nazi concentration camps held political prisoners, Jews, and others.Death: Himmler killed himself on May 23, 1945, after Allied troops captured him
13 Hideki TojoName: Tojo, Hideki <<hee deh kee toh joh>> ( )Birth: Born on Dec. 30, 1884, in TokyoCareer: Japanese General and Prime MinisterHe led his country into war with the United Statesin World War II (In 1940, Tojo helped create a treaty with Germanyand Italy that made Japan a member of the alliance called the AxisIn October 1941, Tojo became prime minister of JapanHe ordered the bombing of the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on Dec. 7, 1941Tojo was forced to resign as prime minister in 1944After Japan’s surrender, he was arrested and found guilty of war crimesDeath: Tojo was executed on Dec. 23, 1948.
14 Benito Mussolini Name: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Birth: July 29, 1883, in Dovia, near Forli, in northeastern ItalyCareer:Dictator of ItalyFounder of the Fasci di Combattimento (Combat Groups)Transformed the Fasci into the National Fascist Party 1921The Fascist Party promised to restore the high standingthat Italy had held during the days of the Roman EmpireThe party gained the support of many landowners andbusiness and military leadersBy 1922, the Fascists had become powerful enough toforce the king of Italy to make Mussolini prime ministerMussolini abolished all political parties in Italy except the Fascist Party and seized control of industries, newspapers, police, and schoolsHe took the title Il Duce (The Leader)In 1940, under Mussolini's leadership, Italy entered World War II on the side of Nazi GermanyIn 1943, members of the Italian government overthrew MussoliniOn April 27, 1945, Italians opposed to fascism captured him as he attempted to escape to SwitzerlandDeath: He was shot to death on April 28, 1945
15 Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941Japanese air raids attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu in Hawaii On the morning of December. 7, 1941The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor caused great damage and loss of life, but the dry docks and oil storage facilities remained largely intact, allowing the U.S. Navy to quickly recover.
16 Battle of MidayHundreds of aircraft and a number of warships were destroyed in the 1942 Battle of Midway (Zapotoczny, j. s. Midway, 2013).“The aircraft carrier USS Yorktown is hit by a Japanese aerial torpedo during an attack by planes from the Japanese carrier Hiryu on June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway. Black clouds of antiaircraft fire clog the surrounding sky. Yorktown was abandoned, sinking early on June 7 after being torpedoed by a Japanese submarine” (Luker, 2013).
17 D Day: Invasion of Normandy, France D-Day: the invasion of Normandy, France by allied forces was June 6, 1944.At the time of the invasion, Nazi Germany controlled France and most of western EuropeCode Name: Operation OverlordWhat happened? Early on the morning of June 6, an estimated 23,000 American and British troops dropped by parachute and glider into NormandyMore than 130,000 Allied troops crossed the English Channel in boats from bases in southern EnglandAllied warplanes perforated the invasion area with bombs and gunfire, while warships bombarded the Normandy beach.United States soldiers landed at beaches code-named Omaha and UtahBritish soldiers landed at Gold and Sword beaches, and Canadian troops landed at Juno Beach.Resistance:About 70,000 German soldiers put up fierce resistance.The invading Allies met heavy machine gun and rifle fire, artillery fire, land mines, tanks, barbed wire, and fortified bunkers.Accomplishments:By the end of the day, the Allies had secured all five beaches, and Allied soldiers and supplies were pouring ashore.Losses:In the April and May operations that paved the way for D-Day, the Allies suffered nearly 12,000 casualties and lost more than 2,000 aircraft.On D-Day itself, more than 10,000 Allied soldiers, sailors, and aviators were killed, were wounded, or went missing. German losses were slightly less.Zapotoczny, J. S. (2013). D-day. In World Book Student. Retrieved from
18 D Day – June 6, 1944“Hitting the beach, Allied infantrymen swarmed ashore along the Normandy coast of northern France on D-Day—June 6, It was the largest seaborne invasion in history. Hitler had boasted that German defenses along the coast could resist any attack. But he was wrong.” (Zapotoczny, D day, 2013).
20 Battle of the BulgeThe German attack that began the 1944 Battle of the Bulge caught the Allies by surprise. The Germans rapidly advanced, forming the distinctive bulge on the map. Allied forces soon recovered, however, and drove the Germans back beyond where they started (Zapotoczny, J. S. Bulge, 2013).“The Allies attacked the Axis in Europe after defeating it in northern Africa in May Italy surrendered in September 1943, two months after the invasion of Sicily. In June 1944, the Allies landed in northern France. Attacks from the east and west forced Germany to surrender in May 1945” (Zapotoczny, J. S. Bulge, 2013).