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Historical Background

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1 Historical Background
We Were Heroes: The Journal of Scott Pendleton Collins, a World War II Soldier, Normandy, France, 1944 (My Name Is America) By Walter Dean Myers

2 American Leaders Franklin D. Roosevelt Dwight D. Eisenhower
Harry S. Truman George S. Patton, Jr.

3 Franklin D. Roosevelt Name: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945)
Birth: Hyde Park, New York Nickname: FDR Family Relations: Related to Theodore Roosevelt - fifth cousin Illness: Roosevelt became disabled after suffering from Polio in 1921 Career: Governor of New York from 1929 to 1932 Thirty-second president of the United States Spouse: Eleanor Roosevelt (a distant cousin) Children: 6 Achievements & Recognition: Roosevelt became president during the Great Depression Roosevelt was the only president elected four times: 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944 US Challenges: One out of every four workers had lost their jobs Many families had no money to buy food Others lost their homes because they could not make their house payments Contributions: Created the New Deal to help the people new jobs and/or money from government World War II ( ) 1941, Japanese planes attacked U.S. Navy ships at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The United States then went to war against Japan and entered World War II. Roosevelt was a strong leader throughout the war He died shortly before the war ended in 1945

4 Harry S. Truman Name: Harry S. Truman (1884-1972)
Birth Place: Lamar, Missouri Post-secondary Training: Business school in Kansas City Career: 1st: Family farm in Grandview, Missouri, with his father from 1906 to 1917 2nd: During World War I ( ), Truman fought as a soldier in France Thirty-third president of the United States (1945 – 1953) 3rd: Bought a clothing store in 1919, but business failed due to hard times 4th: Government work He won his first election in 1922 as a judge in Jackson County, Missouri In 1934, Truman was elected to the United States Senate, and he was reelected in 1940 On January 20, 1945, Truman became vice president 83 days later, on April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died, and Truman became president During this time, World War II ( ) was still being fought Truman was president for only a few weeks when the Allies—the United States and the other countries that fought against Germany, Italy, and Japan—won victory in Europe Truman then made the huge decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan to end World War II in Asia In 1948, Truman was elected president During his second term, Truman ordered U.S. soldiers to help fight for the independence of South Korea He retired after his second term

5 Dwight D. Eisenhower Name: Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969)
Birth: Born on October 14, 1890, in Denison, Texas Nickname: His friends called him “Ike” (Eisenhower, 2013) Post-secondary Training: U.S. Military Academy at West Point Career: He became an officer in the Army Spouse: Mamie Geneva Doud Children: two sons Achievements & Recognition: Promoted to Army general in 1941, just before the United States entered World War II ( ). He became the leader of the armed forces in Europe. He planned the invasion of Europe that led to the end of the war Accomplishments as 34th President of the United States ( ) Eisenhower believed that the United States should help the South Korean due to war between North & South Korea. Contributed to equal rights Promoted “space age” programs in 1957 after Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 Improved the teaching of science in U.S. schools

6 George S. Patton, Jr. Name: George Smith Patton, Jr., (1885-1945)
Birth: Born on Nov. 11, 1885, in San Gabriel, California Post-secondary Training: Graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1909 Awards: placed fifth in the 1912 Olympic pentathlon (track and field event) Nickname: "Old Blood and Guts" (Patton, 2013) Career: American General of World War II ( ) Led the Allied invasion of North Africa in 1942 He took command of the Seventh Army for the invasion of Sicily in July 1943 In 1944, Patton led the Third Army across France and fought in the Battle of the Bulge in Belgium that December When the Germans surrendered in 1945, Patton's army held a large part of what became the American occupation (possession after invasion) zone Death: On Dec. 21, 1945, Patton died of injuries from a car accident He was buried in Luxembourg.

7 Foreign Leaders Adolf Hitler Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin
Winston Churchill Heinrich Himmler Hideki Tojo Benito Mussolini

8 Adolf Hitler Name: Adolf Hitler (1889-1945
Birth: born in Braunau, Austria Location: He moved to Germany in 1913 Career: Ruler of Germany from 1933 to 1945 Led a group called the Nazis World War II ( ) began when he sent soldiers to attack Poland in 1939 Hitler's forces murdered more than 6 million Jews as well as an estimated 5 million other innocent men, women, and children Jews are people who follow a religion called Judaism. Troops led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union fought Hitler's armies and won World War II in 1945 Death: Hitler killed himself when he knew he would lose the war

9 Charles de Gaulle Name: De Gaulle <<duh GOHL or duh GAWL>>, Charles André Joseph Marie ( ) Birth: born on Nov. 22, 1890, in Lille Career: French patriot, soldier, and statesman of the 1900's ( ) - led French resistance against Germany in World War II Restored order in France after the war Guided the formation of France's Fifth Republic Served as its president until 1969 Led his country through a difficult period France granted independence to Algeria and other overseas territories His leadership restored political and economic stability and again made France one of Europe's leading powers Death: He died on Nov. 9, 1970

10 Joseph Stalin Name: Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
His real name was Iosif Vissarionovich Djugashvili In 1913, he adopted the name Stalin from a Russian word that means man of steel Birth: Dec. 21, 1879, in Gori, a town near Tbilisi in Georgia (Russian Empire) Career: Dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1929 until 1953 In the late 1800’s, Stalin joined a Marxist revolutionary group Marxists believed that the working classes should take control of industry and government Marxists overthrew Russia’s czar (emperor) and set up the world's first Communist government Stalin played a minor part in the revolution After the Communists won a civil war, Stalin became an important leader Russia became a part of the Soviet Union V.I. Lenin, the head of the Soviet government, died, and Stalin began to take control he had become a dictator Stalin began programs to end private ownership of businesses and to begin government control of farms Stalin had millions of Russians killed or exiled (sent far away) because they opposed his plans or threatened his power Stalin’s style of government became known as Stalinism In the late 1930’s, Stalin and the German leader Adolf Hitler made a secret plan to divide Poland between the two countries but…Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941 For most of World War II ( ), the Soviet Union fought against Germany After the war ended, the Soviet army remained in many countries in Eastern Europe, and Stalin set up Communist governments there Death: Stalin died on March 5, 1953

11 Sir Winston L. S. Churchill
Name: Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill ( ) Birth: November 30, 1874, in Oxfordshire, England Post-secondary Training: Graduated from military school Career: He became an officer in the British cavalry (fought on horseback) Achievements & Recognition: Elected to the House of Commons in the British Parliament in 1900 During World War I ( ), he served in several important military and government positions Prime Minister (political leader) of Great Britain during World War II ( 1951, however, Churchill became prime minister for the second time in 1951 He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1953 an important award for his works of history and biography Churchill stepped down as prime minister in 1955, but he kept his seat in the House of Commons In 1964, at the age of 89, Churchill retired from Parliament Death: He died in 1965

12 Heinrich Himmler Name: Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945)
Birth: Born on Oct. 7, 1900, in Munich, Germany Career: Powerful leader of Nazi Germany The Nazis, who belonged to the National Socialist German Workers' Party, controlled Germany’s government from 1933 to 1945 Chief of police for all Germany in 1936 Himmler was head of the German police, including the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police force He became minister of the interior in 1943 and minister of home defense in 1944 He ordered the deaths of millions of people before and during World War II ( ) Those killed included some high-level Nazis and many prisoners in concentration camps A concentration camp is a place where people are imprisoned, and in some cases killed, without legal proceedings The Nazi concentration camps held political prisoners, Jews, and others. Death: Himmler killed himself on May 23, 1945, after Allied troops captured him

13 Hideki Tojo Name: Tojo, Hideki <<hee deh kee toh joh>> ( ) Birth: Born on Dec. 30, 1884, in Tokyo Career: Japanese General and Prime Minister He led his country into war with the United States in World War II ( In 1940, Tojo helped create a treaty with Germany and Italy that made Japan a member of the alliance called the Axis In October 1941, Tojo became prime minister of Japan He ordered the bombing of the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on Dec. 7, 1941 Tojo was forced to resign as prime minister in 1944 After Japan’s surrender, he was arrested and found guilty of war crimes Death: Tojo was executed on Dec. 23, 1948.

14 Benito Mussolini Name: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Birth: July 29, 1883, in Dovia, near Forli, in northeastern Italy Career: Dictator of Italy Founder of the Fasci di Combattimento (Combat Groups) Transformed the Fasci into the National Fascist Party 1921 The Fascist Party promised to restore the high standing that Italy had held during the days of the Roman Empire The party gained the support of many landowners and business and military leaders By 1922, the Fascists had become powerful enough to force the king of Italy to make Mussolini prime minister Mussolini abolished all political parties in Italy except the Fascist Party and seized control of industries, newspapers, police, and schools He took the title Il Duce (The Leader) In 1940, under Mussolini's leadership, Italy entered World War II on the side of Nazi Germany In 1943, members of the Italian government overthrew Mussolini On April 27, 1945, Italians opposed to fascism captured him as he attempted to escape to Switzerland Death: He was shot to death on April 28, 1945

15 Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese air raids attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu in Hawaii On the morning of December. 7, 1941 The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor caused great damage and loss of life, but the dry docks and oil storage facilities remained largely intact, allowing the U.S. Navy to quickly recover.

16 Battle of Miday Hundreds of aircraft and a number of warships were destroyed in the 1942 Battle of Midway (Zapotoczny, j. s. Midway, 2013). “The aircraft carrier USS Yorktown is hit by a Japanese aerial torpedo during an attack by planes from the Japanese carrier Hiryu on June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway. Black clouds of antiaircraft fire clog the surrounding sky. Yorktown was abandoned, sinking early on June 7 after being torpedoed by a Japanese submarine” (Luker, 2013).

17 D Day: Invasion of Normandy, France
D-Day: the invasion of Normandy, France by allied forces was June 6, 1944. At the time of the invasion, Nazi Germany controlled France and most of western Europe Code Name: Operation Overlord What happened?   Early on the morning of June 6, an estimated 23,000 American and British troops dropped by parachute and glider into Normandy More than 130,000 Allied troops crossed the English Channel in boats from bases in southern England Allied warplanes perforated the invasion area with bombs and gunfire, while warships bombarded the Normandy beach. United States soldiers landed at beaches code-named Omaha and Utah British soldiers landed at Gold and Sword beaches, and Canadian troops landed at Juno Beach. Resistance: About 70,000 German soldiers put up fierce resistance. The invading Allies met heavy machine gun and rifle fire, artillery fire, land mines, tanks, barbed wire, and fortified bunkers. Accomplishments: By the end of the day, the Allies had secured all five beaches, and Allied soldiers and supplies were pouring ashore. Losses: In the April and May operations that paved the way for D-Day, the Allies suffered nearly 12,000 casualties and lost more than 2,000 aircraft. On D-Day itself, more than 10,000 Allied soldiers, sailors, and aviators were killed, were wounded, or went missing. German losses were slightly less. Zapotoczny, J. S. (2013). D-day. In World Book Student. Retrieved from

18 D Day – June 6, 1944 “Hitting the beach, Allied infantrymen swarmed ashore along the Normandy coast of northern France on D-Day—June 6, It was the largest seaborne invasion in history. Hitler had boasted that German defenses along the coast could resist any attack. But he was wrong.” (Zapotoczny, D day, 2013).

19 D Day: Invasion of Normandy, France

20 Battle of the Bulge The German attack that began the 1944 Battle of the Bulge caught the Allies by surprise. The Germans rapidly advanced, forming the distinctive bulge on the map. Allied forces soon recovered, however, and drove the Germans back beyond where they started (Zapotoczny, J. S. Bulge, 2013). “The Allies attacked the Axis in Europe after defeating it in northern Africa in May Italy surrendered in September 1943, two months after the invasion of Sicily. In June 1944, the Allies landed in northern France. Attacks from the east and west forced Germany to surrender in May 1945” (Zapotoczny, J. S. Bulge, 2013).

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