2Unit Topics Social, Political, and Economic Causes of the Cold War The Cold War begins in EuropeContainment in AsiaNuclear Proliferation and the Nuclear Arms RaceCold War on the “Home Front”Cold War Continues under Eisenhower and KennedyFocus on Florida
3Social Political and Economic Cause of the Cold War Main Ideas of CommunismSoviet CommunismClash of Systems
4After WWII, there were two great powers, the US and the Soviet Union, USSR. They were superpowers because they had bigger militaries, better economic and political influence than other nationsAlthough both countries were allies during the war they quickly became rivals and “Cold War” started. It was “cold” because both countries never fought each other directly but their competition led to many other confrontations
5Main Ideas of Communism The roots of the Cold War lay in capitalism vs. communismThe Soviet Union were the first communist country. The system was based on the ideas of Karl Marx and interpreted by Vladimir Lenin.
8Class Struggle and Revolution Communist believe that in non-communist societies, landowners and businessmen, known as capitalist, use their wealth and power to exploit workers. Capitalist keep most of the wealth that the workers create.Communist believe that religious beliefs are used to fool workers into accepting their conditionsA conflict arises between capitalist and workers when worker conditions get worse and worse until they unite and overthrow the ruling class.This is what the Soviets claimed happened in 1917
9From “Dictatorship of the Workers” to “Worker’s Paradise” After the revolution, leaders are supposed to establish a dictatorship to educate the people in the ideas of Communism and to look after their true interest. The leaders keep control and ownership of production is taken over by the state. Religious beliefs are not tolerated. Private property is eliminated.This is meant to gradually create a new Communist society. Eventually government will wither away and everyone will work happily for the good of society. This “Worker’s Paradise”, each member will contribute to society what they can and receive from society according to their needs.
10Soviet Communism Lenin died after the Soviet Civil War during WWI Joseph Stalin, took over the party and murdered or imprisoned his opponents by sending them to gulags-concentration-type camps located in the frozen eastern part of Russia, Siberia.
11Clash of SystemsAmerican democracy vs Soviet Communism was first tested in post- war Europe.US hoped war-torn countries would adopt democracy and Stalin wanted to spread Soviet-style Communism
12Cold War begins in Europe United States and the Soviet Union as Wartime Allies,Post-War Plans at the Yalta Conference (February 1945)Potsdam ConferenceFate of PolandAn “Iron Curtain” Fails on Eastern EuropeTruman responds with Containment PolicyTruman Doctrine, 1947Marshall Plan, 1948
13US and USSR as Wartime Allies, 1941-1945 Stalin signed a “Non-Aggression Pact” with Hitler in August 1939, allowing Germany to invade PolandHitler betrayed Stalin and attacked USSR in June After Pearl Harbor, Hitler declared war on the US. The US and the Soviet Union became allies in the struggle against Nazi Germany.The USSR was mad that the US waited until June 1944 to land their troops in France. All that time, the Soviets had to fight the Nazi attacks.Americans lost 400,000 men during the war, Soviets lost 23 million
14Post-War Plans at the Yalta Conference (February 1945) While the US, British, and French troops marched through Western Europe, the Soviet Red Army was marching through Eastern Europe. They liberated Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania from Nazi rule.In February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin met at the Yalta Conference in the USSR. They agreed that Germany should be split into four separate occupation zones. They confirmed the United Nations negotiated at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference earlierStalin also promised to allow free elections in Poland after the war
15Potsdam ConferenceFDR dies in April 1945, Harry Truman met with Stalin at Potsdam, Germany. In this conference, Truman made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan but it also started the problems with the USSR over Eastern EuropeSoviet Point of View: Stalin believed the USSR should control Eastern Europe to make sure that the Soviet Union would never be invaded again. Eastern Europe would be a buffer zone. Just like the Monroe Doctrine with the US, the USSR claimed they had a special “sphere of influence over the region. The Soviet Red Army was already in the region, Stalin saw this as an opportunity to increase Communist control.
16American Points of View: Truman felt Stalin should keep his word about Poland. He felt Eastern European countries wanted to become democraticIt would be dangerous to turn our backs on European affairs like after WWI. They did not want to make the same mistake leaders made with Hitler. Truman felt it was important to resist Soviet demands from the beginning and not let them grow too powerfulBut Americans were also frustrated with war losses in Europe. Some wanted to return to isolationism, some wanted to negotiate Eastern Europe with Stalin
17Fate of PolandAlthough the Soviets liberated Poland, Polish people did not see the Soviets as their friend. Part of Poland was once a part of Russia. Nazi- Soviet Pact had an invasion by the SovietsStalin murdered more than 20,000 Polish officers in the Katyn Forest in 1940In 1945 Stalin let the German army destroy much of Warsaw, the capital, before sending his troops to liberate it.Despite his promise at Yalta, Stalin refused to hold free elections in Poland, the Red Army put local Polish Communists in charge.
18An “Iron Curtain” Falls on Eastern Europe The US refuse to share its secrets of how to make an atomic bombWith the failure of free elections in Poland and the refusal to share atomic secrets, the “Cold War” beganLocal communist came to power in eastern EuropeTrade and communications began to be cut off between the East and the West.Winston Churchill told Americans in a 1946 the an “Iron Curtain” had fallen closing off East from WestEastern European government became “satellites” dependent states of the Soviet Union
20Truman Responds with Containment Policy There were differing views in the US. Some sympathized with Soviet sacrifices in WWII and believed their expansion was justifies. Others wanted to retreat into isolationism. Truman and his advisers feared that Soviet gaining power in Europe might be the first step into taking control of the world.Truman wanted to act firmly against the USSR, he didn’t want to get rid of Communism but contain it, not let it grow. This is the “Containment Policy”
21Truman Doctrine, 19471947 Greece was threatened by Communist rebels and the Soviet Union demanded that Turkey give access to the Straights connecting Russia to the Mediterranean. Britain is too weak to stabilize the region. Truman asked congress to give money to Turkey and Greece and any country who is trying to fight communism. This supported his “containment” policy