3 Section 1: The Roaring Twenties ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What made the 1920s ‘roaring’?
4 Section 1: The Roaring Twenties What words do I need to know?jazzthe bluesboll weevilGreat Migration
5 The New Woman 1920 – 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote More women in the workforceFlappers: name given to women who took on the new fashion – known for short hair, make-up, dancing, drinkingFirst women in Georgia legislature: Bessie Kempton Crowell & Viola Ross NapierRebecca Latimer Felton first woman in U.S. Senate
6 Music Speakeasies: clubs known for having liquor (which was illegal) Jazz: became popular music – Louis Armstrong & Duke EllingtonCotton Club in Harlem NY most famous jazz clubBlues: based on black folk music – Ma Rainey & Bessie SmithThe Charleston was the popular dance
7 Crime Prohibition: laws made sale and distribution of alcohol illegal Gangsters supplied liquor to speakeasies and clubsFamous gangsters from New York and Chicago: Al Capone; Baby Face NelsonAl Capone: “Public Enemy No. 1”
8 Life in the Roaring Twenties Life in US after World War I was goodMore modern conveniences freed women from household choresElectricity became more availableOther inventions included gas stoves, toasters, sliced bread, baby foodRadio: WSB started in Atlanta1927: first talking motion pictureWalt Disney creates Mickey Mouse
9 The Destruction of King Cotton Boll weevil: insect which ate Georgia’s most important cash cropPrice of cotton also dropped1924: major drought (period with little or no rain) hit GeorgiaGeorgia farmers did not have the “good life” that many Americans enjoyedFarms closed forcing banks and farm-related business to close
10 The Great MigrationMany tenant farmers left Georgia to work in northern factoriesChicago and Detroit were popular destinationsMany African Americans moved north for better pay, education, and more citizenship rights such as votingYoung men sent north first to get jobs; sent for the family when they had saved enough money
11 The Klan StrengthensTargeted African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and immigrantsNumber of members increased in every state1925: Klan march on Washington with 40,000 membersDeclining membership by the end of the decade as members were linked to racial terrorism
12 A Special Day1927: Charles Lindbergh became first person to fly nonstop from New York to Paris3,600 mile trip, 33 ½ hours – traveled aloneNo navigation or weather instrumentsWon $25,000 prize“Spirit of St. Louis” was his planeClick to return to Table of Contents.
13 Section 2: The Great Depression ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow did the Great Depression affect Georgians?
14 Section 2: The Great Depression What words do I need to know?stock marketGreat Depressionlaissez-fairerelief
15 The Bottom Drops OutStock Market: Place where shares of ownership in corporations (stock) are bought and sold“Black Tuesday” – October 29, 1929: Stock market prices fall greatly; millions of people loose all their wealthTotal losses by end of year: $40 billionExample: U.S. Steel was $262 per share – dropped to $22 per shareSome stocks worth less than 1¢
16 Causes of the Depression Many people had borrowed too much moneyFactories produced more goods than they could sellAs people and businesses had problems making money, banks did not get paid for loans“Speculation” in the stock market: paying only a portion of the price of a stock hoping that the value will go upRuns on banks: people were afraid they would lose their money if it was left in the banklaissez-faire: attitude that the economy would fix itself if left alone
17 Living Through the Depression 1932: 13 million unemployed9,000 banks closed31 Georgia banks failedHoovervilles: named for President Hoover – shacks where homeless people gatheredSoup kitchens set up by charities and governments to feed hungrySchools were often forced to close or shorten schedulesGeorgians were already suffering from economic problems before Black Tuesday
18 Easing the BurdenPresident Hoover’s plan: government would buy farmer’s crops to help raise the pricePlan did not work, but the food and cotton were used to help the needyAnother plan was to hire unemployed people to do work for the governmentPlan did not employ enough people to really helpClick to return to Table of Contents.
19 Section 3: The New Deal ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgians benefit from the New Deal?
20 Section 3: The New Deal What words do I need to know? New Deal minimum wagestretch outcollective bargainingrural electrificationsubsidyintegrate
21 Section 3: The New Deal What people do I need to know? Franklin D. RooseveltRichard B. RussellEllis ArnallEugene Talmadge
22 The New Deal 1932: Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president New Deal: Roosevelt’s plan to end the depressionExamined banks for soundnessGive jobs to unemployed workersTried to improve American’s livesPaved the way for recovery though all programs did not work
23 Georgia and the New Deal NIRA: National Industrial Recovery Act – set minimum wageTextile mill owners did not like the minimum wageStretch out: mill owners tried to make workers work longer, faster, or more tasksTVA: Tennessee Valley Authority – Blue Ridge Lake, Lake Chatuge, Lake Nottley builtCCC: Civilian Conservation Corps – built many parks, sewer systems, bridges, etc.REA: Rural Electrification Authority – brought electric power to rural areas
24 African Americans During the New Deal Did not benefit from many New Deal programsWPA: Works Public Administration – did employ many African AmericansRoosevelt’s “Black Cabinet”: influential African Americans working with President Roosevelt:Mary McLeod BethuneClark ForemanRobert WeaverWilliam Hastie
25 Georgia’s New Deal Governors Richard B. RussellWorked to reorganize state government like a successful businessElected to U.S. Senate and served for 38 yearsEugene TalmadgeDid not like New Deal programs in GeorgiaEurith “Ed” RiversWorked with Roosevelt to increase New Deal spending in GeorgiaBegan programs for public housingTerm ended with corruption problems
26 Georgia’s New Deal Governors Talmadge re-elected in 1940Began to use some New Deal programsUsed his power as governor to remove state officials working to integrate Georgia’s state collegesEllis ArnallReformed Board of Regents and state prisonsRemoved poll taxNew state constitutionClick to return to Table of Contents.
27 Section 4: World War II ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did World War II affect Georgians?
28 Section 4: World War II What words do I need to know? isolationism dictatorappeasementWorld War IIHolocaustrationG.I. Bill
29 Increasing Tensions Country Leader Quick Facts Dictator: individual who ruled a country through military strengthCountryLeaderQuick FactsJapanEmporer HirohitoAttacked China seeking raw materialsItalyMussoliniAttacked Ethiopia and AlbaniaGermanyAdolf HitlerNazi leader; began rebuilding military forces, persecuting Jews, and silencing opponentsSoviet UnionJosef StalinBuilt up industry and military, forced peasants into collective farms, eliminated opponents
30 The War Begins1938: Hitler’s Germany attacks France to “take back” land lost in WWI (Rhineland)Sent troops to take over Austria, Czechoslovakia, and PolandGreat Britain and France declared warSoviet Union invaded nearby countries and agreed to split Poland with GermanyBy 1940, Hitler controlled Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and a large part of France and began bombing Great Britain
31 A Neutral United States Most Americans did not want to get involved in the war, but Roosevelt wanted to help BritainHitler turned on Stalin in 1941 and invaded the Soviet UnionLend-lease: policy to lend or lease (rent) weapons to Great Britain and the Soviet UnionAmerican ships began escorting British ships in convoys
32 “A Day that Will Live in Infamy” President Roosevelt stopped exports to Japan to protest its expansion into other countriesExports of oil, airplanes, aviation gasoline and metals were stoppedThe Japanese attacked the U.S. Navy fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941Japan hoped to destroy the fleet giving them control of the Pacific OceanThe USA declared war on JapanAllied Powers: USA, Great Britain, Soviet UnionAxis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan
33 American Military Forces Millions of Americans enlisted after the attack on Pearl Harbor330,000 women joined – could not serve in combat rolesSegregation in the military kept African American and white service men in different unitsTuskegee Airmen: famous African American flyers of the Army Air Force
34 The War in Europe: British and American troops won control of Africa1943: Mussolini overthrown and Italy joined the AlliesAmerican general Dwight D. Eisenhower coordinated plan to recapture EuropeD-Day: June 6, 1944 – Allied forces land in northern FranceEarly 1945: Germans pushed out of FranceApril 1945: Soviet and American troops meet and Germany surrenders – Hitler commits suicide
35 Georgia Loses a FriendPresident Roosevelt visited Georgia often at his “Little White House” in Warm SpringsHis polio symptoms were eased in the mineral springsApril 24, 1945: President Roosevelt died at Warm SpringsMillions of Georgians and Americans mounedVice President Harry Truman became president
36 The War in the Pacific1942: Japan expanded its territory throughout the Asian Pacific region1945: Allied forces began to retake Japanese controlled landsJapan refused to surrenderPresident Truman authorized the use of atomic bombs to force Japan’s surrenderEnola Gay: plane that dropped first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, JapanJapan surrendered after a second atomic bomb dropped on NagasakiOver 50 million people died in the war
37 The HolocaustThe Holocaust: name given to the Nazi plan to kill all Jewish peopleAuschwitz, Buckenwald, Dachau, Treblinka, Bergen-Belsen infamous concentration camps where Jews and others were executed6 million people killed in the Holocaust
38 Georgia During World War II 320,000 Georgians joined the armed forces – over 7,000 killedMilitary bases were built in the state which improved the economyFarmers grew needed crops – income tripled for the average farmerLimits were put on the consumption of goods such as gasoline, meat, butter, and sugar (rationing)Students were encouraged to buy war bonds and defense stamps to pay for the warVictory Garden: small family gardens to make sure soldiers would have enough foodPOW (prisoner of war) camps in Georgia at some military bases
39 The War’s Effects on Society Everyone was expected to help in the war effortWomen began working in jobs to replace men who had gone to warG.I. Bill: law to help returning soldiers adapt to civilian lifeLow cost loans for homes or businessCollege education opportunitiesWomen and African Americans did not want to go back to the kind of life they had before the warClick to return to Table of Contents.