Presentation on theme: "I. Harding and 20s politics Weak President; “amiable boob” Hoover and Mellon policies: tax cuts, credit buying for consumer goods High tariff, weak ICC."— Presentation transcript:
I. Harding and 20s politics Weak President; “amiable boob” Hoover and Mellon policies: tax cuts, credit buying for consumer goods High tariff, weak ICC
Bad side of Harding years Unions membership down; Farmers lost war markets, gained debt Scandal: Attorney General Daugherty sold liquor permits Interior Sec. Fall bribed sold oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
Post war treaties Kellogg – Briand Pact – agreement not to make war.
Describe Harding Economic advisors Economic policies Unions Farmers 4 power 5 power 9 power scandals
I. Coolidge Harding died 1923 of pneumonia, stress? “Silent” Calvin Coolidge – rural Vermont; old virtues “America’s business is business; man who builds a factory builds a temple”
Election of 1924 GOP – “Keep Cool with Coolidge” won Demo divisions – urban/rural, wet/dry, n/s, immigrants/racists – corporate lawyer John Davis Progressives – Fighting Bob Lafollette of Wisconsin – govt rr, aid for farmers, prolabor antimonopoly
Foreign policy Isolationism and Latin US owed $16b after WWI Allies demanded reparations, $32b; Germany printed money, loaf of bread $120m US loaned $ to Germany
review What happened to Harding? Who was the next President? What kind of fella? What problems did Democrats have in 1924? Whom did they nominate? Did anyone else run? What party? How would you describe 20s foreign policy? What was odd about debt repayments?
II. Hoover 1928 Coolidge: “I choose not to run.” GOP nominated Hoover: humanitarian, rags to riches, shy, rugged individualism Demos nominated wet NY Irish Catholic Al Smith, the “Happy Warrior” : vote for Smith is vote for pope
prosperity Agricultural Marketing Act – lend money to support cooperatives Hawley-Smoot Tariff – highest in history – 60%, hurt world trade
Crash Causes: speculation, buying on margin Black Tuesday Oct 29, 1929 $40b lost in two months 12m unemployed, 5,000 bank failures: “for sleeping or jumping”
review What kind of guy was Hoover? Smith? What hurt Smith in the campaign? What was Hoover’s politics? Who was struggling in the 20s? What did Hoover do for farmers? What the heck happened with the tariff? When did the Stock Market Crash? Why?
III. Depression Causes: world trade, inequality, crash, credit buying, (ticc) Soup kitchens, breadlines, apple sellers, Hoovervilles, bank runs ¼ unemployment, 60% malnutrition, 5000 banks closed Penny auctions
Hoover’s response Quoted Cleveland: “people support govt…” State/local/charities overwhelmed; Hoover tried to help business – RFC; fed pigs not people Hoover Dam on Colorado River
End of Hoover Bonus (BEF) army, 2 days of riots attacked by MacArthur with bayonets and tear gas Japan attacked Manchuria, no Open Door League didn’t act; no US
review Name 4 causes of the Depression Describe life in the Depression What did Hoover do about the Depression? Why? Who did Hoover help? What did Japan invade? What did the League of Nations do? Why?
IV. FDR’s New Deal FDR’s polio – strong and compassionate, smooth- talking “traitor to his class.” Eleanor – his conscience; straddled aisle at segregated meeting Convention speech: “I pledge a new deal for the American people”
His ideas Brain trust wrote speeches “Happy Days are Here Again” – more optimistic than Hoover, who only got 6 states Blacks to Democrats Inaugural “only thing we have to fear is fear itself”
3 r’s of the New Deal Banking Holiday – stop runs Hundred Days – many laws/try anything, usually progressive 1. relief – ease suffering 2. recovery – end Depression 3. reform – no more Depressions
review What sort of guy was Roosevelt? What role did Eleanor play? What did FDR promise at the convention? How was he better than Hoover? How did the black vote change? What should we fear? What were the 3 r’s of the New Deal? How fast were many laws passed?
I. laws Glass-Steagall FDIC – insures bank deposits No gold standard – inflation, gold used internationally later CCC – young men conservation – reforestation, firefighting, flood control, swamp drainage
More laws FERA – Harry Hopkins - $3b to states AAA – pay farmers not to farm; declared unconstitutional; 2 nd 1938 HOLC – Home Owners Loan Corporation CWA – temporary jobs, make-work; boondoggling
demagogues Father Coughlin – social justice, anti-semitic Huey Long – “Share Our Wealth,” “Every Man a King;” assassinated 1935 Charles Townsend – pensions, $200/month, gotta spend
review FDIC CCC FERA Harry Hopkins AAA HOLC CWA Huey Long Father Couglin Francis Townsend
II. More laws WPA – Hopkins; public works: bridges, buildings, roads, art and writing projects– 9m jobs NRA – National Recovery Administration – min. wage, max hrs, collective bargaining, blue eagle; declared unconst. In Schecter case
And more laws PWA – public works act; Interior Sec. Harold Ickes – recovery 34,000 buildings, highways, parkways 21 st amendment – tax $, good Demo politics
Impersonal forces Dust Bowl – Dust Storms; Okies/Arkies, Grapes of Wrath; Soil conservation Act – plant soybeans or nothing Indian Reorg Act 1934 – bring back tribes SEC – Securities and Exchange Commission – regulate stock market
III. And more laws TVA – Tennessee Valley Authority – cheap power and jobs in SE; FHA – Federal Housing Administration – loans for housing; still exists SSA – Social Security – pensions, unemployment, disability
Labor friendly government Wagner Act (NLRA) set up the NLRB – protected collective bargaining. John Lewis led CIO – Congress of Industrial Organization – used sit- down strike for unskilled workers; no scabs Fair Labor Standards Act – 40 hr week, 40 cents/hr, no child labor, for most
politics FDR dominated Alf Landon, 1936, 523 to 8 (MN and VT), took office in Jan (20 th am.); Literary Digest mistake Court-packing – FDR proposed adding 6 justices, to help those over 70: “switch in time that saved 9” – Owen Roberts
review TVA SSA FHA CIO Wagner Act NLRA NLRB Fair Labor Standards Act 1936 election Court-packing “switch in time that saved 9
I. End of New Deal Unemployment still 15% after much pump priming Keynesianism – deficit spending to stimulate economy 1937 inaugural (don’t write): “I see 1/3 of a nation ill- housed, ill-clad, ill- nourished…The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little.”
criticism Condemned as “alphabet soup” and Jewish. Federal government the largest business in U.S. Debt doubled Undermined work ethic Still a depression No civil rights
FDR’s defense Govt prevented mass hunger and starvation More equality Self-respect for those helped Saved free enterprise Hamiltonian means for Jeffersonian ends
review How much unemployment? John Maynard Keynes Keynesianism Pump-priming Criticisms Defenses Explain: “Hamiltonian means for Jeffersonian ends”
I. FDR’s foreign policy US withdrew from London conference, fearing loss of control over currency Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934: Phillipine independence in 12 years Recognized Soviet Union
Improving relations Good Neighbor policy to Latin America: troops out of Haiti, stayed out of Cuba, didn’t retaliate for Mexican oil nationalization. Reciprocal trade agreement: lowered tariff on 21 countries who did the same.
Ignoring Dictators Nazi Germany rearmed, Japan built up navy, and Italy invaded Ethiopia without consequence. Neutrality Acts: No American could sail on belligerent ship, sell munitions or make loan to belligerent.
review London Conference Good neighbor Haiti Cuba Mexico Tydings McDuffie Soviet Union Reciprocal trade Nazis Fascists Japan Neutrality Acts
II. Appeasement Francisco Franco’s Fascists defeated Spanish Loyalists because he got more help from outside forces. Japan invaded China Germany armed Rhineland, began Holocaust, and occupied Austria.
Munich Hitler demanded Sudetenland; meeting at Munich. Britain’s Chamberlain: “peace in our time” when Hitler promised Sudetenland “is the last territorial claim” and invaded Czechoslovakia 6 months later.
WWII Aug 1939 Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. Britain and France declared war when Nazis invaded Poland Sep 1., 1939. US aided Britain thru “cash and carry” policy.
FDR and Holocaust US allowed in more Jews than any other country prior to war. Jews hit quota; nativists might have shut down immigration altogether. US wouldn’t bomb rail lines or Auschwitz itself in 1944 prior to D-Day.
review Spanish Civil War China Rhineland Austria Sudetenland Appeasement/Munich Czechoslovakia Nazi-Soviet nonaggression Pact Cash and carry US complicity in Holocaust
III. The fighting Poland fell to German “Blitzkrieg” in three months, followed by “sitzkrieg” – no action. Hitler then took France in less than a month; British soldiers escaped at Dunkirk
Preparing for war $37b to mobilize, 2m man conscription. Isolationists, led by Lindbergh, battled interventionists during the Battle of Britain between R.A.F. and Luftwaffe Unneutral FDR destroyer deal: 50 old destroyers for Br. Bases, no Cong. approval
Big changes FDR beat liberal Republican Wendell Wilkie for a 3 rd term in 1940, 449-82. Lend-lease – war bill 1776; “garden hose,” “guns not sons,” “billions not bodies,” US as “arsenal of democracy” $50b.
review Blitzkrieg Sitzkrieg Dunkirk Conscription Destroyer deal Third term Lend-lease
IV. 1941 Germany attacked USSR June 1941; $11b lend-lease sent; army and winter stopped Hitler. Atlantic Charter – Churchill and FDR – self-determination, self- government, collective security; supported by Stalin but not isolationists
convoys US destroyers convoyed lend-lease ships as far as Iceland. Nazis shot at Kearny; sunk the Reuben James Congress ended neutrality 1939
Pearl Harbor To get Japan out of China, US embargo on steel, scrap iron, oil, jet fuel; knew war was coming. Expected attack in Philippines or Malaya, not Pearl Harbor. PH December 7, 1941, “date which will live in infamy:” 3000 casualties, 8 battleships, but no aircraft carriers
review USSR Lend-lease Atlantic Charter Convoy Kearny, Reuben James Embargo Pearl Harbor
I. Fighting the war Get Germany First, then combine forces against Japan. US race to mobilize before Br and USSR lost, and to develop bomb before Germans.
unity Well-settled immigrants were firmly behind the war effort. Japanese-Americans put in internment camps; upheld in Korematsu v. U.S. Reparations 1988
War production War ended New Deal and Depression; income doubled but inflation feared War cost $330b; 2x federal spending since 1776 Maximum tax rate 90%; debt went up 500%
review Why Germany first? What two things did the US have to hurry to do? Which immigrants did well and struggled? What was set up for Japanese? What court case? What was done in 1988 for Japanese descendants? How did the war affect the Depression and the New Deal? Why did the United Mine Workers strike?
II. Americans during the war 15m men - GIs, 216,000 women – WAACS Braceros – Mexican farm workers 6m women factory workers – “Rosie the Riveter” – but less than in GBR and USSR – baby boom after war
Civil rights A. Phillip Randolph march FDR executive order defense industries Double V – victory over dictators abroad and racism at home Mechanical cotton picker; by 1970 ½ of blacks lived outside South
others Natives left reservations Navajo and Comanche Code talkers Zoot Suit riots United Mine Workers struck against wage ceilings, but few other strikes
match 1. WAACs 2. 15 million 3. Rosie the Riveter 4. Braceros 5. Zoot Suit riots 6. A. Philip Randolph 7. FDR executive order 8. Double V 9. Code Talkers 10. United Mine Workers 1. strike ag. Wage ceilings 2. Mexicans v. sailors 3. women in army 4. Navajo, Comanche 5. women factory worker 6. march on Washington 7. Gis 8. no defense discrimination 9. victory over dictators and racism 10. Mexican farm workers
III. Fighting Japan took Malaya, Guam, the Phillipines, and Corregidor MacArthur: “I shall return;” Bataan Death March Coral Sea first US win; fought by aircraft carriers
winning Midway – turning point against Japan – Admiral Nimitz MacArthur island hopping strategy after Guadalcanal; 10:1 casualty ratio Capture of Marianas allowed bombing runs of Japan
Fighting Hitler Sub “wolfpacks” sank ships faster than construction; radar helped defeat. Rommel defeated in North Africa Soviets won at Stalingrad Second Front came through Italy
Beating Hitler Casablanca: unconditional surrender; Italy did but Germany kept fighting. Teheran – D-day planned June 6, 1944 – D-Day planned by Eisenhower “Blood and Guts” Patton pushed across France
match 1. Bataan death march 2. Coral Sea 3. Midway 4. Island hopping 5. MacArthur 6. Wolfpacks 7. Rommel 8. Italy 9. D-day 10. Eisenhower 11. Patton 1. crazy American general 2. planned D-Day 3. Pacific American general 4. 1 st defeat of Japan 5. turning point against Japan 6. defeated by sonar 7. German defeated in N. Africa 8. “soft underbelly,” surrendered first 9. June 6, 1944 2 nd Front 10. Americans captured in Phillipines 11. strategy against Japan
IV. Ending the war 1944 FDR dropped Henry Wallace for Truman Defeated 42 year old NY Gov. Dewey 432-99; CIO support & was winning the war
VE Day Battle of Bulge: Hitler’s last attack: “Nuts” at surrender command. US/USSR troops met, discovered extent of Holocaust FDR dead April 12, 1945; Hitler suicide April 30, 1945 May 8 VE Day
VJ Day – Sep 2, 1945 Tokyo firebombed – 83,000 deaths Iwo Jima and Okinawa – esp. bloody fighting; kamikazes Potsdam: Truman Stalin, ultimatum, a-bomb Manhattan project $2b in New Mexico Truman: atomic bomb saved lives; Hirohito stayed
match 1. Harry Truman 2. Gov. Dewey 3. Battle of Bulge 4. 2 deaths 5. VE Day 6. Tokyo 7. Iwo Jima, Okinawa 8. Manhattan Project 9. Potsdam 10. Atomic bomb rationale 11. VJ Day 1. Victory in Europe 2. Victory in Japan 3. defeated by FDR in 1944 4. FDR’s new VP 5. firebombed 6. bloody island fighting 7. save American lives 8. ultimatum to Japan 9. Hitler’s last stand 10. a-bomb secret project 11. FDR and Hitler
I. Postwar Fears of unemployed GIs, unions. Taft-Hartley Act outlawed closed shop, required noncommunist oath. GI Bill paid for veterans’ college, created VA for home, business loans
Ec. boom Income doubled in 50s and almost again in 60s; 6% pop, 40% wealth. 60% middle class in 50s, a doubling. 60% owned homes; 90% tvs Many new service jobs for women.
Why the boom? 1. military spending – 10% of GNP 2. cheap oil from Middle East. 3. rising productivity, esp. farmers 4. rising education 90% kids in school; ½ in 1900 (more or mope – military oil productivity education)
review What two groups were feared after the war? What did Taft-Hartley do? What did the GI Bill do? Describe economic gains. Give 4 reasons for the boom (more or mope)
II. changes 30m people moving per year; Dr. Spock and other advice books instead of Grandma. Sunbelt (S/SW) boomed – climate, jobs, low taxes, mil. spending; 35m in California today
Suburbs and white flight FHA and VA loans, interstate helped people to mass produced tract house suburbs; Levittown first; car boom. Businesses fled cities; loans denied minorities; builders and real estate followed racial composition rule
Baby boom Marriage boom 1 st ; 50m babies in 50s, followed by birth dearth; immigration replaces population today Schools built, then hippies, yuppies, retirement
review How many moved per year? To where? Who was Dr. Spock? Explain marriage boom baby boom birth dearth pattern? What policies encouraged the rise of the suburbs? What was white flight? How were the cities impacted? How did the baby boom affect society through the years?
III. Truman and the Cold War Big 3 at Yalta: 1. German occupation zones 2. free elections in Poland, Bulgaria, Romania 3. Chinese concessions to USSR “moon and the stars,” “Give’em Hell Harry,” “the buck stops here.”
Cold War: US-USSR stand-off, 1945-1990 US USSR freedom Democracy Capitalist Expansionist: wanted open world Wary after appeasement equality Dictatorship Communist Expansionist: wanted “sphere of influence” or world revolution Resented slow second front
events IMF, World Bank, and UN created (Senate approved 89-2) UN Security Council – Big 5 get veto Israel created
review Describe Truman List 3 agreements made at Yalta What was the Cold War List 5 differences between the US and Soviet Union. Explain 3 world institutions created after WWII. How did the Security Council appeal to strong nations? What country was created?
IV. Cold War events Nuremburg Trials – 12 Nazis hung Berlin blockade and airlift Iron curtain – Churchill speech – E. and W. Germany
Containment: 1947 George Kennan – prevent spread of communism Truman Doctrine - $400m to Greece and Turkey to “resist armed subjugation.” Marshall Plan - $14b to W. Europe, offered conditionally to USSR
Military strategy Defense Dept. created 1947 with Pentagon headquarters. NSC, CIA NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949
match Nuremburg Berlin Iron curtain Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Defense Dept. NSC CIA NATO
V. Asia 7 Japanese war criminals hung MacArthur created Japan’s constitution; no military, ec. Miracle 1949 Mao Zedong and Chinese Communists defeated Jiang Jieshi and Nationalists, who fled to Taiwan
Arms race 1949 Soviet A-bomb Truman pushed h-bomb, over opposition of Einstein, Oppenheimer 1952-US; 1953-USSR Dennis v. U.S. – 11 communists convicted of violating antisedition law
Cold War politics House Un-American Activities Committee – HUAC – Nixon sent Hiss to prison Rosenburgs executed for espionage 1953 Election of 1948: Southerners and Progressives abandoned Truman, who won by attacking “ do-nothing Republican Congress.”
Korean War, 1950-1953 1. N. Korea attacked 2. UN (US) pushed back, Inchon landing 3. China pushed back, Yalu River; MacArthur fired 4. stalemate NSC 68 – military spending quadrupled
match Japanese constitution Mao Zedong H-bomb Rosenburgs Nixon v. Hiss Dewey beats Truman Korean War Stalemate No military 1948 mistaken headline Einstein objected House Un-American Affairs Committee Chinese Communist Executed for espionage