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THE END OF WWII DAY 9. TODAY’S OBJECTIVES O I DENTIFY EVENTS IN THE WAR IN E UROPE. O D ESCRIBE THE A LLIED OFFENSIVE IN AND THE LIBERATION OF E UROPE.

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Presentation on theme: "THE END OF WWII DAY 9. TODAY’S OBJECTIVES O I DENTIFY EVENTS IN THE WAR IN E UROPE. O D ESCRIBE THE A LLIED OFFENSIVE IN AND THE LIBERATION OF E UROPE."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE END OF WWII DAY 9

2 TODAY’S OBJECTIVES O I DENTIFY EVENTS IN THE WAR IN E UROPE. O D ESCRIBE THE A LLIED OFFENSIVE IN AND THE LIBERATION OF E UROPE. O E XPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE USE OF THE A TOMIC B OMB. O D ESCRIBE THE A LLIED OFFENSIVE IN THE P ACIFIC AGAINST J APAN.

3 FREE FRANCE!! O J ULY 25, 1944: U NDER G ENERAL P ATTON, A LLIES BREAK G ERMAN LINE O A UGUST 25, 1944: E NTER P ARIS

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5 LIBERATION OF PARIS O W ITHIN A MONTH … 1 MILLION TROOPS, 567,000 TONS OF SUPPLIES, 170,000 VEHICLES HAD BEEN TRANSPORTED TO F RANCE O A UGUST 23 – P ATTON REACHES S EINE R IVER O 2 DAYS LATER : F RENCH R ESISTANCE LIBERATES THE CAPITAL – P ARIS O P ARISIANS CELEBRATED AFTER 3 YEARS OF OCCUPATION

6 OPERATION MARKET GARDEN O S EPTEMBER 1944: A IRBORNE D IVISIONS WERE DROPPED ON H OLLAND O G OAL : C APTURE BRIDGES CROSSING THE R HINE R IVER INTO G ERMANY O H OLLAND HAD BEEN OCCUPIED FOR 4 YEARS O A LLIED FORCES MET STRONG RESISTANCE SOUTH OF THE TOWN OF A RNHEM O A FTER THE LIBERATION OF H OLLAND, A LLIED SOLDIERS LIBERATED B ELGIUM

7 CELEBRATIONS!

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9 BATTLE OF THE BULGE O O CT. 1944: A LLIES HAD PUSHED INTO G ERMANY O H ITLER RESPONDS W / GREAT “ LAST STAND ” OFFENSIVE O O RDERS TROOPS TO BREAK THROUGH A LLIED LINES AND RECAPTURE B ELGIUM PORT OF A NTWERP O D EC. 16, 1944: 8 G ERMAN TANK DIVISIONS BREAK THROUGH A MERICAN FRONT O H ITLER ’ S HOPE WAS TO BREAK SUPPLY LINES O T ANKS DROVE 60 MILES INTO A LLIED LINES O C REATED A BULGE IN THE LINES O G AVE THE GREAT BATTLE ITS NAME O M IDDLE OF THE A RDENNES F OREST O A LLIED SUPPLY LINES WERE STRAINED, NOT CUT O E ARLY 1945: A LLIES WERE ABLE TO PUSH THE OFFENSIVE BACK AND INTO G ERMANY

10 BATTLE OF THE BULGE

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12 BATTLE OF BASTOGNE O D EC. 1944: S MALLER SIEGE OF B ELGIUM TOWN DURING THE B ATTLE OF THE B ULGE O A LL 5 MAIN ROADS OF THE FOREST CONVERGED ON THE TOWN OF B ASTOGNE O M ADE THE CITY IMPORTANCE FOR BOTH THE N AZIS AND THE A LLIES – SUPPLIES

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14 LIBERATION OF THE CONCENTRATION CAMPS O B RITISH AND A MERICAN TROOPS PRESSED INTO G ERMANY FROM THE W EST AND S OUTH O S OVIET TROOPS PRESSED IN FROM THE E AST O T ROOPS BEGAN COMING ACROSS CAMPS O F IRST : J ULY S OVIETS

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16 YALTA CONFERENCE O F EBRUARY 1945: FDR, C HURCHILL AND S TALIN MEET IN Y ALTA (U KRAINE ) O C ALLED THE “B IG T HREE ” O D ISCUSSED THE FATE OF G ERMANY AFTER THE WAR O S TALIN : HARSH PUNISHMENT O D IVIDE G ERMANY INTO ZONES OF OCCUPATION O C HURCHILL DISAGREED ; FDR ACTS AS MEDIATOR O FDR WANTS S TALIN TO JOIN WAR AGAINST J APAN O A LSO WANTED SUPPORT FOR A NEW WORLD PEACE ORGANIZATION – U NITED N ATIONS O R ESULTS : C HURCHILL AGREES TO SEPARATE G ERMANY O 4 Z ONES : B RITISH, A MERICAN, F RENCH, S OVIET O S TALIN AGREES TO “ FREE ” ELECTIONS IN P OLAND ; ALSO JOINS WAR AGAINST J APAN

17 THE BIG THREE CHURCHILL FDR STALIN

18 DEATH OF FDR O A PRIL 12, 1945: FDR DIES O W HILE POSING FOR A PORTRAIT, THE PRESIDENT SUFFERS A STROKE O D OES NOT LIVE TO SEE V-E D AY O V ICE P RESIDENT, H ARRY S. T RUMAN (M ISSOURI ) BECOMES C OMMANDER - IN -C HIEF

19 GERMANY SURRENDERS!! O A PRIL 25, 1945: S OVIET A RMY PUSHES INTO B ERLIN (G ERMAN C APITAL ) O L INKED A LLIED AND S OVIET TROOPS TOGETHER O A PRIL 30: H ITLER REALIZES THE WAR IS LOST O C OMMITS SUICIDE IN HIS BUNKER AS THE B ATTLE OF B ERLIN RAGES ABOVE HIM O A LSO W / HIM : MISTRESS E VA B RAUN O A FTER THE SURRENDER OF B ERLIN, G ERMAN FORCES ALL OVER E UROPE BEGIN TO SURRENDER O M AY 7, 1945: G ERMANY SURRENDERS O M AY 8, 1945: N EWS OF SURRENDER REACHES THE WEST AND CELEBRATIONS OF “V-E D AY ” BEGIN

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21 HITLER AND EVA BRAUN

22 CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY O A LLIED ARMIES DISCOVER EVIDENCE OF THE H OLOCAUST O 12 MILLION PEOPLE DIED IN THE CAMPS O N UREMBERG T RIALS : PROSECUTION OF SURVIVING 24 N AZI LEADERS O H ELD IN THE G ERMAN TOWN OF N UREMBERG O 12 OF 24 WERE SENTENCED TO DEATH ; REMAINING WERE SENT TO PRISON

23 “I WAS ONLY FOLLOWING ORDERS.”

24 IWO JIMA AND OKINAWA O VICTORIES PAVED THE ROAD FOR THE INVASION OF JAPAN O #1 GOAL AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR W/ JAPAN O ALLIED LEADERS (INCLUDING TRUMAN) KNEW IT WOULD BE A STRUGGLE O JAPAN HAD SHOWN HOW IT WAS GOING TO DEFEND ITS COUNTRY – STILL HAD A HUGE ARMY O TRUMAN SAW ONLY ONE WAY TO AVOID AN INVASION – DECIDED TO USE A NEW, POWERFUL WEAPON

25 THE MANHATTAN PROJECT O LED BY GENERAL LESLIE GROVES O RESEARCH DIRECTED BY SCIENTIST J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER O CONSIDERED THE BEST KEPT SECRET OF AMERICAN HISTORY O PEAK: 600,000 PPL EMPLOYED (5 KNEW THE PURPOSE) O TRUMAN DIDN’T KNOW UNTIL AFTER FDR’S DEATH O BEGAN W/ ALBERT EINSTEIN INFORMING THE US ABOUT GERMANY’S INTENT TO DEVELOP ENRICHED URANIUM – “BUILD A BOMB”

26 TRINITY TEST O DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FISSION AND PLUTONIUM O IT WAS ONLY A MATTER OF TIME BEFORE A BOMB WAS BUILT O NO ONE KNEW IF IT WOULD WORK!! O JULY 16, 1945: FIRST NUCLEAR BOMB IS SET OFF O DESERT SOUTH OF ALAMOGORDO, NM O NICKNAMED THE “GADGET” O CRATER: 10 FEET DEEP AND 1,110 FEET WIDE O “MUSHROOM CLOUD” WAS CREATED O FELT 180 MILES AWAY

27 TRINITY TEST "Now I have become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

28 TRUMAN’S DECISION O PRESIDENT TRUMAN MUST MAKE THE CHOICE O END THE WAR WITH THE BOMB OR INVADE AND FIGHT A BLOODY BATTLE IN JAPAN O JULY 25, 1945: TRUMAN GAVE THE ORDER TO DROP 2 BOMBS ON JAPANESE MILITARY TARGETS O GAVE JAPAN A FINAL WARNING TO SURRENDER OR FACE “PROMPT AND UTTER DESTRUCTION” O WITHIN THE NEXT MONTH, TWO A-BOMBS WOULD BE DROPPED ON JAPANESE CITIES

29 USS INDIANAPOLIS AND TRANSPORT O JULY 26: SHIP DELIVERS CRITICAL PARTS FOR THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB TO BE USED ON JAPAN O PHILIPPINES O JULY 30: ATTACKED BY A JAP SUBMARINE O SINKS IN SHARK INFESTED WATERS O SECRETIVE: SURVIVORS FLOAT IN WATER FOR 4 DAYS BEFORE BEING RESCUED O LAST VESSEL TO BE SUNK BY ENEMY IN WWII O NEVER BEEN FOUND

30 HIROSHIMA O MILITARY CENTER – POP. 300,000 O PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS O ONLY CITY W/O POWS O AUGUST 6 TH : B-29 BOMBER ENOLA GAY TAKES OFF (EARLY MORNING) – PILOT: COL. PAUL TIBBETS O CARRYING A-BOMB, “LITTLE BOY” - 9,700 POUNDS O PRIMARY TARGET: HIROSHIMA O EXPLODED AT 8:15 AM O 200,000 DIE O JAPAN DID NOT SURRENDER!

31 BEFORE AND AFTER

32 “LITTLE BOY” MUSHROOM CLOUD

33 HIROSHIMA

34 HIROSHIMA VICTIMS

35 NAGASAKI O TRUMAN DID NOT RECEIVE THE SURRENDER OF JAPAN AFTER THE HIROSHIMA BOMBINGS O NAGASAKI: LARGEST SEA PORT IN SOUTHERN JAPAN O GREAT INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANCE (SHIPPING) O OLDER, MORE TRADITIONAL JAPANESE INFRASTRUCTURE O AUGUST 9 TH, 1945: B-29 BOMBER, BOCKSCAR DROPPED “FAT MAN” ON NAGASAKI O 80,000 WOULD EVENTUALLY DIE FROM THE BOMBING (SOME FROM RADIATION POISONING) O AUGUST 10 TH : DISCUSSION BEGAN OF THE NEXT BOMB

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38 NAGASAKI

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40 NAGASAKI VICTIMS

41 IMPORTANCE OF BOMBINGS O JAPAN WAS FORCED TO SURRENDER O SOVIET UNION WAS FORCED TO TAKE NOTE OF US POWER O BEGINS THE “ARMS RACE” W/ SOVIETS O PREFACE TO THE COLD WAR

42 SURRENDER OF JAPAN O Emperor Hirohito order “control of the situation” O Soviet Union had declared war (broke non- aggression pact) O “I cannot bear to see my people suffer any longer.” O August 14 th : announcement of surrender O “V-J Day” O Victory over Japan

43 USS MISSOURI O SEPT 2 ND : FORMAL CEREMONIES OF JAPANESE SURRENDER TAKE PLACE O U.S. BATTLESHIP, USS MISSOURI O TOKYO BAY O “TODAY THE GUNS ARE SILENT.” MACARTHUR

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45 Macarthur’s Speech

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49 USS Missouri

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51 REBUILDING BEGINS O Yalta Conference: O Formation of United Nations O Occupation of Japan: O Under General Douglas Macarthur O Tojo (Prime Minister) sentenced to death O Transformed Japan’s govt. and economy O Women’s suffrage, and other basic freedoms O Constitution is still called, “Macarthur Constitution”

52 UNITED NATIONS O APRIL 25 TH : 50 NATIONS MEET IN SAN FRANCISCO, CA TO ESTABLISH A NEW PEACEKEEPING BODY O JUNE 26 TH : DELEGATES SIGNED CHARTER THAT ESTABLISHED THE UN O WILL BECOME AN ARENA FOR THE US AND THE SOVIET UNION TO USE AS A FORUM TO SPREAD THEIR INFLUENCE OVER THE WORLD!!

53 UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS

54 THE END OF WORLD WAR II

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