2Yalta Conference February 1945 The U.S. Britain and USSR met to set their post war goals.1. Divide Germany into occupation zones2. Free elections in Eastern Europe nations.
3SuperpowersIn the Post WWII world two nations were the new superpowers!The United States and the Soviet Union (USSR).Capitalism vs CommunismDemocracy vs Totalitarianism
4The United NationsCreated in 1945 with the goal of being a more effective international peacekeeping organization than the League of Nations.193 member nations in the General Assembly.Home to the International Court of Justice to settle disputes.
5UN Security CouncilFive permanent members with veto power (U.S. Britain, France, Russia, China) and ten nonpermanent.The UN Security Council can order military action to maintain international peace. (Korean War & 1st Gulf War)
6The Iron CurtainChurchill’s phrase “Iron Curtain” came to represent the division between a democratic and free Western Europe and a Communist and totalitarian Eastern Europe.
7ContainmentPresident Truman adopted a foreign policy of “containment”. A policy of preventing the expansion of communism.This would be accomplished by creating a system of alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances.Containment Video
8Truman DoctrineTruman’s pledge of foreign aid to any nation that was rejecting communism.Greece and Turkey were immediately given $400 million in aid. Both nations remained free and noncommunist.Truman Doctrine Video
9Marshall PlanEurope lay in ruins after WWII. Record unemployment, destruction, snow, food shortages and economic & political turmoil.Congress created a $12.5 billion program to provide food and rebuild Western Europe. We wanted its economy to recover so people would have jobs and not turn to communism!
10BerlinGermany had been divided into two nations, East and West Germany.The capital city of Berlin was in East Germany. The western half of the city was controlled by the U.S. and Britain. A small spot of freedom behind the Iron Curtain……..
11Berlin BlockadeThe first showdown of the Cold War between the superpowers would be over Berlin Germany.Berlin was located in German controlled East Germany. Stalin didn’t want the freedom and prosperity of West Berlin in communist East Germany.
12Berlin AirliftIn 1948 Stalin ordered all transportation to West Berlin blocked. West Berlin faced starvation if they didn’t surrender and join East Germany.American and British planes flew food and fuel into the city for 11 months.No Appeasement! Only Containment!Berlin Video
13Berlin WallLater in 1961 the Berlin Wall was built. It became the symbol of communist oppression during the Cold War.Berlin Wall Video
14The Cold WarThe Cold War was from 1949 to Superpowers would use spying, propaganda, alliances, diplomacy and proxy wars in developing countries.Who will win…Capitalism or Communism?Democracy or Totalitarianism?
15NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization! A defensive alliance of 10 European nations, Canada and the U.S.An attack on one is an attack on all!NATO / ISAF is in Afghanistan
16Warsaw PactWarsaw Pack, the opposite of NATO was organized by the USSR.The world seemed to be divided into rival factions along Cold War lines with the threat of nuclear war looming….
17Hydrogen Bomb 1945 the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb 1949 the USSR built the A-bomb1952 the U.S. built the hydrogen bomb a thousand times more powerful than the A-bomb.1953 the USSR built a H-bomb….The arms race had begun.Duck & Cover Video
18Chinese Civil WarAfter WWII China resumed its civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists.The U.S. backed Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists with $2 billion in aid.The Communists under Mao Zedong promised land for the peasants and forced the Nationalists to retreat to the island of Taiwan.
19Mao ZedongWhen Mao Zedong won the civil war the most populated country in the world was “lost to the communists”. To many people it was a defeat of Truman’s containment policy.Mao ordered all land to be seized by the government and peasants were forced to work on the new collective farms.
20The Great Leap ForwardIn 1958 China Mao ordered “The Great Leap Forward”. People were forced to work, eat, and live in communal dormitories and farms with no private property.With no incentive to work famine killed about 20 million people.
21Chinese Cultural Revolution In 1966 Mao urged China’s young people to “learn revolution by making revolution”. Millions of students responded by joining Red Guard units.These units targeted anyone they felt betrayed the ideals of the revolution.
22KoreaAt the end of WWII Korea was a divided nation. North of the 38th parallel was controlled by the USSR, the south was protected by American troops.
23Korean WarIn June of 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. To most of the world this invasion looked like a repeat of Nazi / Japanese aggression from the 1930’s.The UN authorized the use of force to defend South Korea and the15 nation force was placed under the command of Douglas MacArthur.Korean War Video
24InchonWhen American forces made a surprise landing at Inchon the route of North Korea’s army was on!
25Chinese InterventionUnfortunately China felt threatened and invaded to defend North Korea. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers attacked.
26General MacArthurGeneral MacArthur publicly argued with President Truman about his desire to drop atomic bombs on China.Truman fired the popular General for insubordination.MacArthur Video
27The 38th ParallelAfter two years of brutal fighting and cold winters a cease-fire agreement was signed in 1953.The DMZ border between the two Koreas at the 38th parallel became one of the most heavily defended places on earth.Four million soldiers and civilians were killed including over 40,000 Americans.
28The Cold War: an ideologically-driven political and economic competition from between two military and economic superpowers - the democratic capitalist United States and its allies and communist Soviet Union and China and their allies
29Sources World History -McDougal Littell 2003 Let’s Review: Global History and Geography 5th Edition