Presentation on theme: "Post WWII Containment at home & Domestic Policies Do Now: What might prompt Americans to sacrifice their civil liberties?"— Presentation transcript:
Post WWII Containment at home & Domestic Policies Do Now: What might prompt Americans to sacrifice their civil liberties?
Cold War @ Home The escalation of tensions between the US and Soviet Union, especially after the Soviets tested their atomic bomb in ‘49: – Led to fears of nuclear warfare – Led to paranoia in the US regarding communist spies (sedition and subversion) – Cultivated by the govt. to gain support for containment
Spies Among Us Alger Hiss– Communist working for Roosevelt Admin. During WWII– 5 years for perjury Julius (and Ethel Rosenberg) – Accused of leaking secrets– Executed 1953 Klaus Fuchs—Passed information to the Soviets regarding the Manhattan Project– 14 years imprisonment by MI5
Communists at the State Department: - Hiss had lied under oath, denying that he was a part of a Soviet spy ring that sent U.S. government secrets to the Soviet Union. - State Department official Alger Hiss was imprisoned for perjury in 1950.
-June 1949- What is the Washington Post cartoonist portraying in his drawing?
Legislation (1947) Executive Order 9835 – Root out subversives in government – Response to Republican pressure (too soft on commies) – Truman did not want a witch hunt – 3 million questioned/300 released (1947) Taft- Hartley Act – Undid Wagner Act – No Closed Shops – No Wildcat Strikes – No communists – No union money for political campaigns
1940 Smith Act Whoever, with intent to cause the overthrow or destruction of any such government, prints, publishes, edits, issues, circulates, sells, distributes, or publicly displays any written or printed matter advocating, advising, or teaching the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying any government in the United States by force or violence, or attempts to do so; or Whoever organizes or helps or attempts to organize any society, group, or assembly of persons who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of any such government by force or violence; or becomes or is a member of, or affiliates with, any such society, group, or assembly of persons, knowing the purposes thereof - Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both, and shall be ineligible for employment by the United States or any department or agency thereof, for the five years next following his conviction 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act Communist groups must register Members of subversive groups could not become citizens Illegal to preach totalitarianism
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Established in the Late 30s Began looking into film industry in 47 – Some pointed to left wing members of the industry – When questioned, if no assistance, then blacklisted – If refused to talk– imprisoned Hollywood 10
McCarthy’s Witch Hunt Begins · In 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that he had a list of 205 State Department employees that were members of the Communist party.
· After thousands of Americans had their lives ruined after being accused of being communists, McCarthy’s popularity lessened as the nation learned that he had no proof behind his accusations. · McCarthy’s claim was never proven, but he helped to increase a fear of communism in America known as the “Red Scare”.
Too Far Ike and the Army Edward R. Murrow Movie clip 1 Movie clip 2
Objectives: Evaluate presidential policies during the Cold War Do Now: What was the 2 nd Bill of Right
1945-1953 Democrat FDR’s Vice A-Bomb Escalates the Cold War Fair Deal 1953-1961 Republican WWII War Hero Covert containment Eisenhower Doctrine 1961-1963 Democrat Catholic Loved by many Civil Rights Bay of Pigs
The Idea of a Second Bill of Rights What made this popular? – The right to a job – The right to food – The right to shelter – The right to health care – The right to education
How to Guarantee These Rights Assuring these rights would require – Massive government planning – A dramatic increase in taxes – Government control over private business – Less focus on initiative and responsibility Opposition
One Such Act: Employment Act of 1946 “Full Employment Bill” – No– Why? Employment Act of 1946-- called for “maximum” employment How to promote economic growth?
1948 Election Truman v Strom Thurmond of the “Dixiecrat Party” and Henry Wallace, the head of the Progressive Party. Wallace– Socialism Thurmond—Opposed the civil rights pushed by Truman Election against Republican Thomas Dewey “Give ‘em hell Harry” won despite predictions – Whistle-stop train Democrats also took control of the congress Republicans feared more FDR government expansion – 22 nd amendment limiting the president to 2 terms in office– Passed in 1951
“The Fair Deal” Truman’s 1949 inaugural address outlined his plan to continue moving forward with some of FDR’s ideas – Federal aid for education – Govt. healthcare bill-Failed but Hill-Burton gave $ to hospitals – Minimum wage laws – Social Security-More intensive then FDR’s – Ending the Taft-Hartley Act – Farming subsidies – GI Bill- $ for college, preferential govt. jobs, training – Housing Act 1949-Promised housing for every American family but met opposition. Nevertheless 810000 built by govt. All funded by a “magically expanding economy”
G.I. Bill (1944- Serviceman’s Readjustment Act) College and Job Training for Vets of WWII – 1947– ½ of College Students Vets Preference in Govt. Jobs Good mortgage rates Social Security Act 1950 – Expanded earlier system – Benefits for 10 million+ people Problems with this
Failing Programs Nationalization of Healthcare Blocked by AMA and AHA – Alternative= Hill-Burton Act– Funded new hospitals FHA (Federal Housing Administration) – Goal—to provide housing for all who need it Some received housing but failed to help many – Urban Renewal Plans
Economic Theory Based on Keynesian Theory – Economists could accurately and efficiently predict and direct the economy to prevent booms and busts Result– Continued Growth – Business and Govt. collaborate to Insure This Less Social Unrest – GNP (New Calculation for Growth ’39) – Worked well with militarization – Worked well with Marshall Plan – Good Times Forever!!!
Eisenhower (Rep.) General Turned President General Dwight David Eisenhower (IKE) – Republican candidate 1952 election. – WWII Hero – Eisenhower-Nixon ticket 442-89 against Democrat Stevenson
On with the New Deal Eisenhower continues: – Social Security – Expanded Department of Health – Expanded Welfare Why is this so unusual???
JFK (Dem.) Conservative Domestic Policies: Income Tax Cuts Lower interest FED rates to expand economy Liberal Domestic Policies: “The New Frontier” Expansion of health care Expansion of public education Govt. intervention in economy Aid to rural regions