Presentation on theme: "World War II on the home front, post-war America"— Presentation transcript:
1World War II on the home front, post-war America Standards 7.1 through 7.6
2Why did the Allies want to drive the Germans out of Africa before tackling the war in Europe? Roosevelt and Churchill believed it was important to secure access to the Suez Canal in Egypt.After this, they decided they would invade Italy
3Who were the three leaders making these decisions? Joseph Stalin – USSRFDR – United StatesChurchill – Great BritainTehran Conference
4Decisions at Tehran Conference Stalin (USSR) wanted the Allies to launch an attack against Hitler by invading France. FDR and C reluctantly agree….D-Day becomes the objective.Eisenhower was made Supreme Allied CommanderDecisions at Tehran Conference
6Victory in Europe followed by the Yalta Conference – Big Three Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan after the defeat of GermanyStalin agrees to free elections and democratic governments in eastern European countries freed by Soviets marching from the eastRoosevelt and Churchill will allow USSR to keep PolandFDR and C also agree to POSSIBLE certain islands and Chinese lands after Japan is defeated
7Hitler?Hitler commits suicide at the end of the war to avoid captureFDR?Roosevelt died in April of 1945, did not live to see Allied victory in Europe.
12The fighting in island hopping was fierce, especially on Iwo Jima and Okinawa – many American casualties
13Manhattan ProjectU.S. scientists developed the atomic bomb in secret. President Truman found out after FDR’s death.
14Why use the bomb against Japan? Japan refused to surrenderTruman wanted to save American lives and avoid the invasion of JapanTruman possibly wanted to intimidate the Soviets with U.S. superior fire power.
16Selective Service ActThe Selective Service Act of 1940 – Congress created the FIRST peacetime draft of American soldiers in the history of the U.S.This marks the beginning of the U.S. having a standing army in peacetime and during war. In fact, after this, the U.S. will always have an active military from this point forward.
17War Production BoardThis board, created by FDR helped switch the U.S. economy from peacetime to wartime efficiently.The board re-directed raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods to the production of materials needed for waging war.
18Why were posters created and designed by the government? These were created to encourage and maintain support for the warCreate a sense of patriotismPresent the war in a positive light
19WPB – The War Production Board The government redirected raw materials and resources to the war effort instead of use for civilian consumer production.As car factories started to produce airplanes instead of cars and tanks instead of cars, the U.S. economy improved and many previously unemployed people found jobs.
21Economic Result of the War? The War actually pulled the U.S. out of the Great Depression.The U.S. economy boomed.Men who previously did not have jobs found themselves in the military or in factories producing goods for the war effort.People migrated to the North to fill jobs needed for the wartime effort.
22Withholding tax $$$$The 16th Amendment passed several decades earlier already established an income taxIn WWII, the government needed money – with money withheld from paychecks and sent directly to the government – this helped the government have cash flow. Notice, withholding income tax from paychecks never went away!
23War Bond DrivesThe government promoted the purchase of government bonds in order to raise money for war production.Bond drives were efforts by the government to create ads and posters to encourage people to buy war bonds.Sometimes, political cartoonists and Hollywood got involved!
24War bond drives were used in advertisements, movie shorts, and even used movie stars to promote them.
25Why were people encouraged to grow victory gardens and ration goods. People were encouraged to grow their own food so American farmers (like wheat growers) could devote more food to the war effort and to soldiers overseas.Rationing – Americans received ration books from the OPA to get grocery products, tires and gasoline, This meant more of these materials were sent to troops overseas.
26How did rationing program work? Americans were assigned ration books with stamps for the products they needed. Once they had used up all of their stamps, for gasoline for example, then they could not obtain the items until they acquired more points.
27Roles of Women?Women became an important part of the workforce – working in airplane factories and munitions plants.Many women signed up for military service and served as nurses and pilots. (question 25 on chapter 8 and 9 sheet.)
29“Rosie the Riveter”Rosie the Riveter became the symbol of women who entered the workforce to fill the gap left vacant by men who were away at war. Rosie also symbolized the war effort at home.
30What led to the change to allow minorities to serve in combat? The numbers of casualties and the shortage of soldiers led to a change in military policy to allow minorities to serve in combat.
31Roles of African Americans? Nearly 1,000,000 African American men volunteered or were drafted. Eventually, they gained more battle experience as the war wore on. Many served bravely and with distinction such as the “Tuskegee Airmen.”
32Tuskegee AirmenAll black squadron of combat pilots – they successfully protected every bomber plane they escorted during the war.
33“Double V”With many African Americans serving in the military and in the war industries – they began to advocate “victory at home and abroad.”They were willing to do their part in the war effort but wanted there to be more equality here in America when the war was over.
34Native AmericansU.S. Marines developed a code based on the Navajo language.300 Navajo Marines became “code talkers” in the PacificSome Native Americans worked in defense industries – this meant they could leave the reservations for better jobs(Q. 31 on Q page.)
35Mexicans and Mexican Americans Many Mexican Americans served bravely in the war in Europe and in the PacificMany Mexicans were asked to come across the border into America to work as farm laborersResult? Sometimes there was racial aggression against Mexican farm workers on the west coast of the U.S.
36Japanese AmericansJapanese attack on Pearl Harbor fueled fears that Japanese Americans might be a threat to U.S. securityFDR signs EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066Japanese Americans were forced to sell homes and businesses and move to internment campsSome of the men joined the military and served bravely in Europe – especially the 442nd – most decorated unit in U.S. history – they proved their loyalty
37Korematsu vs. United States A Japanese American, Fred Korematsu challenged the executive order ordering the Japanese Americans to internment camps because he said his civil rights were violated.The court ruled that interment was NOT unlawful because military “urgency” justified government action.
38Nuremberg TrialsFor the first time warring countries and their leaders are charged with “crimes against humanity”Nuremberg Trials were held in Nuremberg, GermanyMany officers and government officials were tried for their participation in the Holocaust
39Post War AmericaMany inventions used in the War were used in post-war America.RADAR was used for commercial air travelAdvances were made in computer technologyMedical technology such as antibiotics were created such as penicillin, blood plasma,
40Greatest Change? – the introduction of the Nuclear Age
41Tension between U.S. and Soviets The U.S. and G.B. felt like the allies should NOT occupy territories conquered during the warStalin wanted to keep control of the countries in eastern Europe to “MAINTAIN a BUFFER ZONE” between USSR and the west
42Stalin’s plan to control eastern Europe Stalin set up communist regimes/govern ments in the eastern block countries – they answered to himWest Germany
43How was the continent divided? Western democracies in the westSoviet satellite nations in the EastGermany was divided
44Iron Curtain? The phrase came from a speech made by Winston Churchill. It came to mean the dividing line between Western and communist countries of Europe, especially since these borders were heavily guarded by the Soviets
45Promise broken?At the Yalta Conference Stalin had agreed not to occupy European countries after the war
46ContainmentThe idea that the U.S. and the Western countries should focus on “containing” communism and not letting it spread.In other words, they would not try to get rid of it where it already existed, but try not to let it spread further.
47Truman DoctrineThe U.S. will intervene and help nations that are trying to resist communismU.S. sent aid to Greece and Turkey
48Marshall PlanProvided financial support for nations in war torn EuropeSparked economic revival in EuropeHelped stop suffering and hungerStopped spread of communism
50What two countries did Germany become and why? West Germany – the allies returned their occupied territories back over to GermanyEast Germany – the Soviets kept control of East GermanyBERLIN the former capital city of Germany was also split into WEST BERLIN which was free and EAST BERLIN which was under SOVIET CONTROL
51Berlin AirliftStalin tried to force the former allies to give up WEST BERLINTRUMAN refused to back downThe U.S. airlifted supplies into WEST BERLINSoviets gave up the idea of controlling all of Berlin in 1949
52Define the term “Cold War.” The term Cold War was first used by one of Truman’s advisors named Bernard Baruch. It referred to the tensions that existed between the democratic nations of the west and the communist nations of the East, especially the Soviet Union.
53China becomes communist In 1949, after a Revolution in China, China became communist. The leader of the revolution was Mao ZeDong.
54Since both the Soviets and the United States helped liberate Korea from Japanese at the end of WWII, they each had different ideas about how the country should be run.Korea was divided at the 38th Parallel, North Korea became communist and South Korea had a pro-U.S. democracyKorean War
55Korean WarIn 1950, War began when North Korean forces crossed the 28th parallel.The United Nations came to the aid of South Korea. (Truman Doctrine at work.)President Truman chose General MacArthur to command South Korean forces.
57Purpose of the Founding of Israel Jews throughout the world and especially in Europe had always wanted their own “homeland.” This was called the Zionist movement.Because of the Holocaust, the allies felt after WWII that the Jews should have a homeland.With the help of the United Nations, the new state of Israel was created in Palestine.