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Cold War, 1950s, Early 1960s.

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1 Cold War, 1950s, Early 1960s

2 Competition between ideologies of US and Soviet Union
Category Soviet Union American Democracy Political System One political party, the Communists A multi-party democracy Organizations All labor groups and other associations are run by the Communist Party Unions and other organizations openly negotiate with employers Economic System Industries and farms are owned by the state; central planners determine the nation’s economic needs; limited private property; education and health care provided by the state Free enterprise system; private ownership of property; supply and demand determine prices; people meet their own needs with some limited government involvement Religion Religion is discouraged Free exercise of religion Individual Rights Secret police arrest opponents; censorship; no free exercise of beliefs Freedom of the press and expression Roots of the Cold War

3 Roots of the Cold War Yalta and Potsdam
February 1945 – Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta Plan to reorganize Europe after the war Agree to form United Nations Germany divided in occupation zones Free elections in countries liberated from Germany Roots of the Cold War

4 Roots of the Cold War Yalta and Potsdam
Truman and Stalin met 6 months later at Potsdam in Germany Serious differences emerge between the two leaders Roots of the Cold War

5 Cold War Begins Soviets saw threat from capitalist governments
Stalin greatly distrusted the West Create wall of satellites countries as buffer against future invasions No free elections in Poland US refused to share secrets of atomic bomb Soviet troops continue to occupy Eastern Europe Trade and contact between east and west Europe cut off Cold War Begins

6 Cold War Begins An Iron Curtain fell over Eastern Europe
Next 40 years, travel and communication between east and west remained limited Eastern European nations became “satellites” of the Soviet Union Cold War Begins

7 Containment US developed policy of containment
Don’t try to overturn already communist countries but stop it from spreading any further Communist rebels in Greece and pressure on Turkey, Truman sent military aid Was not going to appease like what happened in Munich with Hitler Containment

8 Marshall Plan, 1948 After WWII, Europe faced famine
Truman felt desperate people attracted to communism Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed massive aid to rebuild countries Strong allies and trading partners Aid Germany and Italy instead of demanding reparations Extremely successful – speeded economic recovery and western Europe and created goodwill – European economies grew at an unprecedented rate Marshall Plan, 1948

9 1948 – France, Britain, and US combined occupation zones to West Germany
Berlin, capital of old Germany, in Soviet zone Divided into 4 sectors, each occupied by different power Soviets announced blockade of West Berlin Berlin Airlift, 1948

10 Western Allies began massive airlift to feed and supply city
Within one year, Stalin lifted blockade US and Allies showed would not retreat when faced by aggressive behavior by the Soviet Union Berlin Airlift, 1948

11 US, Canada, and 10 western European nations create North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949
Collective security – each defend if other is attacked US extended nuclear protection to Western Europe NATO and Warsaw Pact

12 Soviet Union created Warsaw Pact with Eastern European satellites in 1955
NATO and Warsaw Pact

13 Pros and Cons of being in international organizations and treaties
Influence international policy Protect American interest Protect American security Assist other countries Cons Potential loss of American sovereignty Potential loss of American security Pros and Cons of being in international organizations and treaties

14 Behind the Iron Curtain
US never intervened in Eastern Europe Soviet leaders suppressed anti-Communist riot in Hungary in 1956 Erected Berlin Wall in 1961 to prevent East Germans from escaping to the West Invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968 to overthrow Czech reform government Behind the Iron Curtain

15 Containment in Asia China falls to Communism – 1949
Communists sought to overthrow Nationalists government since 1920s Helped by Soviets after 1945 Led by Mao Zedong Defeated Nationalists in 1949 Nationalists fled to Taiwan Fall of China seen as crushing blow for US Containment in Asia

16 Containment in Asia China falls to Communism – 1949
Truman refused to extend diplomatic recognition to Communist government US used veto power and refused to let Red China into the United Nations Truman promised to protect nationalistic government on Taiwan from Communist attacks Containment in Asia

17 Many Americans felt the US didn’t do enough to prevent China from falling to Communism
Korea, a former Japanese colony was split in two after WWII North Korea – Communist; South Korea – non-communist elected government The Korean War

18 1950 – North invades South to unite under one Communist rule
Stalin felt Americans would not care enough to become involved South Korean Army inefficient and unmotivated Fled South as North attacked The Korean War

19 The Korean War President Truman felt like Nazi aggression before WWII
Decided to oppose N. Koreans US forces sent to South to resist invasion Soviet Union had walked out of the UN in protest so US able to pass a resolution to send UN troops (mostly US soldiers) to South Korea First time an international peace organization used military force to stop aggression The Korean War

20 The Korean War General Douglas MacArthur sent to command Korean forces
Landed in Inchon in the middle Surprised North and cut off their main forces Second largest seaborne invasion in history MacArthur attacked N. Korea, advancing to border between N. Korea and China The Korean War

21 Threat brought large Chinese army into the war, forcing MacArthur to retreat
MacArthur wanted to free China from communism, even if need to use atomic weapons President Truman refused; MacArthur criticized Truman to a Congressman, who reported to the media Truman relieved MacArthur of his command Needed to assert civilian control of the military Very unpopular at the time The Korean War

22 The Korean War 1952 – Dwight Eisenhower elected President
Armistice signed between US and N. Korea in 1953 Demilitarized zone between N and S Korea and a transfer of prisoners of war …Exactly the same division as it was before the war The Korean War

23 Bay of Pigs 1959 – Cuba come under the power of Fidel Castro
Castro made agreements with SU and made Cuba pro-Soviet Communist nation Bay of Pigs

24 Bay of Pigs Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
Eisenhower approved plan to overthrow Castro Secretly trained Cuban exiles and send them to invade the island Kennedy became president, let plan continue but no air power Exiles landed 3 months after Kennedy took office but were quickly defeated Embarrassing failure for Kennedy Bay of Pigs

25 Berlin Wall Kennedy met Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna
Meeting did not go well and Berlin Wall construction started few weeks after In 1961, the Soviet backed the East German government (GDR) began constructing a fence to halt the flow of human resources from the East to the West. The Wall was a symbol of the division of East and West for the remainder of the Cold War until it was taken down in 1989. Berlin Wall

26 Bay of Pigs exiles to say acting independently but disobeyed orders
Castro and Khrushchev took steps to protect Cuba 1962 – US spy planes found Cuba preparing silos for missiles and nuclear warheads Soviet missiles could not hit US from Europe or Asia Cuba only 90 miles from Florida… How to stop without nuclear war? Cuban Missile Crisis

27 October 1962 – Kennedy formed committee to get out of crisis
Kennedy decided naval blockade on Cuba to prevent arrival of weapons One Soviet ship stopped and boarded Kennedy threatened to invade Cuba if missiles not withdrawn Cuban Missile Crisis

28 Cuban Missile Crisis Closest world came to nuclear war
After several days, Khrushchev agreed to withdraw missiles if US agreed not to invade Cuba Kennedy also agreed to remove missiles from Turkey Afterwards, special hotline telephone set up Agreed to ban further nuclear testing except for underground Cuban Missile Crisis

29 Arms and Space Race 1945 – US sole atomic power
1949 – Soviet Union developed own bomb Nuclear “arms race” begins! 1952 – US develops hydrogen bomb Much more powerful than atomic bomb Soviets get one only a year later… Arms and Space Race

30 1950s – nuclear weapons used for defense instead of large military force
Deterrent – SU as deterred from attacking US because US could destroy it with nuclear weapons Cheaper than large military force Most situations, nuclear weapons couldn’t be used… Arms and Space Race

31 Arms and Space Race Sputnik – 1957
Nazi scientists made great strides in building rockets Each Superpower began own missile program SU launched first man-made satellite into space – Sputnik Size of basketball, weighed 184 pounds, orbited the Earth once every 98 minutes with a radio transmitter that did little more than issue a beep to be tracked Arms and Space Race

32 Arms and Space Race Space race is on!
Fear SU would use missiles to send nuclear bombs to US Americans felt they were falling behind Federal government started new programs in science and education Launched own first satellite in space in 1958 Arms and Space Race

33 Cold War at Home House Un-American Activities Committee
Americans feared Communist menace in US Truman ordered Loyalty Review Boards Investigate “un-American” activities Such as participating in the American Communist Party Many accused with little or no evidence Victims unable to defend selves or know who accused them Violated constitutional rights Cold War at Home

34 Cold War at Home House Un-American Activities Committee
Congress conducted loyalty checks through special House Un-American Activities Committee Questioned actors, directors, writers, and others about possible Communist sympathies Present or former members of Communist party “blacklisted” and lost jobs Some like Alger Hiss were later persecuted for perjury People who cooperated had to inform on others Cold War at Home

35 Cold War at Home Rosenberg Trials
1950 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg charged with selling secrets to SU about how to make atomic bomb Found guilty and executed for spying Many Americans doubted guilt 1997 – Verona Papers showed messages sent to Soviet Union Julius had spied for the SU Some Soviet agents had penetrated American government, science, and industry during Cold War Cold War at Home

36 Cold War at Home McCarthy Hearings
Fall of China caused fear of internal subversion Senator Joseph McCarthy shocked Americans by claiming he knew names of hundreds of Communists who had infiltrated the government 3 years of hearings never found any proof Censured (formally criticized) by the Senate McCarthyism – making harsh accusations without evidence Cold War at Home

37 Foreign policy given to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, devoted anti-Communist
1957 – US send troops to any middle eastern nation that needed help fighting communism Called Eisenhower Doctrine Eisenhower

38 Eisenhower 1953-1960 1950s time of recovery and growth
Special benefits for vets Low mortgage rates Educational grants Interstate Highway Act (1956) – create system of federal highways Defense spending remained high and middle class grew Eisenhower

39 Eisenhower 1953-1960 Housing Boom
Time of high birth rates – “baby boom” GI Bill Cheaper, mass produced homes Home ownership increased 5% Middle class families > suburbs; declining urban tax base and decaying inner cities Eisenhower

40 Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
Provided federal aid to help veterans adjust to civilian life in: Unemployment pay (up to 52 weeks at $20/wk. – less than 20% of funds set aside for this were used) Purchase of homes, farms, & businesses – zero down, low interest (2.4 million loans ) Education Subsidized tuition, fees, books, educational materials, & living expenses while attending college or other training institutions 7.8 of 16 million veterans used this In 1947, 49% of college admissions were for veterans of WWII Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944

41 Eisenhower 1953-1960 Economic Prosperity
Demand for consumer goods at all-time high Millions of autos and tvs sold Refrigerators and appliances became widespread GDP doubled between and dominated world trade Eisenhower

42 Eisenhower 1953-1960 Conformity Greater emphasis
Unusual ideas regarded with suspicion Fear of Communism led to dislike of non-conformist attitudes Eisenhower

43 Advances in Medicine Success of antibiotics 1953 – Jonas Salk
First polio vaccine Streptomycin – first antibiotic to treat tuberculosis Measles vaccine First heart transplant Advances in Medicine

44 Music and Culture The Beat Generation
Rebelled against conformity of era Young writers in New York and then San Francisco Care-free, often reckless, and fresh approach to literature Founders: Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac Howl by Ginsberg for seized for obscenity Music and Culture

45 Music and Culture The Beat Generation
Experimented with sexuality and drugs “Beatnik” – Artistic lifestyle with men in beards, berets, and sandals and young women in leotards Recited poetry and discussed European philosophy Early form of counter-culture Music and Culture

46 Rock and Roll – a form of popular music that evolved in the 1950's from rhythm and blues, characterized by the use of electric guitars, a strong rhythm with an accent on the offbeat, and youth-oriented lyrics Artists such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Elvis Presley Music and Culture

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