Presentation on theme: "Identify key military turning points of World War II. –Does this picture represent a turning point in American history? –Make a list of what all this picture."— Presentation transcript:
Identify key military turning points of World War II. –Does this picture represent a turning point in American history? –Make a list of what all this picture represents.
Challenges to FDR’s Foreign Policy Germany attacks! (led by Adolf Hitler) –A–Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, France Italy attacks! (led by Benito Mussolini) –E–Ethiopia (eastern Africa) Japan attacks! (led by Hideki Tojo) –C–China (Manchurian peninsula) FDR believed American should help its allies, prevent totalitarian dictators from spreading their influence –N–NEUTRALITY ACTS OUTLAWED American sales of arms to nations at war (isolationism) Why would America want to stay neutral?
Isn’t there an international group to prevent this kind of aggression?
Lend-Lease Act 1941: Congress passes law to cancel the old “cash & carry” policy and strengthen the “arsenal of democracy” by SENDING WEAPONS to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States” –$–$50 billion worth of weapons FDR’s Atlantic Charter agreement goes a step further to create the “ALLIES” (US & Britain) How neutral does America look now?
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 –2–2,403 killed; 1,178 injured –M–Much of US Pacific navy fleet destroyed FDR calls it “a date which will live in infamy” 94% of Americans had been isolationists before the attack in Hawaii –A–After the attack, America changed its mind FDR DECLARES WAR ON JAPAN (but has to help Britain with Germany first) What does December 7 th have in common with September 11 th ?
Mobilization for WWII 5 million American volunteer Another 10 million drafted (Selective Service) 18 million working in war industries –L–Less than 25% hired African Americans Weekly paychecks rose 35% Unemployment falls to 1.2% What did joining World War II do to the Great Depression, if unemployment dropped from 25% to 1.2%?
Rationing Office of Price Administration (OPA) set limits on prices, keeping them managable (slow down the inflation!) OPA also set up a system where households received rationing coupons (c-books) to be used for buying such scarce goods as meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline. Why would it be important to RATION things like sugar and gasoline during war?
War-time Conversion War Production Board (WPB) said which industries would switch to wartime production –M–Mechanical pencils turned out bomb parts –B–Bedspread maker made mosquito netting. –S–Soft-drink company started filling explosives. WPB also set a list of conserved materials –I–Iron, tin, paper, cooking fat What may have Henry Ford’s company converted to during World War II?
A. Philip Randolph July 1, 1944 Randolph called for African Americans to march at Washington DC under this banner: –“–“We Loyal Colored Americans Demand the Right to Work and Fight for Our Country.” FDR backed down and issued an executive order making discrimination in defense industrial hiring illegal Who does A. Philip Randolph remind you of? –F–Frederick Douglass? –W–WEB DuBois? –M–Martin Luther King, Jr.?
Japanese-American Internment In 1942, FDR ordered removal of 110,000 Japanese-Americans to “relocation centers” (prison camp) –2–2/3 were Nisei (born in US) –$–$400 million in possessions lost Should this be illegal? Why or Why not? In 1944, the Supreme Court said the camps were legal in the name of military necessity –K–Korematsu v. United States
Women in War Industries 6 million women come to work (35% of work force) in order to keep the economy running And women in war! –W–WAAC (Women’s Auxiliary Army Commission) never in combat positions How have women’s roles and expectations evolved from (a) World War I, (b) the Roaring Twenties, (c) The Great Depression, and now (d) World War II?
Who is Theodore Geisel? A clue… I would not like them here or there. I would not like them anywhere. I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them Sam I Am. - Dr. Seuss (T. Geisel) During World War II, Dr. Seuss was an active cartoonist/propagandist in support of the war.
Racist Industrial hiring practices A. Philip Randolph
Describe the fight to win World War II. Who were the two main nations the US fought against in WWII? –Where are these nations located? –How might their locations make this a tough war to fight?
D-Day June 6, 1944 General Dwight D. Eisenhower planned a major attack from Britain to the northern beaches of France Operation Overlord will be the largest land-sea-air operation in army history! Seven days of fighting along an 80mile coast marked the beginning of the Allied victory in Europe Where else have you heard that name (Eisenhower) before?
The Fall of Berlin Hitler’s last desperate attempt fell short at the Battle of the Bulge Allies began to liberate the death camps of the Holocaust Then the Soviet army stormed Berlin –R–Rather than surrender his capital city, Hitler committed suicide ALLIES CELEBRATE V-E DAY (Victory in Europe) –M–May 8, 1945 Hitler & Germany have been defeated, is the war over now?
Battle of Midway The TURNING POINT battle in the Pacific stops the growth of the Japanese sea empire Huge morale boost for Americans Opens the Allied strategy of “island hopping” toward Japan What battle in Europe does this compare to? Led to victories at Guadalcanal, Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, Okinawa
The Atomic Bomb The MANHATTAN PROJECT –T–TOP SECRET project led by J. Robert Oppenheimer to develop an atomic bomb in LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico –H–Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) –N–Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) Surrender finally comes Why drop these bombs?
Economic & Political Implications of Dropping the Atomic Bomb General Douglas MacArthur leads US occupation and reconstruction of Japan Nuclear Power could also be used for new domestic technologies Soviet Union was deeply offended we didn’t tell them about the atomic bomb testing –C–Couldn’t we trust them? Were we trying to send a message of strength to them? President Harry S. Truman’s war reputation is emboldened as America celebrates V-J Day (Victory of Japan) Wait a second, where did President Truman come from? I thought FDR was the president that took us into WWII…
WWII QUIZ (1)What was the name of the acts passed by Congress to try to prevent US involvement in WWII? (2)What was the name of the act of Congress that showed we were ready to be the “arsenal of democracy”? (3)What happened on December 7, 1941? (4)What happened on June 6, 1944? (5)What is the turning point battle in the Pacific Ocean? (6)What is the name of the largest land-sea-air invasion in WWII? (7)What is the name of the US general in charge of operation overlord? (8)What is the name of the US general in charge of the fighting against Japan? (9)What are two reasons for dropping the atomic bombs on Japan? (10)What are the two cities in Japan where the US used atomic bombs?
Describe the Cold War’s effect on America at home & abroad. Read the paragraph that defines the Cold War on page 812 (textbook) –Restate the definition in your own words, without the open textbook
Competition with USSR The Cold War We built an atomic bomb –T–Then they built one of their own Harry S. Truman used the United Nations (UN) to gain allies and trade partnerships –J–Joseph Stalin would do the same US wanted to encourage self-determination and democracy –U–USSR wanted to encourage communism US wanted to rebuild European governments and put Germany together –U–USSR wanted to control Eastern Europe (buffer) and divide East & West Germany US created their first peacetime alliance (NATO) for military support between US and 11 Western European nations –U–USSR created their own alliance set as well (Warsaw Pact)
Duck and Cover Drill -How will ducking under a desk help and protect you from an atomic bomb?
Red Dot Black Dot KEEP YOUR DOT YOUR HIDDEN!!!! Get up and move around – talk to the people around you, build small-medium-large groups –Your objective: have as big a group as you can have with ONLY black dots –If you are a red dot, get into as big a group of black dots as you can without them knowing what color you are
McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy (Wisconsin) brought the issue of anti-communism to America’s front pages and living rooms Stirs up a whirlwind fever – claiming to have a list of 57 (no 81, no 205!) communists working in the US State Department –A–Accused Democrats of being soft on communism Televised bullying of US Army led to his discredit and downfall
How was McCarthyism similar to the Salem With Trials?
Describe the Cold War’s effect on America at home & abroad. How has the war in Iraq affected your lives? How has it affected America in their policies at home and overseas? Why do you think the Cold War caused such a ruckus and fear even though no shots were ever fired?
Truman Integrates the Military President Harry Truman –“–“I am asking for equality of opportunity for all human beings, and if that ends up in my failure to be reelected, that failure will be in good cause.” In 1948 ordered integration of armed forces and an end of discrimination in government hiring practices Could this kind of move cost Harry Truman his hopes of reelection in 1948?
Truman Doctrine “it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.” –W–What “outside pressures”? –H–How can the US support? US financial aid would help to contain communism where it was and prevent it from spreading to democracies the US supported
Marshall Plan 16 countries – four years - $13 billion in aid Chaotic Western European nations needed reconstruction –S–Secretary of State George Marshall said that it was directed “not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos” What do you call it when someone gives you money to do or to not do something?
“Losing” China China was in a civil war in the 1940s –(–(US supported) Nationalists vs. Communists Mao Zedong gathered support among Chinese rural peasants to take control of communist China America had spent $3,000,000,000 to help Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek BUT America is not willing to go to a military solution over China – they’re too big and the USSR might get involved Is China a communist country today?
Korean War In 1950, communist North Korean forces flooded over the 38 th parallel into democratic South Korea (whom the US was supposed to protect) Truman sent General Douglas MacArthur back into action (he had served in the Pacific in WWII) –M–MacArthur’s strong push is successful until China adds support to North Korea and pushes back MacArthur begged Truman for greenlight to attack China, Truman refuses, MacArthur criticizes, Truman fires him (America’s favorite war hero at the time) The war ended in a stalemate – as the 38 th parallel remained the border –5–54,000 Americans died in Korea –A–America spent $67 billion What are America’s gains and losses from the Korean war?