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THE COLD WAR CHAPTERS 16 &17. POST WAR POLITICS YYALTA CONFERENCE: FEBRUARY 1945 FFDR, CHURCHILL, STALIN AAGREED ON: United Nations International.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR CHAPTERS 16 &17. POST WAR POLITICS YYALTA CONFERENCE: FEBRUARY 1945 FFDR, CHURCHILL, STALIN AAGREED ON: United Nations International."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE COLD WAR CHAPTERS 16 &17

2 POST WAR POLITICS YYALTA CONFERENCE: FEBRUARY 1945 FFDR, CHURCHILL, STALIN AAGREED ON: United Nations International Peacekeeping organization Division of Germany Democratic Elections for Poland German POW’s Forced Labor

3 PPOTSDAM CONFERENCE: JULY 1945  TRUMAN, CHURCHILL, STALIN AAMERICAN VIEW: We had fought to bring DEMOCRACY to the world Wanted an ECONOMICALLY strong and POLITICALLY open world to create MARKETS SSOVIET VIEW: Wanted to rebuild to PROTECT interests SATTELITE NATIONS: countries subject to soviet domination

4 USSR EXPANSION 11947: Hungary and Romania 11948 Albania and Bulgaria 11948: Czechoslovakia 11948: Finland & Yugoslavia 11949: East Germany

5 The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for power and influence in the world COLD WAR:

6 Harry S Truman  Became President in 1945  Ran again in 1948  Didn’t graduate college  “Fair Deal” meant to create welfare & employment  Republicans blocked  Desegregated the military

7 Force? Blockades? Embargo? Threats? THINK – ANSWER THIS QUESTION YOURSELF PAIR – COMPARE YOUR ANSWER WITH YOUR GROUP, DECIDE ON A GROUP ANSWER How do we stop the spread of Communism? How do win the Cold War?

8 US REACTION TO COMMUNISM IIRON CURTAIN: The theoretical line between communist countries and the “WEST” GGeorge Kennan: CContainment: Eastern Europe is already lost to Communism US must stop the spread of Communism TTRUMAN DOCTRINE: SSupport Free peoples’ resistance to Communism

9 MARSHALL PLAN AAmerican Policy makers didn’t want to repeat post- WWI mistakes WWe wanted to restore war-torn nations 11 ST FUNDAMENTAL SHIFT in postwar foreign policy: TRUMAN DOCTRINE 22 ND : MARSHALL PLAN: USA will support European nations’ economic recovery UUSSR invited to participate Refused and pressured satellite nations to do same $$13 Billion in aid to Western Europe

10 BERLIN, GERMANY BEFOREAFTER

11 CAEN, FRANCE BEFOREAFTER

12 DRESDEN, GERMANY BEFOREAFTER

13 LONDON, ENGLAND BEFOREAFTER

14 ROTTERDAM, HOLAND BEFOREAFTER

15 BERLIN AIRLIFT CCapitalist Western Berlin & Communist East Berlin became symbols of the developing cold war HHundreds of Thousands of Eastern Europeans left East Berlin SStalin wanted to force Westerners out of Berlin

16 Berlin Airlift JJune, 1948: All shipments through East Germany were banned TTruman didn’t want to risk war BBERLIN AIRLIFT: moved supplies into West Berlin by plane MMore than 200,000 flights Fuel, food, other supplies MMay, 1949: Soviets gave up blockade

17 NATO NNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization CCOLLECTIVE SECURITY: principle of mutual military assistance

18 In 1955, USSR responded with… WWARSAW PACT: military alliance between USSR with its satellite nnations

19 Collins Type III  What was the Berlin Airlift?  Who, What, Where, When, Why?  How was it an example of the “Cold War?”  ___/ 10 FCA 1: Neatly written, correct spelling  ___/ 10 FCA 2: Two complete paragraphs  ___/ 20 FCA 3: Completely answer the question

20 The Cold War Continues (1949) 11949: USSR gets the bomb! OOctober 1, 1949: People’s Republic of China

21 World Relations

22 BRINKMANSHIP

23 QUIZ Tuesday!  YALTA CONFERENCE  POTSDAM CONFERENCE  SATELLITE NATIONS  COLD WAR  CONTAINMENT  MARSHALL PLAN  TRUMAN DOCTRINE  NATO  WARSAW PACT  COLLECTIVE SECURITY

24 Post War America

25 POST WAR ECONOMY GGROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT: market value of all goods and services produced PPER CAPITA INCOME: average income per person DOUBLES! 1945: $212 billion 1960: $504 billion $1,526 To $2,788

26 BUSINESS REORGANIZE CCONGLOMERATES: Large corporation that owns smaller companies that produce different goods and services FFRANCHISES: The right to open a restaurant using a parent company’s brand name and system

27 CHANGES IN WORKFORCE  Machines do the jobs people used to.  WHITE COLLAR: performing services for others

28 “Government Issue” – nickname for soldiers AIM: help veterans make a smooth entry into civilian life Provided money for veterans to attend college or buy a house GI Bill

29 Helped millions of GI’s return to civilian life Homes were bought College attendance increased

30 Ended segregation in the Armed Forces Executive Order 9981

31 Dramatic Rise in the Birth Rate after the war Baby Boom

32 Cultural Changes in 1950s EEconomic Boom created comfort and pride Baby Boom: soaring birthrates New Homes: Levittown, made possible by GI Bill Offered suburban lifestyle to many African Americans not allowed Built with necessities – even TVs!

33 In Margins: Write what you are thinking: confusions comparisons reactions random thoughts Levittown

34

35 BBetween 1945-1950 5 million TVs BBy 1959 more than 40 million American Politics: leaders campaigned, Joseph McCarthy Advertising: one show sponsored, then commercials! Programming: reflected 50s values (family, game shows)

36 Family’s role  Mom: Stay home, cook, clean, create the perfect home  Dad: Provide financially, disciplinarian  Children: Obey! Be seen, not heard.

37 Create a House of Cards  But one of you will be a spy…

38 1947-1953 Cold War at Home

39 ACCUSATIONS ““Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist party?” 110 invoked 5 th amendment rights: HOLLYWOOD TEN JJail times 6-12 months BBLACKLIST: people employers agreed not to hire MMcCARRAN-WALTER ACT (1952) MMost disloyal Americans from Communist countries IImmigration quotas – discriminate against: Asia, Southern & Central Europe TTruman: “One of the most un-American acts I have ever witnessed in my public career.” CCongress passes over Truman’s veto

40 LOYALTY FFederal Employee Loyalty Program AAll new employees investigated FFBI checks TThose accused of “disloyalty” put before Loyalty Review Board LLittle chance to defend self AAdds to the suspicion of nation HHUAC HHouse of Un-American Activities Committee Extended post-WWII to find Communist infiltration Movie industry

41 Julius & Ethel Rosenberg AAmerican Communists AAccused of selling A-Bomb secrets to USSR PPleaded the 5 th PPablo Picasso “do not let this crime against humanity take place” EElectrocuted in 1953 at Sing-Sing JJulius guilty EEthel knew, but didn’t take part AAnother example of racism, fear?

42  2 will read about Senator Joseph McCarthy (481-482) – Summarize, identify & define TTK  2 will read Korea before the War & the Start of the Korean War (484-485) – Summarize, identify & define TTK  Compare knowledge with partner  Share with other pair – take notes! Group Study

43 Senator Joseph McCarthy ""The State Department is infested with communists. I have here in my hand a list of 205—a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.“ SSenator Millard Tydings, was reported to have said, "Let me have him [McCarthy] for three days in public hearings, and he'll never show his face in the Senate again.“ CCalled McCarthy’s claims a “fraud and a hoax” WWent after Tydings: created a fake photograph

44 Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations IInvestigated members of the government on TV DDeemed books overseas “Pro-Communist” and had them burned EEisenhower: Don’t join the book burners! MMcCarthy then went after members of the military AArmy-McCarthy Hearings ""The American people have had a look at you for six weeks," he said. "You are not fooling anyone." CCensured by the Senate DDied of alcoholism

45 Spreading fear and making baseless charges McCarthyism

46 Korea Before the War KKorea under Japan’s control since 1905 YYalta: Allies agreed that Korea should be free from Japan TTemporarily divide Korea at 38˚ Parallel NNorth – USSR SSouth -- America

47 Start of the Korean War JJune, 1950 1100,000 North Korean troops crossed 38˚ Parallel CCarried Soviet-made weapons EEisenhower: “We’ll have a dozen Koreas soon if we don’t take a firm stand” OOrdered US troops to support Korean Troops

48 Korean War UUN votes to support US efforts PPOLICE ACTION: not war! PProtect Pusan at all costs IInchon Landing: Led by Douglas MacArthur, surprise! 770,000 troops landed and held ground OOctober 1: all of South Korea freed SStop at 38 Parallel?

49 End of the Korean War NNo! MMake it to the Chinese border CChinese feel threatened 2260,000 Chinese troops crossed border UUN forces retreat to Seoul MMacArthur called for bombing of China FFired FFighting ended in 1951 880,000 Americans wounded 114,000 Dead

50 Collins Type II  How did the fear of communism affect American Policy at home and abroad?  Legislation  Trials  Politics  Berlin  Korea  etc Title: Red Scare’s effects on US policy

51 Soviets advance in Technology UUSSR behind in number of weapons OOctober 4, 1957: Soviets launched SPUTNIK: first satellite launched into space NNASA: investigated the future of exploring space

52 Fear Rises in the New Suburbs

53 Political Changes 11951 – congress passes 22 nd amendment PPresident may only serve two terms RReaction to whom?? DDwight Eisenhower & Richard Nixon RRichard Nixon accused of having $18,000 as campaign “gifts” (not illegal, but accused of dishonesty) NNixon used new technology, TV, to give famous “Checkers Speech” TTicket wins 11953: Stalin dies, Nikita Khrushchev comes to power PRESIDENT VICE PRESIDENT

54 Making Deals…Or Not EEisenhower proposed an “open skies” treaty BBoth countries would be able to fly over other’s territory to see military operations SSoviets say no! ((not a problem, we have the U- 2 Plane!) AAmericans still like Ike, re-elect him in 1956

55 Cold War “Hot Spots”

56 Vietnam SSEATO supported the creation of Anti-Communist nation: South Vietnam UUS provided a lot of support for South Vietnam WWhy? NNorth Vietnamese wanted to bring all of Vietnam together

57 Middle East

58 Make two timelines – running parallel POTSDAM SATELLITE NATIONS CONTAINMENT TRUMAN DOCTRINE MARSHALL PLAN COLD WAR 1945-1989

59 COLD WAR 1945-1989 BERLIN AIRLIFT MCCARREN- WALTER ACT BLACK LIST CONGLOMERATE FRANCHISE

60 COLD WAR 1945-1989 GI BILL EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981 MCCARTHYISMKOREAN WAR


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