Presentation on theme: "GRAB BELL-WORK Big Q’s: 1. Did the Cold War ever ‘heat up’? 2. Is a future Cold War inevitable? THE COLD WAR (2 WEEKS)"— Presentation transcript:
GRAB BELL-WORK Big Q’s: 1. Did the Cold War ever ‘heat up’? 2. Is a future Cold War inevitable? THE COLD WAR (2 WEEKS)
TUESDAY ARIL 1 ST BR: Silently read P. 435 in History Alive! and then answer both questions on P. 434: 1. Who might this person be? 2. What does this symbol represent? OBJECTIVE: Gain an introduction into the main causes and ideologies of the Cold War Era. AGENDA: -Cornell Notes (4 Key Terms) -Intro. to the COLD WAR video clip (10 min)
CHOOSING SIDES: CAPITALISM VS. COMMUNISM After WWII, only two nations came out of the war strong enough to dominate world affairs: Two superpowers THE UNITED STATES and THE SOVIET UNION (15 republics in Eastern Europe) Each superpower adopted very different economic systems called CAPITALISM and COMMUNISM US adopted CAPITALISM : an economic system based on private ownership of farms and businesses SOVIET’S adopted COMMUNISM : an economic system based on the idea that farms and businesses should be owned in common by the workers who do the labor
COMMUNISM’S CONSEQUENCES When Josef Stalin took over the Soviet gov’t in the 1920’s, he was determined to transform the Soviet Union from a rural nation into a modern industrial giant Under Stalin’s control: -All individual ownership of farms and businesses was eliminated -The gov’t took over ALL economic planning -Soviet people were forced to work for gov’t-run farms and factories (power lies in gov’t, not citizens…) -Creation of a vast “police state” spies, secret police invading all privacy, those suspected of opposing Stalin were imprisoned in harsh labor camps or executed (as many as 8 million executed)
CONTAINING COMMUNISM Most Americans were appalled by what was happening in the Soviet Union They saw communism as a cruel system that took away people’s property and denied them such basic rights as freedom of speech and religion Even worse, the Soviet gov’t was doing all it could to SPREAD COMMUNISM TO OTHER COUNTRIES… President Truman responded to this threat with a foreign policy known as CONTAINMENT: the US policy of fighting the expansion of communism after WWII by limiting it to countries where it already existed
THE THIRD WORLD The Cold War created a new set of divisions in the world The United States and its democratic, industrialized allies became known as the “FIRST WORLD” nations The Soviet Union and its communist allies were seen as “SECOND WORLD” nations There was also a “THIRD WORLD” of poorer, less-developed nations in Latin America, Africa and Asia Many THIRD WORLD countries remained non-aligned— countries that refused to join either side
COLD WAR INTRODUCTION (10 MIN VIDEO CLIP) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpYCplyBknI
EXIT QUESTION In 1-2 sentences, describe the main PURPOSE of the US foreign policy, CONTAINMENT.
WEDNESDAY APRIL 2 ND BR: How are CAPITALISM and COMMUNISM alike? How are they different? OBJECITVE: Compare and contrast the major alliance systems that formed during the Cold War. AGENDA: -Popcorn P in History Alive! as a whole-group -Cornell Notes (3 Key Terms) -CNN Student News?
FORMING TEAMS: THE BERLIN BLOCKADE The Cold War saw powerful new alliances led by THE UNITED STATES and THE SOVIET UNION These alliances came about as a result of the first great confrontation of the Cold War the Berlin blockade When Germany surrendered in 1945, it was divided in two: Soviet troops controlled East Germany, US troops controlled West Germany The capital city of BERLIN was also split into western and eastern parts Stalin ordered a blockade of Berlin in 1948 (hoping to starve the Allies out of the city, Stalin closed all roads and RR’s leading to West Berlin, also cut all electrical power)
FORMING TEAMS: THE BERLIN BLOCKADE CONT’D The Allies faced a tough choice They did not want to give in to Stalin and abandon West Berlin…but they feared that efforts to break through the blockade on land might lead to war… SOLUTION American and British planes began to AIRLIFT food, clothing, medicine, and fuel to West Berlin (supplying a population of 2 million) For 10 long months, the airlift continued Finally, the SOVIETS gave up and removed the blockade Berlin continued to be a city on the brink of outright war 1961, Soviet’s tried to stop the tide of East Germans fleeing to West Berlin by putting up a wall between the two sides For the next 30 yrs, the Berlin Wall served as a grim symbol of a divided Europe
NATO: THE WESTERN ALLIANCE Berlin blockade convinced the US and its allies to form a more permanent alliance for their mutual protection APRIL 1949 10 Western EU countries, the United States, and Canada formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) An attack upon any NATO country, they agreed, would be treated as an attack against them all
THE WARSAW PACT: THE EASTERN ALLIANCE The Soviet’s answer to NATO created 6 yrs later in 1955 Named after the capital of Poland, it called for military cooperation among the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and East Germany EU now officially divided into two opposing teams…
EXIT QUESTION NATO WAS FORMED TO PROTECT AND DEFEND_______________________.
THURSDAY APRIL 3 RD BR: The Soviet Union’s answer to NATO was called the ___________________. OBJECTIVE: Explain and trace the escalation of Cold War tensions resulting from the US/Soviet nuclear arms race. AGENDA: -McCarthyism Video Clip 5 min https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n-s6xqd9T8w -Cornell Notes (4 Key Terms)
MCCARTHYISM Senator Joseph McCarthy took advantage of US fears towards the Soviet’s nuclear capabilities by launching a well-publicized campaign to uncover suspected communists He accused many people of being communists and working for the Soviet gov’t The senators practice of publicly accusing people of being disloyal with little or no evidence became known as “McCarthyism”
THE ARMS RACE BEGINS While McCarthy was busy hunting for communists, President Truman announced plans to develop a hydrogen bomb This was a nuclear weapon hundreds of times more powerful than the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945 Soviets set to work to match this goal! Result= ARMS RACE: a competition to develop and manufacture more and more powerful weapons
MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION (MAD) When JFK became president in 1961, it was clear that neither side could win the arms race By then, each superpower had enough nuclear weapons to destroy the other many times over… MAD, a military policy adopted by the US, was based on the belief that Soviet leaders would not order a nuclear attack on the US if doing so meant the certain destruction of their own country SOLUTION= to build so many missiles that they could not all be wiped out by a surprise Soviet attack
PROXY WARS PROXY WARS: wars in which the superpowers backed different sides that acted as substitutes (proxies) for the superpowers themselves IMPORTANT EXAMPLES of ‘HOT” SHOOTING WARS: -The Korean War ( ) -The Vietnam War ( )
EXIT QUESTION Which 2 wars are critical examples of the Cold war turning hot?
FRIDAY APRIL 4 TH BR: According to yesterday’s lecture, what occurred during McCarthyism? What were some impacts? OBJECTIVE: Analyze the impacts of the communism in Cuba and understand how the Cold War came to an end. AGENDA: -Cornell Notes (2 Key Terms) -CNN Student News 10 min - COLLECT BELL-WORK 8pts
COMMUNISM COMES TO CUBA The United States and the Soviet Union nearly came into direct conflict over Cuba Cuban president FIDEL CASTRO was a close ally with Soviet leader NIKITA KRUSCHEV In October 1962, US spy planes photographed secret missile bases built by the Soviets in Cuba missiles launched from these bases could reach US cities in a matter of minutes OUTCOME: A peaceful agreement was made in which Soviets agreed to remove missiles from Cuba
THE END OF THE COLD WAR The eventual end of the 40 yr Cold War was made a reality by two significant leaders: US: Ronald Reagan and USSR: Mikhail Gorbachev Gorbachev came into power hoping to reform the communist system and make it work better met twice with President Reagan to discuss ways to end the arms race For the first time ever, both sides agreed to reduce the number of their nuclear weapons 1989=Berlin Wall torn down https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fK1MwhEDjHg 2:40 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fK1MwhEDjHg
THE END OF THE COLD WAR CONT’D 1991=Uprisings against communism spread to the Soviet Union itself COMMUNISM COLLAPES IN THE USSR With the end of communist rule, 9 of the 15 republics that had made up the USSR declared their independence Cold War stopped just short of a superpower shooting war…
EXIT QUESTION The Cold War ended with the collapse of ___________ in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union.