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From the Grand Alliance to Containment Cold War Politics and Truman.

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1 From the Grand Alliance to Containment Cold War Politics and Truman

2 Marshall Plan “European Recovery Plan”, US spent $13 billion to restore the economies of 16 Western European nations [which in turn helped the US economy] Soviet Union did not participate because it objected to free enterprise General George C. Marshall, Secty of State



5 “Iron Curtain” Term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”

6 Containment The foreign policy of the US to hold in check the power and influence of the Soviet Union and others espousing communism.

7 The strategy first articulated by diplomat George F. Kennan in 1946-47. Kennan believed that Stalin exaggerated foreign press to maintain power in his own country, because it was increasingly politically and economically unstable Kennan predicted that The Soviet Union would only retreat from expansionist efforts “in the face of superior force.” [containment]

8 Truman containment policy had six- pronged defense strategy: 1.Development of atomic weapons 2.Strengthen traditional military power 3.Military alliances with other nations 4.Military and economic aid to friendly nations 5.An espionage network and secret means to subvert Soviet expansion 6.a propaganda offensive to win popular admiration for the US around the world.

9 Truman Doctrine Truman’s claim that American security depended on stopping any Communist government from taking over any non- communist government, anywhere in the world. This approach became the cornerstone of American foreign policy during the Cold War.

10 What was the Cold War? Cold War: the hostile and tense relationship between the Soviet Union and the US (and other Western nations) from 1947 until 1989 “cold” because it stopped short of armed conflict, warded off by the strategy of Nuclear Deterrence

11 Deterrence the strategy of the US that it would maintain a nuclear arsenal so substantial that the Soviet Union would refrain from attacking the US and its allies out of fear that the US would retaliate in devastating proportions. The Soviets pursued a similar strategy.

12 Superpower Rivalry Around the Globe “third world” a term referring to about forty countries which had won independence but were not in the Western (first) world, nor the Soviet (second) world. 1949, communists under Mao Zedong took China, chasing Nationalists under Chang Kai-shek to Tiawan People’s Republic of China under Mao signed a treaty with Soviets

13 Rivalry, cont’ Japan rebuilt with American dollars, sides with US State of Israel established in Palestine, endorsed by US


15 Election 1948

16 Truman and the Fair Deal at Home Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy Blacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil Rights The Fair Deal Flounders The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism

17 Second “Red Scare” “Red Scare” happens after a war After the collapse of the Soviet-American alliance Suspicions of espionage “red baiting” = attempts to discredit people by associating them with communism

18 Senator Joseph R. McCarthy

19 House Un-American Activities Committee

20 The Cold War Becomes Hot: Korea A Military Implementation of Containment First time Americans go to battle for containment A militarization of American foreign policy

21 Korean War




25 Costs of the War Total civilians killed/wounded: 2.5 million South Korea: 990,968 373,599 killed 229,625 wounded 387,744 abducted/missing North Korea: 1,550,000 US: 36,000 killed, 100,000 wounded

26 US and USSR

27 Stalin died in 1953 New Soviet premier is Nikita Khrushchev Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet in 1955 in Geneva, the first time leaders from these two countries have met since WWII

28 Nuclear Arms Race and Space Race

29 Nuclear Arms Race 1957, Soviets tested ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) Fears emerged that the US was lagging behind the Soviets Signed the National Defense Act (student loan and scholarships for math science). Civil Defense Administration recommended home bomb shelters

30 Space Race 1957, Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to circle the earth The American first satellite was dubbed “Flopnik” because it exploded 1958, Eisenhower established National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

31 “Brinksmanship” and “MAD” Secty of State John Foster Dulles, America’s willingness to go to the “brink” of war as a threat “MAD” Mutually assured destruction = nuclear stand-off

32 1959 “kitchen debate” Nixon and Khrushchev Nixon: “ to make things easier for our women.” Khrushchev: we do not have the “capitalist attitude toward women.”

33 Cold War had created a warfare state “military-industrial complex” A term coined by Eisenhower in his farewell address the power and influence of the military and defense contractors who now controlled the economy nearly one of every three California workers held a defense- related job. one in every ten American jobs depended on defense spending

34 Consequences of the Cold War Shifted priorities of the federal government from domestic to foreign affairs Increased the power of the president Defense contracts encouraged economic population booms in the West and Southwest The Nuclear Arms races consumed dollars and resources, skewed the economy toward dependence on military projects Anti-communist hysteria which stifled debate, politically or socially

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