2Cold War1945 – 1991After WWII, the Soviets and the U.S. only two world powers leftSoviets want to spread CommunismU.S. wants to defend democracy
3Post World War II Views Soviets United States Encourage the spread of CommunismProtection of own interestsSATELITE NATIONS countries subject to Soviet domination in Eastern EuropeKeep Germany divided and weakUnited StatesFought the war for democracy and economic opportunity for Europe and AsiaProvide markets for productsRebuild European governments to ensure stabilityReunite Germany
4Winston Churchill, FDR, and Stalin (left to right) Origins of the Cold WarYalta ConferenceFebruary 4, 1945 Meeting between the “Big Three” (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin)Discussed strategies for the end of the war and how Europe would be divided after the war, especially PolandTemporarily divided Germany and Berlin into 4 zonesRussia agreed to allow free elections in Poland and return of Polish government in exileRussia agreed to join the United NationsWinston Churchill, FDR, and Stalin (left to right)
5United Nations April 1945 50 nations adopt charter in San Francisco Goal is to find peaceful resolutions to conflicts in the worldAll nations are members of the General Assembly11 nations make up Security CouncilU.S., Soviet Union (Russia), Britain, France and China permanent Security Council members with veto power
6Potsdam ConferenceJuly 1945 meeting between Truman and Stalin to discuss future of Germany and PolandStalin want large war reparations from Germany, U.S. refusesU.S. wants free democratic elections in Poland, won’t happen for 45 yearsTruman agrees to new border between Russia and PolandTruman tells Stalin about the atomic bomb
7Iron CurtainWinston Churchill’s term for the extension of Communist control across Eastern Europe after WWII
8Division of Germany1949 Soviet zone becomes the Republic of East GermanyRemaining three zones become West GermanyBerlin, located in the Soviet zone, divided as well into East and West BerlinBerlin Airlift – Massive supply effort for West Berlin by the U.S. after Soviets cut off access.From the website:
9ContainmentGeorge Kennan’s policy that expressed the need to keep Communism from spreadingCommunism would collapse if it could be contained
10The Truman Doctrine1947 declaration by President Truman stating that the U.S. would support nations that were threatened by Communist aggressionCommunist aggression in Turkey and GreeceU.S. takes over leadership role in the world from Britain
11Marshall Plan Created in 1947 by Secretary of State George C. Marshall Called for European countries to create an economic plan for recovery from the war. The U.S. would then support them with financial aid.GoalsCombat CommunismEconomic recovery = strong democraciesCreate markets for American goods$13 billion in 4 years in Western Europe
12NATO and Warsaw PactNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – Alliance formed by the U.S., Canada, France, Great Britain, and other Western European nations pledging to support one another in the event of a Soviet invasion.Warsaw Pact – Soviets response to NATO, formed an alliance with Eastern European nations.
13Korean WarJune 25, 1950 Communist North Korea crosses the 38th Parallel and invades South KoreaU.S. immediately sends troops in accordance with the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containmentEarly fighting disastrous for South Koreans and U.S.Inchon Landing – September 15, 1950 MacArthur launches an amphibious assault on port of Inchon near Seoul.U.S. forces push North Koreans back across the 38th ParallelTruman orders MacArthur to invade North KoreaU.S. forces push North Koreans to the Chinese border
14Korea con’tChinese forces come to the aid of North Koreans, push U.S. forces backStalemate at the 38th ParallelTruman wants to negotiate peaceMacArthur refuses, demands the Chinese surrender or face invasionWanted to use the atomic bombTruman fires MacArthur for insubordinationTwo more years of fighting
15End of the Korean War July 1953 an armistice is signed ending the war War ends in a stalemateEstablished a permanent border between North and South KoreaEstablished a demilitarized zone between the two nations54,000 Americans killed, 1.5 million North Koreans$67 billion spent on war by the U.S.
16The Second Red Scare1950’s Americans began to fear Communism was spreading in the U.S.Reason for the scare:Chinese Communist forces under Mao Zedong took control of China in 1949Americans Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of selling atomic bomb secrets to the SovietsNuclear weapons developed by the SovietsFBI began spying on suspected CommunistsHouse Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – Congressional committee established to investigate individuals and organizations suspected of being CommunistHundreds in Hollywood industry suspected of Communist activities resulting in blacklisting.
17McCarthyismSenator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin claimed communists were taking over the American governmentClaimed to have a list of individuals, but had little evidence to back up the claims1954 he claimed that Communists had infiltrated the army, public hearing proved he had not backing for his claims. Loses public support.
18Further Government Actions Against Communism The Loyalty Acts - required federal employees to remove any worker who had any connection with a communist organizationThe McCarran Act – forced communist groups to register with the attorney general and restricted immigration of potential communists.
19Arms RaceH-bomb “Hydrogen Bomb” 67 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on JapanRace between the U.S. and Soviets to create the first H-bombNovember 1, 1952 U.S explodes first H-bombAugust 1953 Soviets explode their first H-bombU.S. budget reduced for traditional military and increased for the development of nuclear weaponsBrinkmanship – President Eisenhower's willingness to go to the very edge of nuclear war if necessaryFear of nuclear war became part of the American way of life
20Space RaceOctober 4, 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik the first artificial satellite to orbit the earthRaises fears of ICBM’s (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) – missiles that could travel from the Russia to the U.S.January 31, 1958 first launch of a successful U.S. satellite into orbitU.S. creates NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration) to increase potential space exploration
21Kennedy and the Cold War John F. Kennedy elected president in 1960 defeating Richard NixonCenterpiece of his foreign policy was anticommunismCreated idea of “flexible response”Wanted to balance traditional military with nuclear powerIncreased defense spending on traditional military ratherCreated special forces units
22The Bay of Pigs 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Cuban government Castro turns to Soviet Union for aid and CommunismMarch 1960 CIA begins training 1500 Cuban exiles for an invasion of CubaApril 17, 1961 invasion launched which failed miserablyU.S. was humiliated and embarrassed because of the failure and support for the invasion
23Berlin Crisis East Germans fled to West Berlin away from Communism August 13, 1961 East Germans begin construction on the Berlin Wall to surround West BerlinKeep East Germans from “escaping”Wall becomes a symbol for Communist oppression
25Cuban Missile CrisisOctober 14, 1962 U.S. intelligence photos show Soviets nuclear missiles in CubaKennedy demands Soviets remove missilesQuarantine of Cuba establishedSoviets warned any ships that tried to cross through the blockade would be fired uponAny actions against the U.S. from Cuba would trigger an automatic nuclear response on the Soviet UnionOctober 28 an agreement is reached between Kennedy and KhrushchevSoviets remove missiles from Cuba and Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba
30U.S. Soviet AgreementsHot line – direct phone line established between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin for quick communications in times of crisisLimited Test Ban Treaty – U.S. and Soviet Union agree to ban nuclear testing in the atmosphere.