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The Cold War 1945 -1991.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945 -1991."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Cold War 1945 – 1991 After WWII, the Soviets and the U.S. only two world powers left Soviets want to spread Communism U.S. wants to defend democracy

3 Post World War II Views Soviets United States
Encourage the spread of Communism Protection of own interests SATELITE NATIONS countries subject to Soviet domination in Eastern Europe Keep Germany divided and weak United States Fought the war for democracy and economic opportunity for Europe and Asia Provide markets for products Rebuild European governments to ensure stability Reunite Germany

4 Winston Churchill, FDR, and Stalin (left to right)
Origins of the Cold War Yalta Conference February 4, 1945 Meeting between the “Big Three” (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin) Discussed strategies for the end of the war and how Europe would be divided after the war, especially Poland Temporarily divided Germany and Berlin into 4 zones Russia agreed to allow free elections in Poland and return of Polish government in exile Russia agreed to join the United Nations Winston Churchill, FDR, and Stalin (left to right)

5 United Nations April 1945 50 nations adopt charter in San Francisco
Goal is to find peaceful resolutions to conflicts in the world All nations are members of the General Assembly 11 nations make up Security Council U.S., Soviet Union (Russia), Britain, France and China permanent Security Council members with veto power

6 Potsdam Conference July 1945 meeting between Truman and Stalin to discuss future of Germany and Poland Stalin want large war reparations from Germany, U.S. refuses U.S. wants free democratic elections in Poland, won’t happen for 45 years Truman agrees to new border between Russia and Poland Truman tells Stalin about the atomic bomb

7 Iron Curtain Winston Churchill’s term for the extension of Communist control across Eastern Europe after WWII

8 Division of Germany 1949 Soviet zone becomes the Republic of East Germany Remaining three zones become West Germany Berlin, located in the Soviet zone, divided as well into East and West Berlin Berlin Airlift – Massive supply effort for West Berlin by the U.S. after Soviets cut off access. From the website:

9 Containment George Kennan’s policy that expressed the need to keep Communism from spreading Communism would collapse if it could be contained

10 The Truman Doctrine 1947 declaration by President Truman stating that the U.S. would support nations that were threatened by Communist aggression Communist aggression in Turkey and Greece U.S. takes over leadership role in the world from Britain

11 Marshall Plan Created in 1947 by Secretary of State George C. Marshall
Called for European countries to create an economic plan for recovery from the war. The U.S. would then support them with financial aid. Goals Combat Communism Economic recovery = strong democracies Create markets for American goods $13 billion in 4 years in Western Europe

12 NATO and Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – Alliance formed by the U.S., Canada, France, Great Britain, and other Western European nations pledging to support one another in the event of a Soviet invasion. Warsaw Pact – Soviets response to NATO, formed an alliance with Eastern European nations.

13 Korean War June 25, 1950 Communist North Korea crosses the 38th Parallel and invades South Korea U.S. immediately sends troops in accordance with the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment Early fighting disastrous for South Koreans and U.S. Inchon Landing – September 15, 1950 MacArthur launches an amphibious assault on port of Inchon near Seoul. U.S. forces push North Koreans back across the 38th Parallel Truman orders MacArthur to invade North Korea U.S. forces push North Koreans to the Chinese border

14 Korea con’t Chinese forces come to the aid of North Koreans, push U.S. forces back Stalemate at the 38th Parallel Truman wants to negotiate peace MacArthur refuses, demands the Chinese surrender or face invasion Wanted to use the atomic bomb Truman fires MacArthur for insubordination Two more years of fighting

15 End of the Korean War July 1953 an armistice is signed ending the war
War ends in a stalemate Established a permanent border between North and South Korea Established a demilitarized zone between the two nations 54,000 Americans killed, 1.5 million North Koreans $67 billion spent on war by the U.S.

16 The Second Red Scare 1950’s Americans began to fear Communism was spreading in the U.S. Reason for the scare: Chinese Communist forces under Mao Zedong took control of China in 1949 Americans Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of selling atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets Nuclear weapons developed by the Soviets FBI began spying on suspected Communists House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – Congressional committee established to investigate individuals and organizations suspected of being Communist Hundreds in Hollywood industry suspected of Communist activities resulting in blacklisting.

17 McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin claimed communists were taking over the American government Claimed to have a list of individuals, but had little evidence to back up the claims 1954 he claimed that Communists had infiltrated the army, public hearing proved he had not backing for his claims. Loses public support.

18 Further Government Actions Against Communism
The Loyalty Acts - required federal employees to remove any worker who had any connection with a communist organization The McCarran Act – forced communist groups to register with the attorney general and restricted immigration of potential communists.

19 Arms Race H-bomb “Hydrogen Bomb” 67 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan Race between the U.S. and Soviets to create the first H-bomb November 1, 1952 U.S explodes first H-bomb August 1953 Soviets explode their first H-bomb U.S. budget reduced for traditional military and increased for the development of nuclear weapons Brinkmanship – President Eisenhower's willingness to go to the very edge of nuclear war if necessary Fear of nuclear war became part of the American way of life

20 Space Race October 4, 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth Raises fears of ICBM’s (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) – missiles that could travel from the Russia to the U.S. January 31, 1958 first launch of a successful U.S. satellite into orbit U.S. creates NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration) to increase potential space exploration

21 Kennedy and the Cold War
John F. Kennedy elected president in 1960 defeating Richard Nixon Centerpiece of his foreign policy was anticommunism Created idea of “flexible response” Wanted to balance traditional military with nuclear power Increased defense spending on traditional military rather Created special forces units

22 The Bay of Pigs 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Cuban government
Castro turns to Soviet Union for aid and Communism March 1960 CIA begins training 1500 Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba April 17, 1961 invasion launched which failed miserably U.S. was humiliated and embarrassed because of the failure and support for the invasion

23 Berlin Crisis East Germans fled to West Berlin away from Communism
August 13, 1961 East Germans begin construction on the Berlin Wall to surround West Berlin Keep East Germans from “escaping” Wall becomes a symbol for Communist oppression

24 Promise of the Moon

25 Cuban Missile Crisis October 14, 1962 U.S. intelligence photos show Soviets nuclear missiles in Cuba Kennedy demands Soviets remove missiles Quarantine of Cuba established Soviets warned any ships that tried to cross through the blockade would be fired upon Any actions against the U.S. from Cuba would trigger an automatic nuclear response on the Soviet Union October 28 an agreement is reached between Kennedy and Khrushchev Soviets remove missiles from Cuba and Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba





30 U.S. Soviet Agreements Hot line – direct phone line established between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin for quick communications in times of crisis Limited Test Ban Treaty – U.S. and Soviet Union agree to ban nuclear testing in the atmosphere.

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