Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR ERA Section 1 Cold War Origins FDR (U.S.), Churchill (Britain), and Stalin (U.S.S.R.) met in Yalta (a resort town in the Crimea) February."— Presentation transcript:
THE COLD WAR ERA Section 1 Cold War Origins
FDR (U.S.), Churchill (Britain), and Stalin (U.S.S.R.) met in Yalta (a resort town in the Crimea) February 4-11, 1945 to discuss post war plans. They think they can appease me with a few territories “The Big Three”
“They want to force us to accept their plans on Europe and the world. Well, that’s not going to happen.” Stalin Stalin does agree to enter the war against Japan in exchange for territories in Asia. But he does not agree with changes in Europe that are designed to help spread democracy and a free market economy.
GERMANY DIVIDED The U.S., Britain, France, and the U.S.S.R. would divide and occupy Germany until elections could be held to determine its future.
UNITED NATIONS One of Truman’s first decisions as president was to go ahead with the meeting to form the new international organization discussed at Yalta. On June 26, 1945, in San Fransico, CA, 50 nations signed the charter creating the United Nations. The members hoped the UN could settle disputes between nations and prevent future wars.
SOVIET EXPANSION Stalin does not keep his promises to hold free elections in Eastern Europe. Instead the Soviets establish a Communist government and command economy in those countries where Soviet forces remained.
IRON CURTAIN Churchill believed the division between east and west to be permanent. He used the term, iron curtain, to describe the Soviet control of eastern European countries. March 1946 Fulton, Missouri commencement ceremony at Westminster College
POLICY OF CONTAINMENT Truman Doctrine supported the idea of containing communism in existing states. “I believe that it must be the policy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation (conquest) by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” Harry Truman
THE MARSHALL PLAN U.S. Secretary of State, George Marshall believed the best way to keep countries from turning to communism was to help restore their economies and rebuild their cities.
SO WHAT IS A “COLD WAR?” Two countries that are enemies, but do not fight each other directly is known as a cold war. Each country used its military resources to help support third world country’s wars between democracy and communism.
INDEPENDENT MOVEMENTS The state of Israel is created in 1947 when the U.N. General Assembly divided Palestine into independent Jewish and Arab states. Jerusalem is declared an international city since both faiths claim it is as a holy site.
COMMUNISM IN CHINA One of the most threatening changes during the Cold War was the change in government to Communism in China. 10/1/49, Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People’s Republic of China.
SECTION 2 POSTWAR POLITICS After WWII, the economy had to adjust to peacetime industry. Changes had to be made from production of war materials to consumer goods, and returning soldiers searching for work created an unbalanced economy. In addition, when the gov’t. removed price controls, along with increased consumer demand, prices of goods began to go up resulting in an inflation.
SERVICEMEN’S READJUSTMENT ACT 1944 bill passed by Congress to provide billions of dollars in loans to help returning soldiers, to attend college, receive special training, set up businesses, buy homes, as well as providing unemployment and health benefits as they looked for jobs. How is this different from soldiers returning from WWI?
TRUMAN’S FAIR DEAL Truman presented to Congress a plan of domestic reforms aimed at solving some the economic problems. He wanted to raise minimum wage, expand Social Security benefits, increase federal spending to create jobs, build new public housing, and create a system of national health insurance. Sound familiar?
TAFT-HARTLEY BILL Republican controlled Congress wanted to reverse Truman’s programs and limit gov’t spending, reduce gov’t regulations of the economy and control labor unions. The Taft-Hartley bill limited actions workers could take against their employers. It outlawed the closed shop, a workplace that hires only union members. Taft Hartley also allowed the gov’t. to temporarily stop any strike that endangered public health or safety. Union members called it the “slave labor bill.” Truman vetoed the bill but Congress overrode his veto.
ELECTION OF 1948 The presidential election of 1948 had been predicted to go to Republican candidate Thomas Dewey. Although Democrats did not like Harry Truman, they’d rather see a Democrat in office than a Republican. Why do you think people preferred a Democrat in office as opposed to a Republican? Harry Truman won the presidential election of 1948 surprisingly with only 4% more of the popular votes but by 22% electoral votes.
CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE
A STAND FOR CIVIL RIGHTS Truman ordered federal departments and agencies to end job discrimination against African Americans and ordered the armed forces to desegregate. “We shall not, however, finally achieve the ideals for which this nation was founded so long as any American suffers discrimination as a result of his race, or religion, or color, or the land of origin of his forefathers.” –President Truman to Congress page 800 (you will see this quote again, hint, hint)
SECTION 3 THE KOREAN CONFLICT In 1945, Korea was a colony of Japan. After the war, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. sent troops to Korea and agreed to occupy it temporarily. The Korean peninsula was divided at the 38 th parallel of latitude with the Soviets occupying the North and the U.S. occupying the South.
INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA After U.S. troops went home in 1950, North Korea decided to unify the country by force. Communist soldiers captured the capital city of Seoul within days of invading. Truman asked the U.N. to send forces to defend South Koreans. General Douglas McArthur led the U.N. forces to stop the Communist advance.
THE FORGOTTEN WAR Communist China supported N. Korea in their military efforts by sending thousands of troops to drive the U.N. forces back into S. Korea.
AND THE WINNER IS…. After a stalemate occurred between N. and S. Korea, Gen. McArthur advised Truman to attack China. Truman decided to relieve McArthur of his duties as Commander of the U.N. Forces. “Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.” Gen. Douglas McArthur to Congress After two years of negotiations, a cease-fire and a demilitarized zone is established between N. and S. Korea, but no treaty has ever been signed. 54,246 American casualties
N. & S. KOREA AT NIGHT What does this night image of North and South Korea tell you about the difference in the two countries in regards to their economy, society and government?
SECTION 4 THE RED SCARE Moral panic: When people develop a fear something will happen to them that has been reported by the news. For example, when the news reports of an outbreak of the flu, people will take more precautions by not going out as much, or washing their hands more often. The Red Scare was a moral panic created by the media. Many Americans were afraid Communist spies and sympathizers were aiding in the take over of the U.S. They would report to the gov’t anyone they suspected of being Communist or sympathetic to communism.
Would you report a neighbor or friend you suspected of plotting against the government? Why or why not?
1947 Congressional committee, the House Un- American Activities Committee (HUAC) began investigating communist subversion in the nation. Investigations of the Hollywood film industry ruined many careers when blacklists were created naming those who would not cooperate with the gov’t McCarran Act required all Communist organizations to register with the gov’t. and to provide lists of its members.
One of the most dramatic spy cases involved Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, a New York couple accused of planning to send secret information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. They were both convicted and sentenced to death. The judge in the case declared their crime, “worse than murder.”
JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBURG
MCCARTHYISM From the hunt for Communists was dominated by Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin. McCarthy’s unfounded accusations destroyed the careers of many innocent Americans and increased the hysteria of Communist infiltration among society. When McCarthy began an investigation into the U.S. Army with televised hearings, many people began to view him as a cruel bully who had nothing to base his accusations on.