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Presentation on theme: "COLD WAR."— Presentation transcript:


2 Warm-Up: Grab Packet & Define vocab at top of page 1
Schedule Warm-Up PowerPoint Cold War Europe Map Primary Source Analysis—Iron Curtain, Stalin’s Rebuttal Closure: How did the Cold War come about? How did the Cold War escalate? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 1

3 Origins of the Cold War After WWII ended, political relationships became tenuous US and Soviet Union allied against Nazi Germany (world threat) After war, didn’t trust each other  political + economic differences The future of Eastern Europe was the most contentious issue

4 US & Soviets accused each other of trying to conquer these states
As Soviet Union was pushing back Nazis armies on the eastern front, they came to control various European countries Stalin promised US and Britain to hold free elections Instead he installed communist governments US & Soviets accused each other of trying to conquer these states The alliance deteriorated into a 40+ year feud  Cold War No direct fighting between US and Soviet Union If US was fighting, Soviet Union supply enemy and vice versa Other countries were battleground for supremacy  Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, Afghanistan

5 Berlin airlift First showdown between US and Soviet Union
1945, Allies agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones  British, French, American & Soviet Western countries merged their zones to planned to create West Germany Stalin worried West Germany would threaten Soviet Union

6 German capital, Berlin, was in Soviet zone
But city was divided into East and West Berlin 1948, Stalin blocked all routes into Berlin Wanted to starve people in West Berlin and force them to accept communism and Soviet rule

7 In response, President Truman ordered air-force to drop food, fuel & equipment into the city
Lasted for a full year  Stalin gave up blockade Divided Germany  East Germany (communist) v. West Germany (democratic)

8 Truman’s strategy in Cold War was containment—stop spread of communism through military and nonmilitary ways Truman Doctrine—promise help to countries fighting to keep democracy Marshall Plan—tried to stop spread of communism by helping Europe’s economy ($13 billion)

9 1949, countries formed NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  fight communism
US, Canada, Western European countries In response, Soviet Union and Eastern European countries formed their own military alliance—Warsaw Pact


11 Warm-Up: Truman doctrine pro/con  pages 6-7
Schedule Warm-Up PowerPoint Reading Analysis—Immigrant Bill & HUAC interrogation of Walt Disney Closure: How did the US domestically change post WWII (5-6 things)? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 1

12 Peacetime adjustments: workers
After war, most industries reduced work forces Factories closed & thousands of workers (mostly women) laid off In addition, 10 million veterans needed jobs They replaced many women workers Women went back to more traditional jobs (nursing, teaching) During WWII, unions agreed not to strike or ask for raises But 1946, 4 million union workers went on strike (better pay) President Harry S. Truman threatened to break it up Strike settled before he did

13 Peacetime adjustments: economy
Instead of slowing down, postwar economy boomed People wanted to purchase goods they could not during war Increased demand for goods = higher prices High demand for houses after war William Levitt used assembly-line techniques to mass-produce cheap houses

14 Peacetime adjustments: civil rights
African Americans (especially veterans) hoped for better equality after war But little changed In South, blacks were threatened or killed if tried to vote So Truman created civil rights commission Also outlawed racial segregation & discrimination in military This was US govt.’s 1st attempt to deal w/ racial issues Truman then proposed Fair Deal – extension of New Deal Called for new housing & jobs & end to racial discrimination in hiring Congress fought against him – ruined most of his plans

15 Cold war at home: red scare
Many Americans feared communism would spread inside U.S. Two famous spy trials confirmed their fears Alger Hiss (former State Dept. official) accused of passing military secrets to Soviets Jailed for perjury (lying under oath) in 1950 Ethel & Julius Rosenberg (American Communist Party) convicted for giving atomic bomb secrets to Russians Both were executed 1953

16 1947, Truman had 4 million govt. workers undergo loyalty checks
Several thousand workers forced to resign House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) started targeting movie industry Many careers ruined by blacklists – unofficial lists of suspected Communists Fear of communism spread through America in 1950s

17 Warm-Up: read 2 documents on pages 12-13 and answer questions
Schedule Warm-Up Majestic clip—Blacklist PowerPoint Reading Analysis—McCarthy’s Wheeling Speech, HUAC testimonies, American spy files Closure: What impact did McCarthyism have in shaping US history? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 2

18 Joseph McCarthy Senator Joseph McCarthy was Republican
He led fight against Communist conspirators Thousands of people lost jobs & reputations b/c of him

19 McCarthyism & communism
Senator Joseph McCarthy used America’s frustration w/ govt.’s efforts to stop communism February 1950, McCarthy said he had list of 205 State Dept. officials who were Communists Charges were never proven His claims launched hunt for communists, ruining lives of thousands of people McCarthyism – reckless charges against innocent citizens

20 Army-McCarthy hearings
1954, Senate held televised hearings McCarthy accused army of “coddling Communists” Army lawyer asked McCarthy: “Have you no sense of decency?” Senate criticized McCarthy’s behavior He eventually faded out of the spotlight

21 Warm-Up: political cartoon analysis on page 20
Schedule Warm-Up PowerPoint McArthur v. Truman Modern Korean Conflict Crisis Closure: How does Korean War in the 1950s relate to current history? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 2 Quiz Tuesday

22 Cold war & Korea Following Japan’s defeat in 1945, Soviet troops occupied Korea north of the 38th parallel while US troops occupied area south of the line By agreement, both Soviet and American forces withdrew from Korea in 1948 By this time, Korea had been practically separated at 38th parallel into two distinct countries: Communist North Democratic South

23 1949, Chinese Communist Party (led by Mao Tse Tung) defeated Nationalists in civil war in China
Nationalists (led by Chang Kai-shek)fled to Taiwan (island off coast of China) American fear of communism continued to grow  Domino Theory Events in Korea only increased these fears

24 Conflict erupts in Korea
June 1950, North Korean forces crossed 38th parallel into South Korea Truman saw this as threat to containment U.S. asked United Nations to stop Communists In the Korean War, U.N. supplied soldiers from 16 countries U.S. troops made up most of force Led by WWII hero General Douglas MacArthur North Koreans forces close in around tip of South Korea MacArthur landed troops at Inchon (behind N. Korean lines)

25 China enters the war Surrounded, N. Korean forces retreated
UN forces pushed them back to Yalu River (boundary of Communist China) China thought UN threatening them – China threatened to enter war if US continue advancing MacArthur ignored them

26 November 25, 1950, hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers entered N
November 25, 1950, hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers entered N. Korea By early 1951, both sides stuck at 38th parallel MacArthur wanted to bomb & blockade China Truman said no (worried it would cause Soviet Union to join war) MacArthur disagreed & criticized Truman publicly Truman fired MacArthur & told him to come back to US


28 War ends in stalemate Truman started truce talks July 1951
1952 election: Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower – criticized war He promised quick end to war Democrat Adlai Stevenson – lost in landslide Eisenhower kept his promise He compromised w/ N. Koreans & Chinese to end war But he warned them he was ready to use nuclear weapons N. & S. Korea remained split even after war South Korea, US & N Korea sign truce NOT peace treaty  still technically at war

29 Cnn
Kim clip, Missile Capability clip, Military hotline clip -Strong response clip, public sentiment clip, Ready for war clip

30 Warm-Up: Truman Doctrine v. brinkmanship doctrine page 23
Schedule Warm-Up PowerPoint US Interactions Readings  Guatemala & Egypt Closure: How does the Cold War have global implications? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 2 Quiz tomorrow

31 Arms race Eisenhower’s Secretary of State – John Foster Dulles – did not like containment He said US would go to brink of war to fight communism – brinksmanship 1949, US learned Soviet Union had made an atomic bomb Two countries began an arms race – developing weapons w/ more destructive power 1952, US built a hydrogen bomb – H-bomb 1955, Soviets tested own bomb Fear caused both sides to build up nuclear weapons

32 Foreign intrigues: Cuba
US & Soviet Union both tried to help allies & weaken enemies (readings) US attempts a coup in Cuba US was friends with dictator Batista who favored US businesses and interests  Cuban majority impoverished and suffering Fidel Castro in 1953 charged the government with corruption and tyranny and led revolution based on communist ideology Redistribute land to poor Take businesses and land away from US companies and give to Cuban people (nationalization) so Cuban can profit

33 President Kennedy ordered Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961
Use ex-Cuba exiles to overthrow Castro’s government Easily stopped  Huge humiliation for US Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev + Castro believed US try again in  Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 Soviet Union begin sending Cuba nuclear missiles (only 90 miles from Florida)

34 US response US establish naval blockade around Cuba (to stop shipments) demand Soviet Union remove others claim that if the Soviets continue, there will be war Soviet Union demanded that the US remove their missiles in the Middle East aimed at the USSR while sending a ship with more nukes to Cuba Last minute dealing to prevent WWIII  US agreed to not attack Cuba, Soviet Union agreed to take nukes out of Cuba

35 Space race 1957, two superpowers began space race
Soviet Union launched Sputnik – 1st space satellite US was shocked – scientists scrambled to catch up Congress set aside billions for space research + education reform (science & math)

36 U-2 incident Eisenhower wanted to ease tension by talking w/ Soviet Union But two weeks before meeting Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, Soviets shot down American U-2 spy plane Eisenhower denied the pilot was spying – until he found out pilot was captured Khrushchev demanded apology – Eisenhower said no

37 Warm-Up: Cold War quiz Schedule
Cold War and US society in the 1950s Assignment reading & questions Closure: How does the Cold War have global implications? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 3

38 Warm-Up: grab dbq from cart
Schedule Warm-Up Cold War DBQ Outline + Begin writing  Wednesday Finish Essay  Thursday Closure: How was the Cold War illustrated around the world and how was the US impacted as a result? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 3 Outside information (3 pieces)

39 Warm-Up: answer question on page 28
Schedule Warm-Up PowerPoint 1950s Commercial Analysis Closure: How did America stay the same/change in the 1950s? Assignment: Assignment Packet page 3 Cold War Test Wednesday

40 Eisenhower’s presidency brought growth & prosperity
American dream Eisenhower’s presidency brought growth & prosperity This prosperity allowed many people to achieve “American dream”

41 1950s prosperity Eisenhower hated govt. spending
But he kept most New Deal programs Expanded Social Security Created Dept. of Health, Education, & Welfare Increased minimum wage & started new programs Highway Act of 1956 – spent $32 billion to build 41,000 miles of roads This act started highway system in America After war, many wanted comfortable, secure life Strong economy allowed them to buy new goods, get married, start families, move to new areas

42 Baby boomers & suburbization
During 1950s, US population grew by 30 million This growth came from baby boom – sharp increase in US birthrate after WWII Baby boom led to growth of suburbs – residential areas surrounding a city Families left crowded cities for larger, single-family homes As suburbs grew, car sales increased 1946 – 28 million cars 1960 – 60 million cars

43 A surge of Americans moved from N & E to S & W
This movement to Sun Belt increased population of warmer states By 1970, California was most populous state

44 consumerism For millions of white Americans, life in suburbs was American dream Advertising industry convinced consumers to buy new products TV & magazine ads showed perfect homes w/ washing machines, vacuum cleaners, TVs, record players

45 Social conformity Critics argued Americans being forced to conform – go along w/ ideas & beliefs of majority Magazines praised women for being housewives But not all women liked this role Only jobs open to women – nursing, teaching, office work Allen Ginsberg & Jack Kerouac led group of writers who resisted conformity These “beatniks” gave speeches & wrote songs attacking society

46 Not everyone had good life in 1950s Many people lived in poverty
Those left behind Not everyone had good life in 1950s Many people lived in poverty

47 Neglected cities 1957, 1/5 of Americans were poor (most lived in cities) As Americans moved to suburbs, shops & businesses moved with them Fewer people stayed in cities (meant less tax money for roads, firehouses, garbage) W/ no one to care for them, cities began to decay

48 The forgotten poor 1950s, immigration from Mexico increased (many illegal) Others came in bracero – temporary worker – program Found jobs on farms for low wages & bad living conditions Employers took advantage of them – long hours for little pay

49 A new generation of Americans
Some Americans enjoyed economic prosperity Teenagers loved new form of entertainment – rock ‘n’ roll music Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Fats Domino & other black musicians had as much success as white musicians like Jerry Lee Lewis But the most popular was Elvis Presley – king of rock ‘n’ roll

50 TV 1950s, Hollywood produced westerns, musicals, & romances
But movie attendance fell as more people watched TV 1960s, 9/10 of American homes had TV Kids watched Lassie, The Mickey Mouse Club, The Lone Ranger I Love Lucy was one of most popular shows Most shows in 1950s showed perfect wives keeping perfect homes But they were unrealistic

51 YOUTHFUL PRESIDENT 1960, John F. Kennedy (Democrat from Mass.) ran for president against Republican Richard Nixon Kennedy promised to “get this country moving again” Kennedy & Nixon had 1st televised presidential debates These debates helped Kennedy win one of closest elections in history

52 Warm-Up: answer question on page 31
Schedule Warm-Up Reading Analysis—Good Housekeeping v. Feminine Mystique Lone Rancher episode analysis Closure: How were women impacted by the 1950s? Assignment: Cold War Test Wednesday

53 1950s American society lone ranger How does this portray Native Americans? How does the Long Ranger symbolize America? I Love Lucy—gender

54 Warm-Up: pick up review packet
Schedule Warm-Up Collaborate work on review packet Class discussion Closure: How did the Cold War begin, escalate, and impact the US? Assignment: Cold War Test tomorrow

55 Warm-Up: pick up SCANTRON ON CART
Schedule Warm-Up COLD WAR EXAM Closure: How did the Cold War begin, escalate, and impact the US? Assignment: Cold War Test tomorrow

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