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Baltimore Polytechnic Institute April 22, 2014 A Course U.S. History Mr. Green.

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Presentation on theme: "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute April 22, 2014 A Course U.S. History Mr. Green."— Presentation transcript:

1 Baltimore Polytechnic Institute April 22, 2014 A Course U.S. History Mr. Green

2 Objectives: Indicate how America reacted to Pearl Harbor and prepared to wage war against both Germany and Japan. Describe the mobilization of the American economy for war and the mobilization of manpower and womanpower for both the military and wartime production. Describe the war’s effects on American society, including regional migration, race relations, and women’s roles. Explain the early Japanese successes in East Asia and the Pacific, and the American strategy for countering them. AP Focus Early in the war, Germany, Japan, and Italy have considerable military success. The Allies, except for France, which had surrendered in 1940, are fortunate not to be overwhelmed completely. Fearing that they will be disloyal, President Roosevelt orders the detention of Japanese Americans, a serious violation of basic American civil rights.

3 Demobilization What should we do with all of these returning vets? GI Bill Inflation Real GNP decreased in 1946 and 1947 33% in 46 and 47 price controls removed Employment act of 1946 created council of economic advisors promote maximum employment, production and purchasing power

4 Labor increase in strikes Taft-Hartley banned the closed shop unions liable loyalty oaths Operation Dixie-attempt to unionize the South Baby Boom 50 million babies by the end of the 1950’s

5 Yalta February 1945 Japan lost land-Sakhalin Island, Kurile Island Russia gained land-Port Arthur, Dairen, RR control in Manchuria undermined Chiang Russia agreed to attack Japan U.N. April 25, 1945 in San Fran Security Council can veto Bretton Woods, 1944 World Bank International Monetary Fund Nuremberg Trials European occupation-Berlin Airlift May 1948-May 1949 Truman Doctrine-1947 NATO-April 1949-an attack on 1 is an attack on all

6 Democrats nominate Harry Truman Republicans nominate Thomas Dewey, again Dixiecrats nominate Strom Thurmond of SC Progressive Party-Henry Wallace Truman-303 electoral votes Dewey-189 Thurmond-39 Popular Vote 24,179,345 for Truman, 21,991,291 for Dewey, 1,176,125 for Thurmond and 1,157,326 for Wallace Dems took Congress

7 The Cold War 4 and ½ decades molded societies/economies overshadowed entire postwar international order Containment in Europe George Kennan-Russia relentlessly expansionary could be stopped by “firm and vigilant containment” Truman Doctrine-$400 million to Greece/Turkey Pro-America/Pro-Russia sides Any dictator could get support to fight communism Marshall Plan-July 1947 political reforms/certain outside controls USSR walked out 12,5 billion over 4 years Appropriated April 1948 after Czechoslovakia communist coup

8 The Middle East Stalin broke an agreement to remove troops from Iran aided a rebel movement Truman recognized Israel on May 14, 1948 National Security Act of 1947 Department of Defense Joint Chiefs of Staff replaced the uniformed heads of each service branch National Security Council CIA Selective Service Act brought back in 1948 U.S. joined NATO on April 4, 1949

9 Containment in Asia 7 top Japanese officials hanged and 18 to prison terms MacArthur Constitution, 1946 China Mao Zedong forced Chiang to Taiwan (Formosa) ¼ of world’s population now Communist Soviets exploded 1 st nuke in September 1949 Moved Truman to initiate the H-Bomb

10 U-2 Incident

11 HUAC Alger Hiss Case accused of being a communist agent caught on lies/convicted of perjury McCarran Internal Security Act authorized the President to arrest and detain suspicious people during an “internal security emergency”-vetoed by Truman and overridden Rosenberg Case-convicted in 1951 of espionage and executed in 1953 McCarthy Witch-Hunt

12 McCarran-Walter Immigration Act Expanded the definition of the United States to include territories Allowed the U.S. to deport people that were “subversives” (i.e. Communists)

13 Korea peninsula a Japanese colony since 1910 38 th parallel decided after WWII June 25, 1950-North Korea crossed the 38 th Truman said it proved the “containment doctrine” NSC-68:U.S. quadruple its defense spending 3.5 million men ready $50 billion/year or 13% of GNP U.S.S.R. absent from the U.N. on June 25 Truman did not consult Congress Sent MacArthur and American air and naval forces Police action

14 MacArthur attacked at Inchon-behind enemy lines Attack pushed North Koreans back behind the 38 th South Koreans kept going north and the U.N. authorized a crossing “have the boys home by Christmas” not so fast MacArthur wanted to: 1. Blockade the Chinese coast 2. Bomb bases in Manchuria 3. Tactical nuclear weapons on Southern Chinese coast MacArthur then relieved of his duties when he spoke out publicly against Truman

15 1. Continue1940’s decade chart 2. Complete the Korean Conflict chart

16 Read Chapter 37 Prepare for 5 question reading check on Thursday

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