2A similarity between the Red Scare of the 1920’s and McCarthyism in the 1950’s was that during each periodthousands of American citizens were expelled from the United Statesthe Communist Party gained many members in the United Statesmany government employees were convicted of giving secrets to the Soviet Unionthe civil liberties of American citizens were threatened
3Which situation resulted from Senator Joseph McCarthy’s search for Communists within the United States during the 1950’s?Thousands of American citizens who believed in communism were either jailed or deported.The reputations of many people were ruined by false accusations of disloyaltyMany high-ranking government officials were exposed as spies of the Soviet Union.Organized groups of Communists began a wave of violent political terrorism.
4The successful launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 signaled the beginning of American fears that the Soviets had achieved technological superioritythe Cold War with the United StatesSoviet aggression in Afghanistan and Chinadisarmament discussions between the superpowers
5Most Americans who opposed sending United States troops to fight in the Vietnam War believed that nuclear weapons should be used to end the warthe war should be extended into Chinathe United States should not police the worldinternational trade would be interrupted
6The Berlin Wall was constructed China became communist in 1949 The US belief in the Domino Theory gained momentum whenThe Berlin Wall was constructedChina became communist in 1949The U2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet UnionJulius & Ethel Rosenberg were put to death
7What was the main purpose of the GI Bill passed by Congress shortly before the end of World War II? to offer low-interest loans to the defense industryto provide economic aid to veteransto contain the spread of international communismto expand career opportunities in the military
8What does this photograph indicate about the United States in the 1950s? Extraordinary steps were taken to hide atomic weapons.The nation had become the only nuclear superpower.Much fear was created by the Cold War.Only government officials would be safe in a nuclear attack.
9The changes shown on the chart most clearly reflect the effects of the Cold Warinfluence of the business cyclefailure of United States military policyreverses in political party control of Congress
10Before ratification of the 22nd amendment in 1951, most presidents served no more than two terms because ofa federal lawcustom and traditionthe elastic clausea Supreme Court decision
11fascists communists immigrants police officers The protestors in the photograph are expressing their hatred forfascistscommunistsimmigrantspolice officers
12Which development led to the other three? The United States government increased funding for science and math education.The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite.A joint Soviet-American space mission was announced.President John F. Kennedy set the goal of landing a man on the Moon.
13The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan represented attempts by the United States to deal with the national debtspread of communismPresident’s political oppositionarms race
14Shortly after World War II, the cold war developed mainly as a result of the United States refusal to send economic aid to European nationsSoviet domination of Eastern Europecompetition between the superpowers to explore outer spacecontinuation of the pre-World War II balance of power
15A constitutional issue that was frequently raised about United States involvement in the Korean conflict and the Vietnam conflict was theright to regulate commerce with foreign nationsuse of deficit spending to finance warslack of a formal declaration of war by CongressSupreme Court’s role in foreign policy decision-making
16In the years just after World War II, the United States attempted to prevent the spread of communism in Europe mainly bytaking over the governments of several Western European nationsincreasing opportunities for political refugees to settle in the United Statesholding a series of summit meetings with leaders of the Soviet Unionestablishing policies of economic and military aid for European nation
17During the Korean War, what was the main reason that President Harry Truman dismissed General Douglas MacArthur as commander of the United States troops?The United States had suffered many severe military losses.Congress refused to appropriate any more money to support the war.President Truman believed that General MacArthur’s conduct threatened the concept of civilian control over the militaryGeneral MacArthur disobeyed President Truman by deciding to stop fighting the war.
18During the Cold War Era, the easing of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union resulted inthe organization of the Warsaw Pactthe invasion of Hungary and Czechoslovakiathe Berlin Airlifta treaty banning nuclear tests
19Which is a valid conclusion based on United States involvement in the Korean War? The policy of containment was applied in Asia as well as in EuropeUnited Nations economic sanctions are more effective than military action.The American people will support United States participation in any war, whether declared or undeclared.United States cooperation with a wartime ally ends when the war ends.
20The primary purpose of the War Powers Act (1973) is to limit Presidential power to send troops into combatallow for a quicker response to a military attackassure adequate defense of the Western Hemispherestop the use of troops for nonmilitary purposes
21The Peace Corps was established by President John F The Peace Corps was established by President John F. Kennedy in an effort to providesupport to developing nations of the worldjob training for the unemployedmarkets for consumer goodsteachers for inner-city areas
22President John F. Kennedy supported the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba as an effort to remove a communist dictator from powerstop the flow of illegal drugs to the United Statessupport Fidel Castro’s efforts for reformrescue hostages held by Cuban freedom fighters
23The United States experience in the Vietnam War supports the idea that the outcome of a war is determined mainly by technological superiorityis dependent on using the greatest number of soldiersis assured to countries dedicated to democratic idealscan be strongly affected by public opinion
24Which event led directly to the end of the cold war? reunification of Germanyformation of the European Unionbreakup of the Soviet Unioncreation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
25One way in which the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Persian Gulf War are similar is that in all three warsthe goal was to defeat the Soviet Unionthe United States was primarily interested in protecting oil suppliesthe United States was fighting without alliesno formal declaration of war was made by Congress
26“Batista Driven from Power” “Bay of Pigs Invasion Fails” “U-2 Planes Reveal Soviet Missiles” These headlines refer to the relationship between the United States andCanadaCubaMexicoPanama
27The primary purpose of President Richard Nixon’s policy of détente was to expand United States military involvement in Southeast Asiaassure an adequate supply of oil from the Middle Eastease tensions between the United States and the Soviet Unionmaintain a favorable balance of trade with China
28The cartoonist is commenting on which Cold War foreign policy? détentebrinkmanshipthe domino theorycollective security
29Which development is most closely associated with the belief in the domino theory? military involvement in Vietnamconstruction of the Berlin Wallsigning of the nuclear test ban treatyend of the Korean War
30“Eisenhower Sends U.S. Troops to Protect Lebanon”; “Kennedy Places Quarantine on Shipment of Soviet Missiles to Cuba”; “Johnson Increases U.S. Troop Strength in Vietnam by 125,000” Which statement about the Cold War is illustrated by these headlines?Rivalries between the superpowers often involved conflicts in other nations.United States military support was most often deployed in Europe.Communist forces were frequently victorious in Asia.Summit talks frequently succeeded in limiting international tensions.