2THE G.I. BILLProvided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs)Provided one year of unemployment compensationMillions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started business venture, or found jobs
3THE G.I. BILLVA Mortgages paid for nearly 5 million new homes, by making homes affordable with low interest rates and 30 year loans.President Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill in 1944Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 13 million new homes to its housing stock
4The Baby Boom The American birthrate exploded after World War II. From more than 65 million children were bornThis period became known as the Baby BoomContributing factors:The end of wars led to more young couples getting marriedG.I. Bill encouraged growth of families by offering generous benefits for home purchasesPop culture glorified pregnancy, parenthood and large families
5The Taft-Hartley ActThe federal law that greatly restricting the activities and power of labor unionsClosed shops illegal (Businesses could hire non-union workers)No more jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts.
6Truman and Civil Rights One of the major acts HarryTruman made as president was in when 1948 Truman made an executive orderto end segregation inthe armed forcesTruman also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would make lynching a federal crime
7ELECTION of 1948Truman angered many Southern Democrats by supporting segregationMany people didn’t think he would be re-electedHarry S TrumanThomas DeweyStrom ThurmondPeople were so sure that Truman would lose that one headline even incorrectly said that Dewey had wonHistorians view the Election of 1948 as the greatest election upset in American history
8ELECTION of 1948Southern Democrats leave national party in response to Truman's support for Civil RightsStrom Thurmond – South Carolina Senator, runs for president as a DixicratDixicrats were Southern Democrats who backed racial segregation and limiting the voting rights of African Americans. The party was also known as the States Rights Party.Thomas Dewey, New York’s Governor, runs for the RepublicansTruman appeared to lose – but appeals directly to the people, citing the “Do-nothing Republican Congress” and wins the Election
10It increased the minimum wage Expansion of Social Security benefits Truman’s “Fair Deal”Truman said that all Americans had the right to expect a “fair deal” from the government“The buck stops here.”-- Harry TrumanWhat did the Fair Deal do?It increased the minimum wageExpansion of Social Security benefitsNational Housing Act was passed to provide funding to build low-income housing
12The New York suburb of Levittown was the first modern suburb Suburbs = The American DreamAffordable single-family housingGood schoolsFriendly neighbors like themselvesNew highways, affordable automobiles, low gasoline pricesA safe, healthy environment for childrenThe New York suburb of Levittown was the first modern suburb
13Interstate Highways Built The Federal Highway Act was passed in 1956This was the largest public works program in American history.Law called for the building of 40,000 miles of interstateInterstate roads in DFW are I-20, I-30, I-35 and I-45
14America became a more homogeneous nation because of the automobile. The Automobile CultureAmerica became a more homogeneous nation because of the automobile.First McDonald’s (1955)Drive-In MoviesHoliday Inn
15Movement to the Sunbelt Americans were attracted to the Sunbelt (southern and western states) because they offered new defense industry jobs. The invention of air-conditioning also made living in these states easier.However, population growth increased tensions between groups. There was also greater pollution in these areas.
16Changes in the EconomyDuring the postwar era, many Americans found jobs in the service sector as opposed to manufacturing.Industries that experienced growth: information, franchises. Many companies also became multinational– doing business around the world.
17Mass Culture and Family Life Chapter 22, Section 3Mass Culture and Family Life
18Increased Consumerism After the war, American incomes rose, leaving more money to be spent on the emerging conveniences of the time period– appliances and cars especially.
19The New American Family Families focused on unity. Women were encouraged to stay at home and raise the children, while the husband was the primary breadwinner. There was also an increased emphasis on religion and morality.
20Birth of televisionBy 1957, there were about 40 million television sets in use and TV became an important source of informationShows like I Love Lucy and The Honeymooners were the most popular TV shows of the ’50s
21The Ozzie and Harriet Show 1952-1966 Pop Culture of the 1950sFather Knows BestThe Ozzie and Harriet ShowLeave it to Beaver
22Birth of Rock ’n RollIn the 1950s, many teenagers rebelled against the middle-class suburban values, particularly conformity and wanted to be unique.It was during this period that many youths turned to new and unconventional styles of music.Soon white artists began making music that was based on African American rhythm and blues.This form of music became known as rock ‘n’ roll and it became wildly popular with the nation’s teenagers.
23Elvis Presley The King of Rock ’n Roll Presley’s extraordinary popularity established rock ’n’ roll as an unprecedented mass-market phenomenonHis reputation as a performer endured up to his death in 1977 at the age of 42.Graceland, his home in Memphis, is now a public museum visited by upwards of 600,000 people annually.
24Dissent and Discontent Chapter 22, Section 4Dissent and Discontent
25The Generation GapMany parents viewed rock ’n’ roll as loud and dangerous.The music was banned in some communities.The music united teens in their own world and helped to create what became known as the generation gap.The generation gap was the cultural separation between children and their parents.
26The Beat GenerationThe Beat Generation was the cultural movement of the 1950s when young people – often writers – ditched society’s normal standards for new ways of thinkingThe major works of Beat writing are Allen Ginsberg's Howl, William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch and Jack Kerouac's On the RoadMembers of the Beat Generation were referred to as “beatniks” and set the stage for the rise of the counter-culture and hippies during the 1960s
27University of Michigan, 1964 The War on PovertyIn his book The Other America, Michael Harrington showed that many Americans lived in poverty in the U.S.The book influenced the thinking of both John F. Kennedy and his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, as they both made the elimination of poverty a major goal.“America needs to build a ‘Great Society.’ I am declaring a war on poverty.”-- Lyndon B. JohnsonUniversity of Michigan, 1964
28Problems Faced by Minorities Minorities continued to face unemployment and discrimination. Mexican migrant farmers were exploited and lived in poor conditions.The U.S. gov targeted Native Americans and cut off healthcare and other services.