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Bell Ringer What was the Cold War?

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1 Bell Ringer What was the Cold War?
What is the difference between a Cold war & a Hot War? Which two countries (superpowers) fought during the Cold War?

2 Bell Ringer What is the Eastern Bloc?
Who replaces FDR as President after he dies? What is the difference between a 1st world nation, a 2nd world nation, and a 3rd world nation?

3 CH 38: The Origins of the Cold War

4 The US After WWII FDR strongly believed that after WWII ended the US could NOT return to isolationism The future security of the United States would not be in standing alone, but would rely on our ability to work with others in the Word to ensure peace FDR would strongly push for worldwide organizations that focused on economic and diplomatic relations to ensure world peace

5 World Bank & IMF July The US & 43 other countries would found the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development, but better known as the World Bank The World Bank would give loans to help nations recover from the war & develop their economies These nations would also create the International Monetary Fund The IMF would help to stabilize exchange rates which would encourage international trade

6 United Nations The US also called for a replacement for the League of Nations At Dumbarton Oaks US, Great Britain, USSR, and China would found the UN By June 1945 there were 50 members The US Senate approved joining the UN by a vote of 89-2

7 As WWII turned in favor of the allies FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss Europe after the war (WWII is still going on). Collaborate together on post war Europe Divide Germany into four parts, and divide Berlin into four parts. All agreed to free and fair elections in Eastern Europe after the war (even though the Russians held most of Eastern Europe) Yalta Conference


9 After the defeat of Germany the allied leaders met again, but this time it was TRUMAN, Churchill, & Stalin Truman hinted to Stalin that the US had created a new destructive weapon, but didn’t go into details Stalin distrusted Truman & Truman distrusted Stalin Stalin had not yet allowed free elections, & actually rigged the Polish election so the communists won Potsdam Conference

10 Truman & Stalin had different visions of Post War Europe Truman
Wanted a free Eastern Europe Was convinced people, if given the choice, would pick democracy Stalin Felt USSR (Russia) had twice been invaded by Germany through Poland Wanted to create a “buffer zone” between Germany and USSR for protection That this “buffer zone” be made up of “friendly (pro-USSR) communist states” This “buffer zone” becomes known as the Eastern Bloc


12 In 1946 Winston Churchill (no longer British PM) was asked to give a speech at a college in Missouri. Americans respected Churchill as an ally, and for what the British had done during WWII Churchill warned that the Soviets had cut off Eastern Europe from the world behind an “iron curtain” The term stuck, and was used to describe the border between Eastern & Western Europe until the end of the Cold War. Iron Curtain


14 Superpowers By 1946 Britain, France, and Germany were greatly weakened by WWI & WWII That left the USA & the USSR as the remaining 2 superpowers in the world These Superpowers would be able to influence the world, and depending on who you aligned with determined you place in the world 1st World, 2nd World, 3rd World Nations


16 Containment Things were simple
Stalin hated Capitalism -> USA Truman hated Communism -> USSR Stalin would openly attack Capitalism in speeches US officials came to believe that Soviet leaders were “committed fanatically” to the idea that communism was a better way of life (The Long telegram) The only realistic plan was to stop the Soviet Union from spreading its influence- a strategy that came to be known as containment

17 In 1946 a civil war broke out in Greece to determine who would run the country, capitalists or communists. Near by Yugoslavia (Commie) backed the rebels and Britain (Caps) backed the government The British called on the US to help make a stand. Truman would address Congress saying, “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” Truman gave the world a blank check. If your country was at risk of falling to communism, the US would back you in any way possible (Normally through CASH) Containment & the Truman Doctrine would mold US foreign policy for the next 45 years. Truman Doctrine

18 Money is the Answer Marshall Plan (1947) Molotov Plan (1949)
Truman saw with Greece and Turkey helping European nations economical seemed to prevent communism The Marshall Plan would provide Western European nations with generous funding to help rebuilt their nations economically = 13 Billion Theory was people turn to communism when unhappy, a good economy made people happy Stalin saw the Marshall Plan as a blatant attempt for the US to form a sphere of influence in Western Europe To counter it he introduced the Molotov Plan which provided economic aid for Eastern European countries It also arranged special economic agreements between allies Theory was communist countries would back the communist country that backed them

19 Truman knew Stalin would attempt to develop his own atomic weapon
Truman sent advisors to the UN to call for the UN Atomic Energy Commission, which was tasked with limiting a nations access to the raw materials needed for a bomb However, through spies and Soviet scientists Stalin would have access to a bomb by 1949 The Atomic Age


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