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THE COLD WAR 1947-1991.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR 1947-1991."— Presentation transcript:


2 Post World War II World Fall of the Iron Curtain – refers to an imaginary barrier that sprung up across Europe dividing Communist Europe from Democratic Europe Communism spreads to all nations liberated by Soviet Union Democracy spreads to all nations liberated by Britain and U.S. Why does this happen? During World War II there was a growing distrust between Soviet Union and the rest of the Allies Dropping of Atomic Bomb in Japan causes fear in Soviet Union that Allies will attack them next. Soviet Union wants a barrier placed between it and Great Britain and U.S. How does America deal with this? Policy of Truman was one of containment – not allow Soviets to expand power and influence further than where it is now – created by George F. Kennan Truman Doctrine (1947) – nation should provide aid to those fighting against Communism or the being forced to fall in line with an outside force

3 European Crisis – Post War
Agreement to end World War II: The area controlled by Germany would be divided into sectors and each the Allies would be responsible for overseeing its reconstruction and security – Berlin was also divided in the same way Russia in charge of the east of Europe – installs Communist regimes United States in charge of the west of Europe – promotes Democracy Truman wants aid given to rebuild the nations of Europe Marshall Plan – this was designed to send aid to nations of Europe Greece and Turkey issue started this – was a means to limit Communism Russia refuses aid – Eastern Europe slow to rebuild Western Europe is rebuilt quickly

4 Berlin Crisis American Answer – Berlin Airlifts
Berlin was entirely in the Eastern/Russian controlled part of Europe. Russia was aware of American policy that they were trying to contain Communism – they were not happy at being told to stop expansion Wondered why America and Britain (imperialist nations) could tell them not to spread American aid project with Turkey and Greece angered Russia Revenge – Russia cuts off all traffic in and out of Berlin even to American controlled areas of Berlin (June 1948) American Answer – Berlin Airlifts Goods were flown into and dropped off in Berlin These were made in private planes Russia lifts blockade of Berlin (May 12, 1949) – could not stop supplies Final Result – because of the fear of Russian invasion – nations of Western Europe form NATO NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – joint defense treaty between free nations of Europe, Canada, and United States if there was a Russian attack

5 Cold War Fear in America
Cold War – this is a period of high tensions and rivalry between major nations and ideologies, but the major nations never actively fight each other directly. Fear of Communism in America – Why? Russia builds and explodes their first atomic bomb – 1949 China becomes a Communist nation – 1949 – now two of the largest nations in the world are Communist turning most of Asia Communist Spy Cases – primarily the case of U.S. government official Alger Hiss, the case of Klaus Fuchs, and the case of the Rosenbergs Hiss accused of trying to plant Communist supporters in government Klaus Fuchs was a scientist working on the Manhattan Project who gave secrets to building the atomic bomb to Russia Ethel and Julius Rosenberg – considered leaders of a Russian spy ring working in America and they were convicted of spying and executed in 1953

6 America Responds To Communists
Answer in America – there was a Second Red Scare House Un-American Activities Committee – focus shifts to searching out Communist activites Hollywood Ten – writers and directors who were thought to be radical were called before Congress to answer questions but refused – held in contempt and put in jail for a year Smith Act – created in 1940 this law made it a crime to call for overthrow of U.S. government Began to focus on Communists as possible revolutionaries – many arrested by this McCarran Act- passed by Congress in 1950 this required Communist groups to register with the government and be subject to investigation Act vetoed by Truman – said Communists would make fun of us destroying Bill of Rights McCarthyism – act of spreading fear and making claims that someone was Communist – became much like the old witch hunts in colonial days Started by Joseph McCarthy – senator who wanted to fight the Communist problem Hunt went to all levels of society – primarily leadership positions Finally he was kicked out of the Senate and this fear went away

7 Korean War – The Forgotten War
First major armed conflict between Communism and Democracy Fought on Korean Peninsula in Eastern Asia Korean peninsula was divided in half after World War II at a place called the 38th Parallel (both sides wanted united Korea) North of the line = Communist – led by Kim Il Sung South of the line = Democratic – led by Syngman Rhee Communist forces from the North, supported by China and Russia, invaded the Southern part of Korea on June 25, 1950 U.S. Involvement – Truman felt U.S. had to get involved because it would send message U.S. was weak if they did not Behind the banner of the United Nations (established after World War II) a force was sent in to push the North back across the 38th Parallel Force landed in Inchon – led by Douglas MacArthur

8 Korean War Key Events of War:
MacArthur pushes North Koreans back across Parallel, but he wanted to take the North as well – fear was Chinese forces invading Korea November 1950 – Chinese forces invade North Korea to repel American invasion of the North Causes American troops to fall all the way back to the South – longest fall back in American military history MacArthur calls for expansion of war with China and for the use of Nuclear Weapons Truman did not want another large war – especially one now right after World War II MacArthur fired – Truman had to prove he was in charge and not MacArthur Many Americans were not happy with this decision – he was a war hero War became a stalemate as both sides dug into the mountains – no one could get an advantage

9 Peace to End Korean Conflict
1953 – Eisenhower took over the Presidency – vowed to get U.S. out of Korea Settlement – War ended in an armistice – no treaty, only a cease fire Agreed to on July 27, 1953 North Korea loses a small amount of territory – Korea still divided like it was in 1950 Loss of life in the War – nearly 5.5 million people died (soldiers and civilians) Set up a Demilitarized Zone on the 38th Parallel – both sides guard the area on their side, but no troops allowed in this area

10 Arms Race Eisenhower foreign policy changed the game of the Cold War – he wanted to push Communism back This idea was put forward by his Secretary of State John Foster Dulles Dulles Plan to Fight Communism Based on idea of brinksmanship – diplomatic art of going to the brink of war without actually getting into a war Called for a massive build-up of America’s Nuclear Weapons Program – more bombs Massive Retaliation implemented – pledge that the United States would use overwhelming force against Soviet Union (including Nuclear Weapons) if conflict was serious Called for use of the CIA (formed in 1947) to spy on foreign governments and to help overthrow Communist threats in other nations’ governments Leads to rise of Warsaw Pact – Soviet Union and her allies agree to defend each other from American attack or NATO aggression – helped them solidify control over Eastern Europe

11 Cold War Hot Spots Vietnam – Communist rebels won victory against French as they tried to get their freedom Vietnam divided into a North and South (like Korea) North ruled by Communists – Ho Chi Minh was leader South ruled by Democracy – Ngo Dinh Diem was leader placed there by America and her allies (he was cruel to his people) Middle East – heightened tensions because of Jewish/Arab issues

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