Presentation on theme: "Be aware of regions!. “Historians are dangerous people. They are capable of upsetting everything” – Nikita Khrushchev."— Presentation transcript:
Be aware of regions!
“Historians are dangerous people. They are capable of upsetting everything” – Nikita Khrushchev
20 th Century Cold War Origins Power Players Origins of the Cold War (The World in 1945) The Struggle for Europe Historiography -Orthodox -Revisionist -Post-revisionist -Post cold war historians Big Ideas: Phases & Features of the Cold War Short term vs. long term factors and consequences Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold War. Economics
The Cold War The Struggle for Europe Stalin & the USSR -- The 2 Germanys -- Communist Bloc PRC, Korea, Vietnam -- Cuba, Guatemala -- Afghanistan, Iran, Egypt Asia -- Latin America -- Middle East Globalizing the Cold War Big Ideas: -Phases & Features of the Cold War -Key turning points -Short term vs. long term factors and consequences -Role and significance of leaders -Impact
Single Party States Mao = PRC Lenin & Stalin = USSR Castro = Cuba Historiography -Orthodox -Revisionist -Post-revisionist -Post cold war historians Themes: Theme 1: Origins and nature of authoritarian and single-party states Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian and single party states Theme 3: Domestic policies and global impact Nasser = Egypt
Papers 1, 2 & 3 Last, last minute advice Pick the BEST question(s) to answer 3-5 min. pre-write: – Groupings, key words, people, dates – Thesis Intro: 3-4 sentences (1-2 THESIS) 3 Bodies – No more than 10 min per body – Topic sentence (relate to thesis) – ANALYSIS!!!! (Because….why…how…) – Historiography Conclusion restate thesis, analysis, historiography Pick the BEST question(s) to answer 3-5 min. pre-write: – Groupings, key words, people, dates – Thesis Intro: 3-4 sentences (1-2 THESIS) 3 Bodies – No more than 10 min per body – Topic sentence (relate to thesis) – ANALYSIS!!!! (Because….why…how…) – Historiography Conclusion restate thesis, analysis, historiography Paper 1: – Key leaders Causes and effects – 3 key dates, 3 key vocab Paper 2: Topic 3: 1 SPS leader from each region – 3 dates – 3 key vocab words – Rise to power, foreign & domestic policies, success/failure (impact) Paper 2: Topic 5: Cold War: – Origins up to 1949 – 1950s & 1960s – Don’t overly focus on Korea & Vietnam – CUBA & CASTRO!!! Papers 2 & 3 cross over: – Presidents: FDR (Depression/econ), Truman, IKE, JFK, Johnson (Great Society) – CASTRO, CUBA!!!!! Review Historiography – Know generic schools – Know 1 name / person per topic / state
Attacking the Paper 2 Pre-writing:Writing the Paper 2: Select Task (Topic 3 & 5) Do you understand what you are being asked to do? Can you fully address this Task? 5 Minutes to jot down ideas & groupings Key names, policies, dates, events, historiography Develop Thesis Be Specific Address the task Explain WHY? Introduction & Thesis = 4-6 sentences at most Intro & Thesis – Strong, argumentative thesis (take a stand) – Address the task in its entirety – Can include some background Body Paragraphs – Organized by argument or theme – Strong topic sentences – Historical vocabulary – ANALYSIS!!!! – Do not “name drop” historiography out of context – Avoid narration & description Conclusion – Restate thesis – acknowledge limitations and counter-arguments
Paper 2 Markscheme [0 to 7 marks][8 to 10 marks][11 to 13 marks][14 to 16 marks][17+ marks] for inadequate/ general material for narrative with implicit analysis and assessment of methods and conditions for “rise to power” Implicit = implied, unspoken Meets 8-10 marks criteria AND… for more exact focus and explicit assessment of methods used (e.g. why they succeeded) and conditions for “rise to power” Explicit = overt, unambiguous Meets marks criteria AND… for a structured, analytical response focused on methods and conditions Analytical = logical, systematic Meets marks criteria AND… for balance and an extra quality such as different interpretations (historiography) Extra Quality = Think AP Expanded Core Thesis, Multiple POVs, insight, comparison/ contrasts, synthesis…
“Candidate performance in all essay responses could be improved significantly by taking time to plan the answer- where possible organising the response into suitable themes rather than producing narrative /descriptive accounts. Five to ten minutes drawing up an essay plan is time well spent despite what many candidates may think in their eagerness to address the question. … There is no substitute for sound knowledge, as this is the foundation of all good essays answers.” – MAY 2009 IB Subject Report “The best responses revealed command of chronology, task identification, structure and above all the provision of relevant historical detail. It cannot be emphasized enough that answers must be supported by reference to historical knowledge.” – May 2010, History Subject Report
What do I NEED to study? Paper 2 Single Party States: At least 1 leader from each region – USSR (Europe): Lenin OR Stalin – PRC (Asia): Mao – Cuba (Latin America): Castro – Egypt (Europe): Nasser – DO NOT WRITE ABOUT: Hitler, Mussolini or Franco! Rise to Power (including Ideologies) Examples of Foreign & Domestic Policies Successes & Failures – Global Impact Dates Historiography Cold War: Know Chronology!!! Origins of the Cold War: – Ideology, Conferences – US & USSR Foreign Policies (Doctrines) Regional Examples: – Germany: Berlin blockade & airlift ( ), Berlin Wall (1961) – 1950s Cuba: Castro, Revolution, Embargo, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis – Korea & Vietnam: Proxy wars, policies Détente: – 1960s & 1970s – change in policies and East/West relations START, SALT I End of the Cold War: – Eastern Europe – Fall of Berlin Wall – Collapse of USSR
Historiography – In General Orthodox = Traditional Perspective – Soviet Orthodox = Pro-Communism – Western Traditional (aka Liberal)= Pro-Capitalism & Democracy Orthodox View of Korean War in USA = War was justified Orthodox view of Vietnam war in USA = War was a mistake Revisionism & Post-Revisionism: – Revisionism: 1 st time opposing or conflicting views emerge as legitimate – Post-Revisionism: Justifies both sides, possibly with new information Ideology: – Marxist, Leninist, Stalinist, Cult of Mao, Arab Nationalist, Arab Socialist, Pan- Arabism Archives: – USSR archives opening after fall 1989/1991 – PRC & Cuba = Still in control, keeps control of information – Egypt: Importance & translations of Arab documents = emerging field of study – USA = Declassified documents = freedom of information act Sensitive info = still redacted
Historiography - Specific USSR: fall in 1991 – Pravda, propaganda – Sheila Fitzpatrick, Robert Service, Orlando Figues – Richard Pipes PRC: still exists!!!! – The People’s Daily – Edgar Snow, Jonathan Spence, Chang & Halliday Cuba: – Foreign Affairs Article Dominguez – Arthur Schlesinger Jr Kennedy historian Egypt: – Anthony Nutting, Robert Stephens, Eric Hobsbaum
What do I NEED to study? Paper 3 Independence Movements United States Civil War: causes, course and effects 1840 ‑ 77 The Great Depression and the Americas 1929 ‑ 39 Civil Rights and social movements in the Americas ZINN!!!!
Independence MovementsCivil war Great Depression Independence movements: This section focuses on the various forces that contributed to the rise of the independence movements, the similar and different paths that the movements followed and the immediate effects of independence in the region. It explores the political, intellectual and military contributions of their leaders and the sometimes contradictory views that shaped the emergence of the new nations. Independence movements in the Americas: political, economic, social, intellectual and religious causes; the role of foreign intervention; conflicts and issues leading to war Political and intellectual contributions of leaders to the process of independence: Washington, Bolivar (suitable 4 choices could be Adams, Jefferson, San Martín, O’Higgins) United States Declaration of Independence; processes leading to the declaration; influence of ideas; nature of the declaration; military campaigns and their impact on the outcome (suitable examples could be Saratoga and Yorktown) Independence movements in Latin America: characteristics of the independence processes; reasons for the similarities and/or differences in two countries in the region; military campaigns and their impact on the outcome (suitable examples could be Chacabuco, Maipú, Ayacucho, Boyacá and Carabobo) United States’ position towards Latin American independence; events and reasons for the emergence of the Monroe Doctrine Impact of independence on the economies and societies of the Americas: economic and social issues; new perspectives on economic development; impact on different social groups: Native Americans, African Americans, Creoles -Which social and economic groups gained and which lost from the United States Civil War? 95. How successful was Reconstruction following the American Civil War? -How important were the abolitionists in the coming of the American Civil War? 97. What were the political causes and results of the US Civil War? -“Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while Lincoln believed that secession was a rejection of democracy.” Explain and justify these opposing beliefs. -To what extent was President Lincoln more interested in preserving the Union than emancipating the slaves? -“Southern leaders risked civil war because they underestimated the North’s strength and overestimated the South’s power.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? -How and why did the antislavery movement in the United States change during the course of the nineteenth century? -‘It was the result of tensions between two different ways of life’. ‘The war was caused by unnecessary fanatical agitation’. Which of these explanations for the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States do you consider to be the most appropriate and why? -To what extent, and for what reasons, did the election of Abraham Lincoln contribute to the onset of the Civil War in the United States? -Why did the North win the Civil War in the United States? -Why the United States Civil War break out in 1861? -Analyse the immediate and long-term political effects of the United States Civil War in the period 1865 to Assess the relative strengths of the North and the South at the beginning of the United States Civil War in Why, in spite of the advantages of the North over the South, did the Civil War in the United States last so long? -Why was compromise no longer possible between the North and the South in the United States by 1860? 1.) To what extent was the Wall Street Crash a cause of the Great Depression of 1929? Support your argument with specific examples from one country of the region. May ) Analyse the causes of the great depression in one country in the Americas. May ) Explain how one country of the region changed its policy on the role the government should play in the economy as a result of the Great Depression. Nov ) With reference to one country of the region, analyse the causes of the Great Depression and assess the political impact of the Great Depression on that country. May ) “The Great Depression changed governments’ views of their role and responsibility.” Assess the validity of this statement with examples taken from two countries of the region. Nov ) How, and with what success, did the government of any one country in the Americas try to solve the problems caused by the Great Depression? May ) Analyse the political and economic changes caused by the Depression to one country of the region. Nov ) How successful were government programmes in solving problems caused by the Great Depression, in two countries of the region? May ) Assess the impact of the Great Depression on the society of any one country of the region. Provide specific example to support your answer. May 2002
Civil Rights Political developments in the Americas after the Second World War 1945 ‑ 79: COLD WAR -Analyse the successes and failures of the United States’ Civil Rights movement between 1954 and In what ways, and for what reasons, did the African American struggle for civil rights in the United States change between the early and late 1960s? -Evaluate the impact of Black Power on the civil rights movement in the United States during the second half of the 1960s. - In what ways, and for what reasons, did the civil rights movement in the United States make significant progress in the period 1950 to 1964? -Explain why and how the Civil Rights movement became more radical as the 1960s progressed. -Compare and contrast the impact of the African American civil rights movement in the United States on other civil rights movements in one country of the region. -To what extent had African Americans in the United States gained their civil and political rights by 1968? -Describe the origins and achievements of a Native American movement in one country of the region after Contrast the roles and policies of Dr Martin Luther King and Malcolm X in the development of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. -With reference to two countries of the region, to what extent did the civil rights of Native Americans change from the 1960s to the 1980s? -Why was the African American Civil Rights Movement in the United States more effective in the years 1954 to 1964 than in the late 1960s? This section focuses on domestic concerns and political developments after The majority of states in the Americas experienced social, economic and political changes and challenges. Political responses to these forces varied from country to country: from the continuation of democracy to multi-class “populist” alliances to outright conflict, revolution and the establishment of authoritarian regimes in the 1960s and 1970s. Areas of study include: conditions for the rise to power of new leaders; economic and social policies; treatment of minorities. Note: Vargas and Cárdenas came to power before 1945 but their rule and influence in their respective states continued after United States: domestic policies of Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy Johnson and “the Great Society”; Nixon’s domestic reforms Canada: domestic policies from Diefenbaker to Clark and Trudeau (both were prime ministers in 1979) Causes and effects of the Silent (or Quiet) Revolution Populist leaders in Latin America: rise to power; characteristics of populist regimes; social, economic and political policies; the treatment of opposition; successes and failures (suitable examples could be Perón, Vargas or any relevant Latin American leader) The Cuban Revolution: political, social, economic causes; impact on the region Rule of Fidel Castro: political, economic, social and cultural policies; treatment of minorities; successes and failures Military regimes in Latin America: rationale for intervention; challenges; policies; successes and failures 1.) How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between ? May ) Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Eisenhower ( ) or Kennedy ( ). May ) In what ways, and to what extent, did the foreign policy of Ronald reason ( ) affect the Cold War? May ) How did the Cold War change relations between the U.S. and either Latin America or Canada between ? Nov ) In what ways, and with what results, did the Cold War influence relations between either Latin America or Canada with the United States in the period ? May ) Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of two of the following U.S. president: Harry S. Truman ( ); Dwight D. Eisenhower ( ); Ronald Reagan ( ). May ) Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Harry S. Truman ( ) or Richard Nixon ( ). May ) Analyse the short-term and longer-term consequences for Cuba between 1959 and 1995 of Castro’s rule? May ) How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between ? Nov ) Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of Truman and Eisenhower. May 2002
Paper 1: USSRPaper 1: Eastern EuropePaper 1: PRC Khrushchev --> Destalinization, Virgin Lands Program (JFK, Cuban Missile Crisis) Brezhnev Détente (SALT I, START, non-proliferation) 1968: Brezhnev Doctrine Prague Spring (Dubcek) Afghanistan: Helsinki Accords :1975 Andropov/Chernenko Gerontocracy Gorbachev Young Glasnost, perestroika, democratization “More efficient socialist economy” capitalism Law on Joint Enterprises (1986) = privatization Law on Cooperative (1988): private services, manufacturing 1989: Sinatra doctrine (my way), Berlin Wall Eastern Europe: Solidarity (Lech Walesa) Velvet Revolution (Vaclav Havel), Hungary (Ceausescu) – most violent Yeltsin Russian Federation – 1991 Poland: 2013 Paper 1 Solidarity, Lech Walesa, Gdansk shipyards, Pope John Paul II… Germany / Berlin: Fall of the Wall: 1989 die Wende/The Turning Point German Reunification, 1990 Czechoslovakia: Imre Nagy (hanged), Velvet Revolution, Alexander Dubček, Václav Havel Hungary: “Democracy package” Romania: Fall (execution) of Nicolae Ceauescu Singing Revolution: , Baltic States Yugoslavia: Death of Tito, 1980 Legacy of Mao Great Leap Forward (1958) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ( ), Red Guard, 10 Lost Yrs Lin Bao Incident (1971) 1976: Deaths of Zhou Enlai & Mao Power players: Gang of Four (Madame Mao) Hua Gaufeng (Mao 2.0) – “Two Whatevers” Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping: The Pragmatist *Justifies socialism w/ Chinese Characteristics 1978: Four Modernizations: Agriculture, Industry, Sci-Tech, Defense Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Town and Village Enterprises (TVEs) Foreign invest/trade / Open Door Policy (2.0) Household Responsibility System (HRS) Individual Responsibility System (IRS) 1980s = Industrial Revolution 1989: Tiananmen Square (June 4/ 5) - Repression Last Minute Recap Format of Paper 1: 1 hour, 5 Questions: *Read Questions FIRST Read documents as you answer the questions 1a: 3+ facts (can quote – keep it short!) [3 marks] 1b: 2 meanings (based on visual or text, be specific, do not over-write) [2 marks] 2: Compare/Contrast (separate responses – be specific/explicit in c/c) [6 marks] 3: O-P-V-L (separate responses, ) [6 marks] 4: Mini-Essay: Answer the Q, Opposing View, Justify the 2, ALL docs & Outside info, save 20 minutes for this [8 marks] Subjective (Emotionally Laden) Evidence: Language, Tone, Style Public vs. Private Proximity to Event Selective use of information Political Bias Historian - National/Social Influence/Bias Language Issues (access to foreign documents/translation) Soviet Secrecy & Manipulation of Statistics Lack of access to Communist Archives (pre-1991 USSR) Face Saving Propaganda General texts lack depth/detail Exaggeration (Motivation for?) Common Limitations of Sources:
Paper 2HistoriographyPaper 3 Orthodox = Traditional Perspective Soviet Orthodox = Pro-Communism Western Traditional (aka Liberal)= Pro- Capitalism & Democracy Revisionism & Post-Revisionism: Revisionism: 1 st time opposing or conflicting views emerge as legitimate Post-Revisionism: Justifies both sides, possibly with new information Ideology: Marxist, Leninist, Stalinist, Cult of Mao, Arab Nationalist, Arab Socialist, Pan-Arabism Archives: USSR archives opening after fall 1989/1991 PRC & Cuba = Still in control, keeps control of information Egypt: Importance & translations of Arab documents = emerging field of study USA = Declassified documents = freedom of information act, Sensitive info = still redacted USSR: Pravda, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Robert Service, Orlando Figues PRC: Edgar Snow, Jonathan Spence, Chang & Halliday Cuba:Foreign Affairs Article, Dominguez, The Real story of the Cuban Missile Crisis Egypt: Anthony Nutting, Robert Stephens, Eric Hobsbaum HOA PAPER 3 UNITS: Independence Movements United States Civil War: causes, course and effects 1840 ‑ 77 The Great Depression and the Americas 1929 ‑ 39 Civil Rights and social movements in the Americas Papers 2 & 3: Approx. 5 minutes pre-writing, 40 minutes writing Select the topics/Prompts that you can answer MOST SUCCESSFULLY Paper 2: DO NOT WRITE ABOUT: Hitler, Mussolini or Franco! Do not select Korea/Vietnam Specific prompt Paper 3: Do not select Canada Pre-writing: ADDRESS THE TASK!!!! Plan Bodies, consider counter-arguments Strong thesis in introduction: ADDRESS THE TASK!!!! Bodies: Strong topic sentences, groupings based on task, key concepts, key figures, dates, events, and historiography Conclusion; Strong, re-state thesis, acknowledge limitations and counter-arguments Single Party StatesCold War At least 1 leader from each region USSR (Europe): Lenin OR Stalin PRC (Asia): Mao Cuba (Latin America): Castro Egypt (Europe): Nasser Rise to Power (including Ideologies) Examples of Foreign & Domestic Policies Successes & Failures Global Impact Dates Historiography: General (Orthodox, Revisionist, Post- Revisionist) Specific: Know 1 name for each Know Chronology!!! Origins of the Cold War: Ideology, Conferences US & USSR Foreign Policies (Doctrines) Regional Examples: Germany: Berlin blockade & airlift ( ), Berlin Wall (1961) 1950s Cuba: Castro, Revolution, Embargo, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis Korea & Vietnam: Proxy wars, policies Détente: 1960s & 1970s – change in policies and East/West relations START, SALT I End of the Cold War: Eastern Europe Fall of Berlin Wall Collapse of USSR
Break down the task: What are you being asked to do? (What do you have to address?) Notes Groupings Key Information Body ParagraphsThesis Name: _______________ Essay Prompt: Assess the success and failure of ONE ruler of single party regime, in solving the political and economic problems of their country.
Break down the task: What are you being asked to do? (What do you have to address?) Notes, Groupings, Key Information Analysis of one single-party state ruler o “a leader” not “leaders” Attributes to asses: (must all be addressed, don’t have to agree with them) o Ruthless: In pursuit of power, maintenance of power, elimination of enemies o Blind to human suffering: Specific evidence re: human suffering, war, death, persecution, human rights o Charismatic: Can be positive, how does it influence society? Legitimize rule? Can include “rise to power” style response o But must not be limited to rise MAO: PRC, CPC Rise: Long March, Civil War Ruthless & Human suffering: death toll, Charismatic: Little Red Book, propaganda, Cult of Mao, funeral Ruthless & Human suffering: Collectivization of Agriculture, Land Reform, Five-Year Plans, Great Leap Forward failure of forced collectivization, famine, forced labor, coercion, terror, violence, death Four Modernizations, Industrialization Failure of backyard furnaces Hundred Flowers Campaign Ploy to target dissenters, political prisoners, forced labor, purges Cultural Revolution Cult of Mao, Purges, terror, violence against teachers, collapse of education, medical and higher learning sectors Historiography: Marxism: 1920s, PRC Institutionalized Party Historiography: Mao-centrism (40s & 50s), Cultural Revolution Propaganda (60s & 70s) Post Cultural Revolution/post-death of Mao, Western Sympathetic: 1937 Red Star over China by an American journalist, Edgar Snow, Revisionism/Post- Revisionism: John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman, Jonathan Spence, Chang and Halliday (critical) Body ParagraphsThesis Can be grouped thematically, chronologically, or by argument Can agree or disagree with the quote Must use evidence to support argument Can agree to 1-2 characteristics and/or disagree with 1-2 characteristics -Rise to power: Must display some measure of ruthlessness to eliminate opposition (blind to the human suffering of the enemy), but must curry favor of the majority through charisma (attentive and responsive to the suffering of supporters) -Maintenance of power: Need to maintain charisma (include positive history & CPC history material), but effective leaders do not have to be ruthless and blind to human suffering. Give examples based on Mao. -Impact: Integrate historiography. Emphasis on critiques of Chang and Halliday, would have been possible to rule in a less ruthless manner (c/c Deng Xiaoping ) In order to establish the People’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong employed ruthlessness to eliminate the opposition and charisma to win the favor of the peasantry/masses. However, in maintaining his power Mao’s ruthlessness and blindness to the suffering of his own people eclipsed the limits of his charisma. Essay Prompt: “In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single party-state needed to be ruthless, blind to human suffering and yet charismatic.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion? (May 2003) Paper 2 Practice Mao example