Presentation on theme: "What military strategies did the United States and its allies pursue to defeat the Axis powers in World War II?"— Presentation transcript:
What military strategies did the United States and its allies pursue to defeat the Axis powers in World War II?
Preview You are the head coach of a high school basketball team. Your team is about to play the top-ranked team, which has last year’s most valuable player (MVP) on its roster. You just found out that half of your team is caught in traffic and will not make it in time for the start of the game. What strategy will you pursue?
Preview Choose one of these strategies. On a piece of paper, write a paragraph explaining your choice. Play defense, stall, and try to keep the score close in hopes that your other players will arrive soon. Go on the offense and attack the opponent’s MVP, hoping to tire him or her and get him or her to foul. Attack the weakest player, even if that allows the MVP to stay rested and remain on offense.
When the United States entered World War II, the Axis forces were superior in both number and strength, much like the stronger team in the Preview. When the United States entered World War II, the Axis forces were superior in both number and strength, much like the stronger team in the Preview. Military analysts for the United States and its allies had to determine which strategies to pursue to defeat the dominating Axis powers. Military analysts for the United States and its allies had to determine which strategies to pursue to defeat the dominating Axis powers. You will take on the roles of military analysts and make recommendations for how to win the war. You will take on the roles of military analysts and make recommendations for how to win the war. You will first evaluate military strategies by examining background information and maps of the battlefront. You will first evaluate military strategies by examining background information and maps of the battlefront. You will then present your recommendations in a top secret military briefing. You will then present your recommendations in a top secret military briefing.
At the beginning of the war… Atlantic coast mostly unprotected Coastal cities not required to observe nighttime blackouts US did not have enough naval vessels First months of 1942 – German U-boats sank dozens of ships off the Atlantic Coast
If you were the “coach” of the U.S. military, which of the three strategies presented in the Preview would you pursue to safely transport your troops across the Atlantic? Play defense and stall. Attack the opponent’s MVP. Attack the weakest player. Upon entering the war, how was the United States like the weaker team in the Preview?
When the US entered the war Axis controlled most of Europe Nazi’s were well into Russia Nazi’s were well into North Africa Allied Leaders Debate War Strategy The Allies have limited resources Defense was the focus until the US built up the military Churchill & Roosevelt met to determine a strategy They could not afford to fight and offensive war on 2 fronts The decided “Europe First” – winning Europe back and fighting defensively in the Pacific
You are now World War II military analysts who will participate in a briefing to make recommendations on a key military decision. Decision 1: February 1942 The United States recently entered the war on the side of the Allies. Unfortunately, the United States has limited military divisions ready for immediate deployment to Europe. Which military strategy do you advise President Roosevelt to pursue? Discuss the following strategies with your group and choose the one that you believe will be most effective in defeating the Axis powers. Look back at the Preview and identify the coach’s strategy that best matches your choice.
Where to strike when the US had troops to do it? France? They would help when liberated - Makes a good staging area – Germany was strong there, it would be tough Italy? They have a weak army – Good base for securing the rest of Europe – Getting through Uboat infested Mediterranean would be difficult North Africa? Not well defended – Could be gateway to Europe – Far from target of Germany – Challenging to transport & maintain forces Soviet Union? Help the Soviet Red Army push back Germans – USSR is now an Allied Force – Transporting & supplying from the US would be a massive effort
Prepare your recommendations by gathering supporting arguments from the student text and accompanying map. Strategy 1 Deploy divisions to Britain. Launch an immediate cross- channel invasion of France. Then move eastward to liberate Paris. Strategy 2 Deploy divisions to the Mediterranean and launch an invasion of Italy from naval ships. Capture the island of Sicily first and then advance north onto the mainland. Strategy 3 Defend the Soviet Union. Move Allied divisions into the western part of the Soviet Union and help the Red Army defend itself against German divisions. Strategy 4 Launch an invasion of North Africa from Egypt and from naval ships in the Atlantic. Advance toward Tunisia and defeat German divisions.
What really happened? – AFRICA They invaded North Africa and then Sicily General George Patton was one of the commanders Popular because of his high survival rates Very harsh to those under his command Italy’s government got scared & Mussolini was forced to resign
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy) The Landing June 6, 1944 – 156,000 Allied troops land on 5 beaches in France General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the attack General Omar Bradley led the first army troops to land in France Allied planes attacked the Nazi’s before the beach landing Normandy was the largest amphibious operation of its time (Show videos)
D-Day The Advancement Allies moved East, liberating Paris (August 1944) German counter-attacked in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944) German attack collapsed after that Allied troops pushed on into Germany from the West, the Soviets entered from the East Soviets captured Berlin (capital of Germany) (May 1945) Hitler commits suicide & Germany surrenders Vernon Baker – one of the first African Americans to see combat -52 years after his heroic actions in WWII, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor (show H. vid)
Glue Pacific Map in your Notes
Japanese Advance in Asia & the Pacific After Pearl Harbor, American forces in the Pacific took months to regroup – by March 1942, Japan controls much of the Pacific America controlled the Philippines at this point in history US & Filipino troops fight to keep Japan from taking the Philippines – troops were ordered to leave in March months later the Bataan Death March occurred May 1942 – Japan takes British controlled Burma – this cut off the Burma Road from India to China – they now have no land or sea access to supplies To keep the Japanese busy, the US sent airborne supplies over the Himalayas to the Chinese
Starting Action in the Pacific US morale is low because of Japanese victories Roosevelt urges military chiefs to attack Japanese homeland Planned to bomb with B-25’s from carrier & then land in China (Pearl Harbor movie when he dies) Bombs did little damage but thrilled Americans/shocked Japanese Admiral Chester Nimitz was Commander in Chief of Pacific Naval Fleet General Douglas MacArthur was Commanding US Army in the Pacific George Marshall was Chief of Staff & worked with Roosevelt
Decision 3: June 1942 The Japanese control most of the Pacific. The Allies are using the majority of their resources to fight the war in Europe. Given the current situation, which military strategy do you advise President Roosevelt to pursue? Discuss the following strategies and choose the one that you believe will be most effective in defeating the Japanese in the Pacific. Look back at the Preview and identify the coach’s strategy that best matches your choice. Prepare your recommendations by gathering supporting arguments from the text and accompanying map
How to put the Allies on the Offensive in the Pacific Aleutian Islands? Build airbases in the Aleutians – pilots would have to deal with snow, wind, & fog – all supplies would have to be shipped from US mainland China? Build bases in China-good staging area to attack Japan-getting supplies would be difficult by land or sea Liberate Japanese held territory in the Pacific? First free islands far from Japan & move closer-takes time & would have high casualties
Strategy 1 Create a staging area in inland China. Launch an air assault on the nearby Japanese mainland. Strategy 2 Liberate Japanese-occupied islands in the Pacific. Create a staging area on each liberated island and prepare for the next advance. Strategy 3 Build air bases in the Aleutian Islands. Launch bombing raids directly on the Japanese mainland by using the new B-29 bombers. Strategy 4 Contain the Japanese and stop their expansion in the Pacific. Wait until the war is won in Europe and then increase Allied forces in the Pacific.
What they did – Liberate the Islands US forces “island-hopped” or “leap frogged” – capturing less defended islands one at a time and then use it as an airbase to attack the more defended island Battle of Midway US deciphered Japanese code that they were planning an attack US was ready for them US destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers After Midway, Japan was only on the defensive
The Manhattan Project was the program that developed the Atomic Bomb After the successful test of the first A-Bomb, Harry Truman had to decide what to do… The US was already bombing Japan and blockading to prevent supplies – but Japan refused to surrender
Decision 4: August 1, 1945 Despite Allied victory in Europe, the war in the Pacific continues. Although some predict that Japan is close to surrendering, others warn that if the Japanese do not surrender, an invasion of Japan will take many months and may result in the deaths of thousands of Allied forces. President Truman has just informed you that the United States has at its disposal several atomic bombs. Given this information, which strategy do you advise President Truman to pursue? Discuss the following strategies and choose the one that you believe will be most effective in defeating the Japanese. Look back at the Preview and identify the coach’s strategy that best matches your choice. Prepare your recommendations by gathering supporting arguments from the text and accompanying map.
Strategy 1 Drop an atomic bomb on a large Japanese city. Continue to drop bombs on other cities until Japan surrenders. Strategy 2 Plan a large-scale invasion of Japan. Prepare staging areas on nearby islands and attack Japan by air and sea. Strategy 3 Wait as long as needed for Japan to surrender. Continue the naval blockade and massive bombing raids.
What happened - US Bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Discuss these debrief questions with your group. For which World War II military strategies or actions do you think the United States should be praised? Why? For which World War II military strategies or actions do you think the United States should be criticized? Why? If you had been president during the war, how might you have conducted the war differently?
In two well-written paragraphs, respond to the following question: Should the United States be praised or criticized for the military strategies or actions it pursued during World War II? Your response should address at least two of the military strategies and actions. World War II Military Actions and Strategies “Europe First” Strategy Postponement of an invasion of France Decision not to bomb the concentration camps Leapfrogging strategy Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa Decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan
Make sure each paragraph includes: a clear topic sentence that communicates the main idea of your paragraph. one or two pieces of evidence (facts, data, quotations, examples) from the reading to support your topic sentence. one or two sentences that explain how your evidence supports your topic sentence.