Presentation on theme: "The Conflict Begins. Livadia Palace of Yalta YALTA, Overture to Conflict At Crimean Resort of Yalta, met 3 most powerful men in the world: FDR, Stalin,"— Presentation transcript:
YALTA, Overture to Conflict At Crimean Resort of Yalta, met 3 most powerful men in the world: FDR, Stalin, Churchill – February 4-12, 1945 – Preliminary meeting requested by Churchill with FDR was declined by FDR – Said FDR of Stalin: “... I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace.” Agenda: 1.The dissection of Germany into four (US, Great Britain, France and USSR) occupational sectors 2.The entry of USSR into war with Japan 3.The fate of Poland 4.Formation of the United Nations
There was an agreement that the priority would be the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. After the war, Germany would be split into four occupied zones. Stalin agreed that France might have a fourth occupation zone in Germany and Austria but it would have to be formed out of the American and British zones. Germany would undergo demilitarization and denazification. German reparations were partly to be in the form of forced labor. (see also Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union). The forced labor was to be used to repair damage Germany inflicted on its victims.  Creation of a reparation council which would be located in Russia. The status of Poland was discussed. It was agreed to reorganize the communist Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland that had been installed by the Soviet Union "on a broader democratic basis."
The Polish eastern border would follow the Curzon Line, and Poland would receive territorial compensation in the West from Germany. Churchill alone pushed for free elections in Poland.  The British leader pointed out that UK "could never be content with any solution that did not leave Poland a free and independent state". Stalin pledged to permit free elections in Poland, but eventually never honored his promise. Citizens of the Soviet Union and of Yugoslavia were to be handed over to their respective countries, regardless of their consent.
Roosevelt obtained a commitment by Stalin to participate in the United Nations. Stalin requested that all of the 16 Soviet Socialist Republics would be granted United Nations membership. This was taken into consideration, but 14 republics were denied. Stalin agreed to enter the fight against the Empire of Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany. Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice. A "Committee on Dismemberment of Germany" was to be set up. "Marshal Stalin as a negotiator was the toughest proposition of all…Of course the man was ruthless and of course he knew his purpose. He never wasted a word. He never stormed, he was seldom even irritated." 3
Post-Yalta Failures The wording was vague & subject to interpretation. FDR agreed that Stalin should keep the Soviet gains agreed to in the Nazi-Soviet Pact, incl Kresy Following Yalta, in Moscow, when Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov expressed worry that the Yalta Agreement's wording might impede Stalin's plans, Stalin responded "Never mind. We'll do it our own way later.“ By March 21, Roosevelt's Ambassador to the USSR Averell Harriman cabled Roosevelt that "we must come clearly to realize that the Soviet program is the establishment of totalitarianism, ending personal liberty and democracy as we know it."
Post-Yalta Failures March 27, 1944, 16 members of Polish opposition party were invited to Moscow to participate in the agreed provisional government negotiations – On arrival, they were arrested by NKVD (GPU) agents and sentenced to GuLAGs – Eventually, fraudulent elections were held in Poland in Jan 1947 and established “official” Communist state by 1949 By March 21, Roosevelt's Ambassador to the USSR Averell Harriman cabled Roosevelt that "we must come clearly to realize that the Soviet program is the establishment of totalitarianism, ending personal liberty and democracy as we know it."
Operation Keelhaul By the end of World War II, there were over 5 million (maybe 8 ½ million) displaced Russians in Western Europe March 31, 1944 a secret codicil was added to Yalta agreement which would not be made public for 50 years – Churchill and FDR agreed to forcibly return these refugees to the Soviet Union – This was extended to include all Eastern Europeans – Considered “Western Betrayal” of Polish and non- Communist Russians (someone needs to do a paper on this one!)
Operation Keelhaul between August 14, 1946 and May 9, 1947 American and British forces rounded up these refugees and turned them over to Communist authorities – Treated as traitors and their fate was execution, torture and slave labor – Many were executed within earshot of British forces Polish soldiers, Cossacks, White-émigré Russians, Yugoslav partisans, OST-Arbeiter (Eastern Europeans captured and forced into slave labor by the Nazis) were among the betrayed
Beginning of the UN The UN Charter was finalized at the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO) 25 April 1945-26 June 1945 in San Francisco. The conference was chaired by U.S. diplomat Alger Hiss as Secretary General. The UN Charter was adopted by fifty nations including the US and ratified by the Senate with very little debate on July 28, 1945.
Iron Curtain Falls in Eastern Europe April 12, 1945, FDR died suddenly leaving the world including his Vice President (Truman) in shock At Potsdam Conference Truman, Attlee (replaced Churchill), Stalin met to conclude World War II which was still raging in Pacific Red Army occupied Eastern Germany, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania and refuges fled fearing Communist take-over. Stalin reiterated promises not to incorporate Eastern Europe into the Soviet bloc and to permit “self- determination”.
Iron Curtain With Churchill out of the picture, there was no resisting Stalin Truman was focused on ending the war with Japan and willing to make concessions – Unlike Wallace, Truman departed from FDR’s all out trust of Soviets (moderate liberal) – Member of Cabinet Henry Wallace insisted that the Soviets be trusted and should be catered to (progressive liberal) – This became the basis for elections in 1948, As the Soviet intentions became obvious, the progressives platform became unpopular (even though atrocities of repatriation were unknown to the public until 1994)
Iron Curtain Falls Not only didn’t the Red Army not pull out of Eastern Europe but rigged elections set up – Communist governments established in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Albania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia – Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Eastern Poland, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia became SSRs Truman had enough of Soviet atrocities and decided to get tough Cabinet divided, Wallace protested that we must continue FDR’s approach of currying favor with Soviets Secy State James F Byrnes demanded Truman dismiss the wayward cabinet member and Truman did on Sep 16, 1946
Truman Doctrine Next was Greece on the chopping block: – Communist guerillas supported by Albania, Bulgaria and mainly Yugoslavia tried to topple the governments of Greece and Turkey – First attempt by West to stop Soviet take over March 12, 1947 President Truman addressed joint session of Congress: – outlined a strategy of “containment” of Soviet advance – “Truman Doctrine” – Containment was a reactionary, restrictive diplomacy – “may well have contributed to the perpetuation of the Cold War.”
Greek Civil War Yugoslav Communist leader, Marshall Josip Broz Tito, led his country through World War II and afterward without the assistance of the Red Army. He despised Stalin’s despotism and finally broke with the Soviet Bloc in 1948 and remained as a non-aligned Communist country. Facing an unexpected dilemma, the Greek Communists elected to side with Stalin. In retaliation, Tito drove the Greeks out of Yugoslavia, dismantled the bases and closed Yugoslav borders. Without resources, the Greek Communists were eventually overrun and annihilated. 6 First application of Truman Doctrine Greek government managed to muster 90,000 troops supported by arms supplied initially by the UK and later by the US under the Truman Doctrine. Greek Communist forces were heavily reliant on support from Yugoslavia where they had established bases.
Checking the Growth of Communism in Europe Germany was in desperate straits: before the war, most of the food came from Eastern Europe After the iron curtain fell, food was cut of to the Western zones Russia incorporated Eastern Poland and to compensate gave the bread basket of East Germany to Poland US Morganthau plan called for deindustrialization of Germany to 50% of prewar levels
Marshall Plan For fear of Soviet misinterpretation of the European Recovery Program as an attempt to Americanize Western Europe, Secretary of State George C. Marshall declared, “our policy is not directed against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos.” Despite this, it was an important strategy designed to check the spread of Communism In June 1948, the United States engaged in a bold, ambitious plan to bolster up and rehabilitate post-war Europe, the European Recovery Program (“Marshall Plan”). Over a three year period, the plan cost American taxpayers $10.2 billion.
Success of Marshall Plan The popularity of indigenous Communist parties in the West, especially in Italy and France, was fueled by post war poverty. America wisely abandoned Morgenthau plan as recommended by former President Hoover Unlike Soviets who were in process of assimilating or stripping Eastern Europe, America helped Western Europe get back on its feet. By 1951, all countries that participated in Marshall plan had economies >35% improved over pre-war levels Marshall plan set up the first unified European economy by erasing trade barriers and setting up institutions to coordinate economic development across the continent
Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan Incompatible with Soviet plans to punish Germany & Europe Since Marshall Plan was offered to all European countries, Poland & Czechoslovakia were interested Stalin at first forbid Eastern Block participation, then realizing Poland & Czechs might rebel, countered with the COMECON equivalent of Marshall Plan Molotov accused US of forming a Western Bloc Stalin reprimanded CP of Poland, Czech, France & Italy for even considering aid from US: – Molotov and COMINTERN started “Public Relations” campaign against US calling America the new fascist government exercising “DOLLAR” imperialism in Europe CAN HE BLOCK IT?
The Second Crisis: Berlin Western Berlin like island, completely surrounded by Communist-controlled territory. The nearest non-communist city was 110 miles to the West. Marshall Plan & introduction new Deutche Mark (which isolated East Germany from the West economically) dramatically improved conditions in West Germany. Soviets, fearing a mass exodus from East to West, countered by introducing their own new Mark, 5 days later and shut off all power, supplies and roads leading to West Berlin in June 1948
Prelude to Berlin Crisis Berliners despise Soviets – For 2 months after Nazis surrender, Western Allies not permitted in Berlin – During this time, Red Army inflicted brutality on people 1946, Berlin voters strongly rejected Communist candidates with over 86% for opposition Never any formal agreement for access to West Berlin, only 3 air corridors permitted by Soviets – West relied on “goodwill” of USSR
Berlin Airlift When the Soviets cut off electricity, food and supplies to Western Berlin, The administration came up with an elegant and unprecedented plan: the Berlin Airlift. At one minute intervals, military transport aircraft took off with supplies every day for over a year. Soviet military aircraft began to violate West Berlin airspace and harass (or "buzz“) flights in and out of West Berlin. On April 5, 1948 a Soviet Air Force Yak-3 fighter collided with a British European Airways Vickers VC.1B Viking airliner near RAF Gatow airfield, killing all aboard both aircraft.
Berlin Airlift The airlift was so overwhelmingly successful and embarrassing to the Soviets that in May 1949, they lifted the blockade. The airlift continued another 3 months to build up a reserve. Some of the achievements of the airlift included: 1. 1,500 flights a day 2. lasted fifteen months 3. total of 278,228 flights 4. delivered 2,326,306 tons of food and supplies 5. 17 US and 8 British aircraft loss with total of 101 fatalities 6. Cost was$224 million (1949 dollars)
1948 Presidential Elections By end of 1948, support for USSR was unthinkable in USA Henry Wallace’s Progressive ticket was soft on Soviets ala FDR and failed to generate popular support Truman’s proven moderate stance received an overwhelming victory and Truman carried on for another term as President
Truman Takes it Up a Notch Bitter over the broken promises by the Soviet Union and mounting infidelity exhibited by Stalin’s regime, the Western Allies responded by forming a new alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This was the third and most enduring of the three foreign policy legacies established by the Truman administration: – Truman Doctrine (containment) – Marshall Plan (Economic Pact) – NATO (Defensive Pact)
Charter members were United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, Portugal and Iceland. Unlike the Marshall Plan, this was a military alliance, a defensive pact that if any one of the members of NATO were attacked, it would be considered an attack on them all.defensive
Concluding a Decade of Trouble At that same time, the NATO allies agreed to for an independent Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Incensed, the Soviets formed the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) extending the iron curtain further West. It was now apparent that the promised reunification of Germany was never going to happen. Furthermore, the Soviets shocked the world by detonating a nuclear weapon on August 29, 1949. Now with the hardening of the Soviet position and the widening rift between East and West, the world was now locked in a long and dreadful arms race which affected the lives of everyone on the face of the planet.