On December 7, 1941, Japan also attacked the islands of Wake, Guam and the Philippine Islands.
The Battle of Midway was a major naval battle, widely regarded as the most important of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. It took place from 4 June to 7 June 1942, approximately one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea and six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. The United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese carrier force and seizing the strategic initiative. This was a turning point in the war in the Pacific – the first major defeat of the Japanese military The Battle of Midway
The Battle of Leyte Gulf is generally considered to be the largest naval battle of World War II and also the largest naval battle in history. It was fought in waters near the Philippine island of Leyte from 23 to 26 October 1944, between naval and naval-air forces of the Allies and those of the Empire of Japan. The Battle of Leyte Gulf
On October 20, United States troops invaded the island of Leyte as part of a strategy aimed at isolating Japan from the countries it had occupied in South East Asia, and in particular depriving its forces and industry of vital oil supplies. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) mobilized nearly all of its remaining major naval vessels in an attempt to defeat the Allied invasion. The IJN failed to achieve its objective and suffered very heavy losses. The majority of its surviving heavy ships, deprived of fuel, remained in their bases for the rest of the Pacific War The Battle of Leyte Gulf
Kamikaze The Kamikaze ( 神風, common translation: "divine wind") were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy as many warships as possible.
The United States strategic bombing of Japan took place between 1942 and 1945. In the last seven months of the campaign, a change to firebombing tactics resulted in great destruction of 67 Japanese cities, as many as 500,000 Japanese deaths and some 5 million more made homeless. Emperor Hirohito's viewing of the destroyed areas of Tokyo in March 1945, is said to have been the beginning of his personal involvement in the peace process United States strategic bombing of Japan
United States warnings to Japan American military dropped leaflets, providing "advance notice" of bombings. These pamphlets declared they had no wish to harm civilians, only the military installations, and that the bombings could be stopped by demanding new Japanese leaders to stop the war. They also warned that Americans were developing vastly more powerful explosive devices.
The Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was the project, conducted during World War II primarily by the United States, to develop the first atomic bomb. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 for the Surrender of Japan. The Potsdam Declaration was issued by United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek that outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated that if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction The Potsdam Declaration “The New Big Three”
“The Highly Secret Matter” Directions: Turn to p. 188 in your notebooks. Read through the secret document and answer the questions.
Truman had been vice president for only 82 days when President Roosevelt died, April 12, 1945. He had had very little meaningful communication with Roosevelt after being sworn in as vice president. He was completely uninformed about major initiatives relating to the plan to end World War II. Shortly after taking the oath of office, Truman said to reporters: "Boys, if you ever pray, pray for me now. I don't know if you fellas ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me what happened yesterday, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me."
President Truman was quickly briefed on the plan as to how to end the war with Japan. He had to make a very difficult decision… Truman was quickly briefed on the Manhattan Project. According to his advisors, Truman had five basic options. 1.Use the Atomic Bomb on a strategic military city. 2.Demonstrate the bomb. 3.Invade the island of Japan. 4.Continue conventional bombing. 5.Negotiate peace.
Truman would make the decision to advocate the use of the Atomic bomb right before leaving for the Potsdam Conference in July of 1945. The Potsdam Agreement signed in August of 1945 was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations fighting in Europe after WWII. In a second document, called the Potsdam Declaration, Japan was warned to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction.”
Why did President Truman advocate the use of the Atomic bomb if there were other options???
Justification for the use of the atomic bomb against Japan: Hopefully it would be a quick end of the war. Keeps the Soviet Union out of mainland Japan. It was estimated that it would save over 1 million U.S. lives and 5 million Japanese lives. It was estimated that it would save over twice that of D- Day in costs of materials. It sends a message that we have it and we are not afraid to use it. We are the preeminent military power on the planet at that time.
Reasons that the use of the atomic bomb against Japan was not justified: Many believed that just a demonstration of the bomb would be enough. The consequences were unknown. Many of the greatest scientific minds said NOT to use it. It would unleash the “genie” from the bottle. Once it was used, we can never go back. What next?
"We were planning an invasion of Japan with the use of 2,000,000 men and the military has estimated that the invasion might result in very heavy casualties. In April, I had appointed an interim committee consisting of Secretary Stimson, Gorge L. Harrison, James H. Byrnes, William L. Clayton, Dr. Vannevar Bush, Dr. Carl T. Compton, and Dr. James B. Conant. Before I had left for Postdam, the committee recommended that the bomb be used against Japan. General Marshall said in Postdam that, if the bomb worked, we would save a quarter of a million American lives and probably save millions of Japanese. I gave careful thought to what my advisors had counseled. I wanted to weigh all the possibilities and implications. Here was the most powerful weapon of destruction ever devised and perhaps it was more than that... I then agreed to use the atomic bomb if Japan did not yield. I had reached a decision after long and careful thought. It was not an easy decision to make. I did not like the weapon, but I had no qualms if in the long run if millions of lives would be saved. The rest is history..." Quotation from President Truman included In Mr. President by William Hillman
On August 6, 1945, an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Colonel Tibbets on the Enola Gay. Crew aboard the Enola Gay.
The bomb nicknamed “Little Boy,” killed 70,000 people and injured 60,000 people. The mushroom cloud from the explosion over Hiroshima.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki: August 6 & 9, 1945 The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks near the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at the executive order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively. After six months of intense fire-bombing of 67 other Japanese cities, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945, followed on August 9 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. These are to date the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare. The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945, [ roughly half on the days of the bombings. [ Hiroshima Nagasaki
Even scientists were unsure what the effects of using such a weapon would be. The destruction in Hiroshima.
Still, the Japanese refused to surrender. Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. The destruction of a second major city convinced Japan’s leaders to give up. The bomb nicknamed, “Fat Man” killed 66,000 and injured another 40,000. The mushroom cloud from the explosion over Nagasaki.
After the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945. The victory was short-lived as images from Japan started to shock the world. Although Truman’s decision was controversial, he never regretted it. In more modern history, he is regarded as one of the most important presidents in United States history. …The rest is history.
Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day, also known as Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day) is a name chosen for the day on which the Surrender of Japan occurred, effectively ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. The term has been applied to both the day on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made in the afternoon of August 15, 1945 (August 14 North American date), as well as the date the formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo on September 2, 1945. V-J Day: Victory over Japan: August 15, 1945 American soldiers in Paris celebrating Times Square- NY
The Atomic Bomb Directions: Turn to p. 189 in your notebooks. Read the information about the Atomic Bomb, then answer the question at the bottom of the page. Make sure that you use factual information to support your decision.