Presentation on theme: "The Cold War and Civil Rights"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Cold War and Civil Rights POST WAR ERAThe Cold War and Civil Rights
2 Why did the United States and Soviet Union enter into the Cold War? THE BIG QUESTIONS:Why did the United States and Soviet Union enter into the Cold War?Why did the Cold War last so long?How did Civil Rights leaders change American Society?
3 THE COLD WARThe SUPERPOWERS, the U.S. and Soviet Union were the big rivals after WWIICalled the “Cold” war because both sides had nuclear weapons but never confronted each other directly in open warfare
4 ROOTS OF THE COLD WARCompeting ideological systems (democracy/free enterprise vs. communism)The U.S. wanted to spread democracy and free enterpriseThe Soviets wanted to spread Communism.Stalin was supposed to be creating a classless society that helped all workers, but actually established a brutal dictatorship under his absolute control.Suspected critics and opponents were arrested and sent to gulags (forced labor camps) in Siberia
5 CategorySoviet CommunismAmerican DemocracyPoliticalSystemOrganizationsEconomic SystemReligionIndividual Rights
6 THE SOVIET UNION’S IDEOLOGY One political party – CommunismAll labor groups and associations are run by the Communist PartyIndustries and farms are owned by the state, central planners determine economic needs for the nation, private property was limited, education and health care provided by the stateReligion was discouragedSecret police arrested opponents, censorship was common, people could not exercise beliefs freely
7 AMERICAN IDEOLOGY A multi-party democracy Unions and other organizations negotiated openly with employersFree enterprise, private ownership of property, supply and demand determined prices, people met their own needs with some limited government involvementFreedom of religionFreedom of the press and expression
8 Category Soviet Communism American Democracy Political System USE THE NOTES ON THE PREVIOUS SLIDES TO COMPLETE THE GRAPHIC ORGANIZER BELOW.CategorySoviet CommunismAmerican DemocracyPolitical SystemOrganizationsEconomic SystemReligionIndividual Rights
9 THE YALTA AND POSTDAM CONFERENCES In Feb. 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to plan the reorganization of Europe at the end of the warAgree on the formation of the United NationsAgreed that Germany would be divided into 4 occupation zonesAgreed to allow free elections in the countries they liberated (including Poland)6 months later, when Truman and Stalin met at the Potsdam Conference in Germany, serious differences began to emerge
10 THE COLD WAR BEGINSAfter the war, the Soviets saw a growing threat from capitalist governmentsStalin distrusted the WestHe created a wall of satellite countries as a buffer against future invasionsRefused to allow free elections in Poland and other countries it occupied in Eastern EuropeCut off trade between Eastern and Western Europe (closed the East to the West)The U.S. refused to share the secrets behind the atom bomb
11 ORIGINS OF THE U.S. CONTAINMENT POLICY American leaders responded to the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe by developing a policy of containment.Under this policy, they did not attempt to overturn Communism where it already existed, but resolved to prevent it from spreading further
12 Applying What You Have Learned: Speaking on a visit to Missouri, Winston Churchill told Americans in 1946 that “from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”What did Churchill mean by the phrase “iron curtain”?
13 He believed that economic and financial aid should be used first TRUMAN DOCTRINEWhen Communist rebels threatened Greece and Stalin pressured Turkey, Truman offered them military aidHe believed that economic and financial aid should be used firstDid not want to make the mistake of “appeasement” that had failed against Hitler
14 THE MARSHALL PLAN (1948)After 6 years of war, much of Europe faced famine due to decreased farm productionWhole cities had to be rebuiltTruman believed miserable and desperate people were more likely to turn to CommunismGeorge C. Marshall (Sec. of State) proposed that massive aid be given to war-torn European countries to help rebuild their economiesUnlike WWI, it included aid to Germany and ItalyCreated strong allies and trading partners for the U.S.
15 SUCCESS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN Greatly benefited the American economy in helping to rebuild war- torn EuropeSpeeded the economic recovery of Western Europe (from 1948 to 1952, European economies grew at an unprecedented rate)Created good will towards the U.S.
16 Berlin, the old capital, was located in the Soviet zone A DIVIDED GERMANYIn 1948, the French, British, & Americans merged their German zones of occupation into a single state, West GermanyBerlin, the old capital, was located in the Soviet zoneThe Soviets reacted to the merging of the Western zones by announcing a blockade of West Berlin, closing all highway and railroad links to the West
17 Western Allies refused to abandon West Berlin THE BERLIN AIRLIFTWestern Allies refused to abandon West BerlinThey began a massive airlift to feed and supply the cityWithin a year, Stalin lifted the Soviet blockadeThe U.S. and its allies had shown that they would not retreat when faced with aggressive behavior by the Soviet Union
18 ASSIGNMENT:Using the previous slides on the powerpoint, complete the first three boxes on your graphic organizer “Roots of The Cold War”.
19 Soviet vs. American Systems: Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan: ROOTS OF THE COLD WARBerlin Airlift:Formation of NATO:Communism in China:
20 FORMATION OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was made up of the U.S., Canada, and 10 Western European countries (1949)Based on the concept of collective securityEach member pledged to defend every other member if attackedThe U.S. extended its umbrella of protection from nuclear weapons to Western EuropeThe Soviets responded by creating the Warsaw Pact with its Eastern European satellites in 1955
21 FRICTION BEHIND THE IRON CURTAIN Although Americans condemned Soviet acts of force, the U.S. never directly intervened behind the Iron CurtainSoviet leaders successfully suppressed an anti-Communist revolution that broke out in Hungary in 1956They erected the Berlin Wall in 1961 to prevent East Germans from escaping to the Westinvaded Czechoslovakia in 1968 to overthrow a Czech reform government
22 CONTAINMENT IN ASIAJust when Americans believed their containment policy had stopped the spread of Communism in Europe, the world’s most populous country became Communist in AsiaThe question was raised: could American leaders check the spread of Communism, not only in Europe, but around the world?
23 CHINA FALLS TO COMMUNISM, 1949 Communists had tried to overthrow the Nationalist government in China since the 1920sAfter 1945, they were helped by the SovietsCommunists led by Mao Zedong defeated the Nationalists in 1949Nationalist leaders fled to the island of TaiwanMao created the world’s largest Communist state
24 U.S. REACTION TO COMMUNIST CHINA Considered a crushing blow to the U.S.Truman refused to extend diplomatic recognition to Communist ChinaUsing its veto power in the United Nations, the U.S. also prevented “Red China” from being admitted to the U.N.Also pledged to protect the Nationalist government on Taiwan against any Communist attacks
25 ASSIGNMENT:Using the previous slides on the powerpoint, complete the graphic organizer “Roots of The Cold War”.
26 The South was a non-communist state with an elected government THE KOREAN WARMany Americans criticized U.S. foreign policy, because they believed the government had not done enough to prevent the fall of China to CommunismAfter WWII, Korea (a former Japanese colony) was divided into two zonesThe South was a non-communist state with an elected governmentThe North was under communist rule
27 CONTINUED…In 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea to try to unify the country under Communist ruleReminded of Nazi aggression before WWII, President Truman decided to oppose the North KoreansThe U.S. was able to get the United Nations to pass a resolution to send U.N. troops to KoreaThis was the first time an international peace keeping force was used to force a halt to aggression
28 CONTINUED… General Douglas MacArthur commanded U.N. forces The U.N. forces were able to push the North Koreans back to their border and liberate SeoulMacArthur then attacked North Korea and advanced toward the North Korean border with ChinaThis brought a large Chinese army into the war, forcing MacArthur to retreat
29 CONTINUED…Truman and MacArthur openly disagreed about tactics of the warMacArthur was relieved of his command (an unpopular step in the U.S.)In 1952, Dwight Eisenhower was elected President and pledged to end the warAn armistice was signed in 1953It provided for a demilitarized zone between North and South Korea and a transfer of prisoners of war (Korea was divided exactly as it had been before the war)
30 Korean forces invaded South Korea Complete the flow chart using information from the powerpoint about the Korean War:KOREAN WAR FLOW CHARTIn 1950, NorthKorean forces invaded SouthKoreaAn armistice was signed in 1953 – Korea is divided as it was before the war
31 THE ARMS RACEBy 1949, the Soviets had developed the atomic bomb leading to a nuclear “arms race”In 1952, the U.S. developed the hydrogen bomb, which was immensely more powerful than the original atom bombThe Soviet Union exploded their first hydrogen bomb a year laterIn the 1950s, U.S. military leaders used nuclear weapons as a deterrent rather than rely on a large military force
33 THE SPACE RACEIn 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite into spaceSputnik was a little larger than a basketball, weighed 184 pounds, and orbited the earth once every 98 minutes and was tracked by transmitting radio signalsThis began a space race, since Americans were afraid the Soviets would use missiles to launch bombs and felt the U.S. was falling behindThe U.S. government started new programs in science education and also launched its own satellite in 1958
34 ADVANCES IN MEDICINE The post-war period saw many advances in medicine Antibiotics treated infections and gave new hopes for curesJonas Salk developed the first vaccine for polio (paralyzed thousands of American children each year). He used a dead virus as the basis for the vaccineMeasles vaccineFirst heart transplantDiscovery of streptomycin, an antibiotic to treat tuberculosis
35 The house un-american activities committee Truman established Loyalty Review Boards to investigate individual “un- American” activities (such as participation in the American Communist Party)Many Americans were accused of actions on very little evidence and had no way to defend themselves (this violated their constitutional rights)
36 Some, like Alger Hiss, were later prosecuted for perjury CONTINUED…Congress established the House Un-American Activities Committee to conduct its own loyalty checksThe committee questions actors, directors, writers, and others about possible Communist sympathiesThose identified with ties to Communism were frequently “Blacklisted” and lost their jobsSome, like Alger Hiss, were later prosecuted for perjuryThose that cooperated, were often asked to inform on others
37 THE ROSENBERG TRIALSIn 1950, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were charged with selling national secrets to the Soviet Union about making the atomic bombThey were found guilty and executed for spyingSome people doubted their guilt (they were reminded of the Sacco & Venzetti case in the 20s)However, the Verona Papers (released in 1997) revealed the identities of several Americans who had spied for the Soviets, and Julius Rosenberg was on it
38 THE McCARTHY HEARINGSThe fall of China increased fears of internal subversion (people wanting to break up our democracy)Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed he knew the names of hundreds of Communists who had influenced the State Department and other government agenciesLike the Red Scare, McCarthy’s allegations created fearThree years of hearings never provided concrete evidence or proof of his charges“McCarthyism” is making harsh accusations without evidence
39 THE ARMS RACE:THE SPACE RACE:ADVANCES IN MEDICINE:THE COLD WAR AT HOMEHOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE:ROSENBERG TRIAL/VENONA PAPERS:“McCARTHYISM:
40 THE EISENHOWER PRESIDENCY (1953-1960) Foreign Policy:Gave control of foreign policy to John Foster Dulles, his Secretary of StateSought to contain the spread of Communism by preventing the Soviets from gaining additional influenceIn 1957, Eisenhower announced he would send U.S. forces to any Middle Eastern nation that requested help in defending against Communism (Eisenhower Doctrine)Signed a series of treaties around the world to contain Communism
41 CONTINUED… Domestic Policy: The 1950s was a period of recovery and economic growthVeterans received special benefits like low interest rates and educational grantsEisenhower signed the Interstate Highway Act (1956) creating a system of federal highwaysDefense spending remained high because of the Cold WarA time of prosperity and growth of the middle class
42 DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE EISENHOWER PRESIDENCY Housing Boom. This was a time of high birth rates, known as the “baby boom.” This boom and the G.I. Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944) helping veterans led developers to build cheaper, mass-produced housing. Home ownership increased by 50%. The movement of middle-income families to the suburbs led to a declining urban tax base and decaying inner cities.DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE EISENHOWER PRESIDENCYEconomic Prosperity. The demand for consumer goods reached all-time highs. Millions of autos and TV sets were sold. The use of refrigerators and other appliances became widespread. The gross domestic product doubled between 1945 and America dominated world trade.Conformity. In the 1950s, there was a greater emphasis on conformity. Unusual ideas were regarded with suspicion. Fear of Communism strengthened the dislike of non-conformist attitudes.