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The Cold War and Civil Rights

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1 The Cold War and Civil Rights
POST WAR ERA The Cold War and Civil Rights

2 Why did the United States and Soviet Union enter into the Cold War?
THE BIG QUESTIONS: Why did the United States and Soviet Union enter into the Cold War? Why did the Cold War last so long? How did Civil Rights leaders change American Society?

3 THE COLD WAR The SUPERPOWERS, the U.S. and Soviet Union were the big rivals after WWII Called the “Cold” war because both sides had nuclear weapons but never confronted each other directly in open warfare

4 ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR Competing ideological systems (democracy/free enterprise vs. communism) The U.S. wanted to spread democracy and free enterprise The Soviets wanted to spread Communism. Stalin was supposed to be creating a classless society that helped all workers, but actually established a brutal dictatorship under his absolute control. Suspected critics and opponents were arrested and sent to gulags (forced labor camps) in Siberia

5 Category Soviet Communism American Democracy Political System Organizations Economic System Religion Individual Rights

One political party – Communism All labor groups and associations are run by the Communist Party Industries and farms are owned by the state, central planners determine economic needs for the nation, private property was limited, education and health care provided by the state Religion was discouraged Secret police arrested opponents, censorship was common, people could not exercise beliefs freely

7 AMERICAN IDEOLOGY A multi-party democracy
Unions and other organizations negotiated openly with employers Free enterprise, private ownership of property, supply and demand determined prices, people met their own needs with some limited government involvement Freedom of religion Freedom of the press and expression

8 Category Soviet Communism American Democracy Political System
USE THE NOTES ON THE PREVIOUS SLIDES TO COMPLETE THE GRAPHIC ORGANIZER BELOW. Category Soviet Communism American Democracy Political System Organizations Economic System Religion Individual Rights

In Feb. 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta to plan the reorganization of Europe at the end of the war Agree on the formation of the United Nations Agreed that Germany would be divided into 4 occupation zones Agreed to allow free elections in the countries they liberated (including Poland) 6 months later, when Truman and Stalin met at the Potsdam Conference in Germany, serious differences began to emerge

10 THE COLD WAR BEGINS After the war, the Soviets saw a growing threat from capitalist governments Stalin distrusted the West He created a wall of satellite countries as a buffer against future invasions Refused to allow free elections in Poland and other countries it occupied in Eastern Europe Cut off trade between Eastern and Western Europe (closed the East to the West) The U.S. refused to share the secrets behind the atom bomb

American leaders responded to the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe by developing a policy of containment. Under this policy, they did not attempt to overturn Communism where it already existed, but resolved to prevent it from spreading further

12 Applying What You Have Learned:
Speaking on a visit to Missouri, Winston Churchill told Americans in 1946 that “from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” What did Churchill mean by the phrase “iron curtain”?

13 He believed that economic and financial aid should be used first
TRUMAN DOCTRINE When Communist rebels threatened Greece and Stalin pressured Turkey, Truman offered them military aid He believed that economic and financial aid should be used first Did not want to make the mistake of “appeasement” that had failed against Hitler

14 THE MARSHALL PLAN (1948) After 6 years of war, much of Europe faced famine due to decreased farm production Whole cities had to be rebuilt Truman believed miserable and desperate people were more likely to turn to Communism George C. Marshall (Sec. of State) proposed that massive aid be given to war-torn European countries to help rebuild their economies Unlike WWI, it included aid to Germany and Italy Created strong allies and trading partners for the U.S.

Greatly benefited the American economy in helping to rebuild war- torn Europe Speeded the economic recovery of Western Europe (from 1948 to 1952, European economies grew at an unprecedented rate) Created good will towards the U.S.

16 Berlin, the old capital, was located in the Soviet zone
A DIVIDED GERMANY In 1948, the French, British, & Americans merged their German zones of occupation into a single state, West Germany Berlin, the old capital, was located in the Soviet zone The Soviets reacted to the merging of the Western zones by announcing a blockade of West Berlin, closing all highway and railroad links to the West

17 Western Allies refused to abandon West Berlin
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT Western Allies refused to abandon West Berlin They began a massive airlift to feed and supply the city Within a year, Stalin lifted the Soviet blockade The U.S. and its allies had shown that they would not retreat when faced with aggressive behavior by the Soviet Union

18 ASSIGNMENT: Using the previous slides on the powerpoint, complete the first three boxes on your graphic organizer “Roots of The Cold War”.

19 Soviet vs. American Systems: Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan:
ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR Berlin Airlift: Formation of NATO: Communism in China:

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was made up of the U.S., Canada, and 10 Western European countries (1949) Based on the concept of collective security Each member pledged to defend every other member if attacked The U.S. extended its umbrella of protection from nuclear weapons to Western Europe The Soviets responded by creating the Warsaw Pact with its Eastern European satellites in 1955

Although Americans condemned Soviet acts of force, the U.S. never directly intervened behind the Iron Curtain Soviet leaders successfully suppressed an anti-Communist revolution that broke out in Hungary in 1956 They erected the Berlin Wall in 1961 to prevent East Germans from escaping to the West invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968 to overthrow a Czech reform government

22 CONTAINMENT IN ASIA Just when Americans believed their containment policy had stopped the spread of Communism in Europe, the world’s most populous country became Communist in Asia The question was raised: could American leaders check the spread of Communism, not only in Europe, but around the world?

Communists had tried to overthrow the Nationalist government in China since the 1920s After 1945, they were helped by the Soviets Communists led by Mao Zedong defeated the Nationalists in 1949 Nationalist leaders fled to the island of Taiwan Mao created the world’s largest Communist state

Considered a crushing blow to the U.S. Truman refused to extend diplomatic recognition to Communist China Using its veto power in the United Nations, the U.S. also prevented “Red China” from being admitted to the U.N. Also pledged to protect the Nationalist government on Taiwan against any Communist attacks

25 ASSIGNMENT: Using the previous slides on the powerpoint, complete the graphic organizer “Roots of The Cold War”.

26 The South was a non-communist state with an elected government
THE KOREAN WAR Many Americans criticized U.S. foreign policy, because they believed the government had not done enough to prevent the fall of China to Communism After WWII, Korea (a former Japanese colony) was divided into two zones The South was a non-communist state with an elected government The North was under communist rule

27 CONTINUED… In 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea to try to unify the country under Communist rule Reminded of Nazi aggression before WWII, President Truman decided to oppose the North Koreans The U.S. was able to get the United Nations to pass a resolution to send U.N. troops to Korea This was the first time an international peace keeping force was used to force a halt to aggression

28 CONTINUED… General Douglas MacArthur commanded U.N. forces
The U.N. forces were able to push the North Koreans back to their border and liberate Seoul MacArthur then attacked North Korea and advanced toward the North Korean border with China This brought a large Chinese army into the war, forcing MacArthur to retreat

29 CONTINUED… Truman and MacArthur openly disagreed about tactics of the war MacArthur was relieved of his command (an unpopular step in the U.S.) In 1952, Dwight Eisenhower was elected President and pledged to end the war An armistice was signed in 1953 It provided for a demilitarized zone between North and South Korea and a transfer of prisoners of war (Korea was divided exactly as it had been before the war)

30 Korean forces invaded South Korea
Complete the flow chart using information from the powerpoint about the Korean War: KOREAN WAR FLOW CHART In 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea An armistice was signed in 1953 – Korea is divided as it was before the war

31 THE ARMS RACE By 1949, the Soviets had developed the atomic bomb leading to a nuclear “arms race” In 1952, the U.S. developed the hydrogen bomb, which was immensely more powerful than the original atom bomb The Soviet Union exploded their first hydrogen bomb a year later In the 1950s, U.S. military leaders used nuclear weapons as a deterrent rather than rely on a large military force


33 THE SPACE RACE In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite into space Sputnik was a little larger than a basketball, weighed 184 pounds, and orbited the earth once every 98 minutes and was tracked by transmitting radio signals This began a space race, since Americans were afraid the Soviets would use missiles to launch bombs and felt the U.S. was falling behind The U.S. government started new programs in science education and also launched its own satellite in 1958

34 ADVANCES IN MEDICINE The post-war period saw many advances in medicine
Antibiotics treated infections and gave new hopes for cures Jonas Salk developed the first vaccine for polio (paralyzed thousands of American children each year). He used a dead virus as the basis for the vaccine Measles vaccine First heart transplant Discovery of streptomycin, an antibiotic to treat tuberculosis

35 The house un-american activities committee
Truman established Loyalty Review Boards to investigate individual “un- American” activities (such as participation in the American Communist Party) Many Americans were accused of actions on very little evidence and had no way to defend themselves (this violated their constitutional rights)

36 Some, like Alger Hiss, were later prosecuted for perjury
CONTINUED… Congress established the House Un-American Activities Committee to conduct its own loyalty checks The committee questions actors, directors, writers, and others about possible Communist sympathies Those identified with ties to Communism were frequently “Blacklisted” and lost their jobs Some, like Alger Hiss, were later prosecuted for perjury Those that cooperated, were often asked to inform on others

37 THE ROSENBERG TRIALS In 1950, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were charged with selling national secrets to the Soviet Union about making the atomic bomb They were found guilty and executed for spying Some people doubted their guilt (they were reminded of the Sacco & Venzetti case in the 20s) However, the Verona Papers (released in 1997) revealed the identities of several Americans who had spied for the Soviets, and Julius Rosenberg was on it

38 THE McCARTHY HEARINGS The fall of China increased fears of internal subversion (people wanting to break up our democracy) Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed he knew the names of hundreds of Communists who had influenced the State Department and other government agencies Like the Red Scare, McCarthy’s allegations created fear Three years of hearings never provided concrete evidence or proof of his charges “McCarthyism” is making harsh accusations without evidence


Foreign Policy: Gave control of foreign policy to John Foster Dulles, his Secretary of State Sought to contain the spread of Communism by preventing the Soviets from gaining additional influence In 1957, Eisenhower announced he would send U.S. forces to any Middle Eastern nation that requested help in defending against Communism (Eisenhower Doctrine) Signed a series of treaties around the world to contain Communism

41 CONTINUED… Domestic Policy:
The 1950s was a period of recovery and economic growth Veterans received special benefits like low interest rates and educational grants Eisenhower signed the Interstate Highway Act (1956) creating a system of federal highways Defense spending remained high because of the Cold War A time of prosperity and growth of the middle class

Housing Boom. This was a time of high birth rates, known as the “baby boom.” This boom and the G.I. Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944) helping veterans led developers to build cheaper, mass-produced housing. Home ownership increased by 50%. The movement of middle-income families to the suburbs led to a declining urban tax base and decaying inner cities. DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE EISENHOWER PRESIDENCY Economic Prosperity. The demand for consumer goods reached all-time highs. Millions of autos and TV sets were sold. The use of refrigerators and other appliances became widespread. The gross domestic product doubled between 1945 and America dominated world trade. Conformity. In the 1950s, there was a greater emphasis on conformity. Unusual ideas were regarded with suspicion. Fear of Communism strengthened the dislike of non-conformist attitudes.

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