Presentation on theme: "Truman’s Decision To Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki:."— Presentation transcript:
Truman’s Decision To Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki:
Nuclear Weapons “Nuclear weapons have changed everything, except our modes of thought.“ (Albert Einstein)
The Build-up The fear of a German Atomic Bomb The failure of the German Program The role of the German scientists
Germany/Japan The human cost of a longer war.
Means of Last Resort? Were there other ways to end the war? Use v. Demonstration
Means v. Ends The U.S. Demand for Unconditional surrender
Direct Attack on the Innocent Was it murder?
“ The assessment of criminal responsibility is the crucial test of the argument of justice” “If there are recognizable war crimes, there must be recognizable war criminals. If there is such a thing as aggression, there must be aggressors.” – Walzer, p. 287
The Nuremberg Trials “Trials like those that took place at Nuremberg after World War II seem to me to both defensible and necessary, the law must provide some recourse when our deepest moral values are savagely attacked. But such trials by no means exhaust the field of judgment.” -- Walzer, p. 288
Common Human Basis “The men and women who lead their people into war owe them and us an accounting... All of us are capable of judging the acts of political leaders and we commonly do so. Nor does legal (political) soverignty any longer provide protection against external judgments. Here Nuremberg is the decisive precedent.” -- Walzer, pp
Aggression, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity At Nuremberg, the crime of aggression (“crimes against peace”) was said to involve “the planning, preparation, initiation and waging of [aggressive] war.” Crimes against Peace Conspiracy to Commit Crimes against Peace War Crimes Crimes against Humanity The IMT: The Ministries Case
Ex post facto Justice? Victors’ Justice? The Case of Ernst von Weizsacker ( State Secretary of the Germasn Foreign Ministry from second only to von Ribbentrop)
The Mylai Massacre Captain Medina Lieutenant Calley The American Soldiers under their command The case for/the case against/ the case for extenuation; heat of battle, guerilla war, duress and moral loneliness