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President Harry S. Truman Libertyville HS. Election of 1944 Dem nominee: FDR (of course... ) GOP nominee: Thomas Dewey (NY governor) Campaign focused.

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Presentation on theme: "President Harry S. Truman Libertyville HS. Election of 1944 Dem nominee: FDR (of course... ) GOP nominee: Thomas Dewey (NY governor) Campaign focused."— Presentation transcript:

1 President Harry S. Truman Libertyville HS

2 Election of 1944 Dem nominee: FDR (of course... ) GOP nominee: Thomas Dewey (NY governor) Campaign focused on New Deal, FDR’s popularity Wartime successes during campaign – Liberation of Paris – Battle of Leyte Gulf Results Roosevelt:432 ECV / 25.6 million Dewey: 99 ECV / 22 million

3 Death of FDR FDR, 62 years, was dying – Paralysis (polio) – Lifetime chain smoker – High blood pressure – Emphysema – Atherosclerosis – Severe heart disease April 12, 1945: FDR died while sitting for portrait His death shocked the nation

4 Harry S. Truman ( ) Missourian No college degree (2 years) Served in WWI (Artillery) Elected to US Senate from MO, in 1934 – “Truman Committee” investigated fraud, mismanagement in military during WWII Selected VP in 1944 (didn’t want it) VP 82 days before becoming president

5 President Truman Asked all members of FDR’s cabinet to stay – Central principle of his admin: they advise, he decides, they support – “The Buck Stops Here” – “If you can’t stand the heat…” Avid walker through DC Called “the common man’s common man” (down home, folksy)

6 Truman: Foreign policy challenges United Nations – Truman strongly supported institution Soviet Union – Aggressively spreading communism in Greece, Eastern Europe, Turkey – “Truman Doctrine”: policy of containment of USSR – US would support “free peoples resisting subjugation” Recognition of Israel, May 14, 1948

7 Truman: Foreign policy challenges Rebuilding Europe: The Marshall Plan – Reconstruction of participating European states – “Softer” side of Truman Doctrine – Great success in resisting communism and helping Europe rebuild ($12.2 billion over 4 years) Cold War – Truman started policy of confronting USSR, ideologically – Re-organized military services – Created CIA – Created National Security Council Marshall Plan recipients; red bar Shows relative total aid per state

8 Truman: Domestic Transition Goals of administration for postwar America – Make transition from wartime to a prosperous peace time economy – Resume and extend New Deal social programs Fear: returning vets would cause spike in unemployment, like after WWI

9 Truman: Domestic Transition “G. I. Bill of Rights” (1944) would aid GIs’ return to civilian life – Education (free college education – 51% of vets) – Housing (100% loans for homes) – Business (loans to start) – Farm (100% loans to buy farms) – 1 year unemployment comp

10 Truman: Domestic Transition Employment Act of 1946 – Gov’t effort to control economy of US – Goals Promote maximum employment Promote maximum production Promote maximum purchasing power – Created Council of Economic Advisors Advise, assist President in forming economic policy – Created Joint Economic Committee: joint congressional committee to study, plan policies

11 Resurgent GOP Post war problems in US – Inflation increasing – Labor unrest – Wartime economic controls still in place – World tensions (USSR) “Voter fatigue” – After 14 years of unified Democratic control of gov’t, people wanted change – GOP Slogan: “Had enough?” 1946 Congressional midterm elections – +55 GOP in House, +12 in Senate – GOP in control (last in 1928)

12 Legislative Accomplishments of the “Do Nothing” Congress Congressional approval of the 22 nd Amendment (President limited to 2 terms) Taft-Hartley Act – Allowed states to adopt “right to work” rules – Drove communists out of labor movement – Adjusted balance of NLRA between business, labor – Unions HATED it!!! Ended wage, price controls (but NOT rent controls) Passed major tax cut

13 Truman & Civil Rights Commission to study issue – 1947 report – Create Civil Rights Commission – Punish lynching – Abolish poll tax – Create fair employment commission Blasted by Southern Democrats as DOA Truman 1948 Exec Orders – Desegregated federal work force – Desegregated military

14 1948 Election Truman ran on promise of a “Fair Deal” – National health insurance – Repeal of Taft-Hartley – Aggressive civil rights laws GOP : Thomas Dewey – Controlled Eastern GOP machine “Dixiecrats”: Strom Thurmond – Continue racial segregation “Progressives”: Henry Wallace – FDR’s VP, from – Called for closer relations with USSR – Universal health care

15 1948 Election Three way split in Democratic party! GOP unified, in control of Congress = very confident Result? Results Truman:303 ECV / 24.1 million Dewey:189 ECV / 22 million Thurmond: 39 ECV / 1.1 million Dems regained control of Congress!!

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17 Truman’s Second Term Dominated by foreign affairs, due to containment doctrine Berlin Airlift Formation of NATO, 1949 Founding of People’s Republic of China, 1949 Soviet espionage and the A-bomb Korean War Support for French in Vietnam


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