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Origins of the Cold War Essential Questions: Why did tension develop and escalate between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. at the end of WWII? How did the U.S. counter.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of the Cold War Essential Questions: Why did tension develop and escalate between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. at the end of WWII? How did the U.S. counter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of the Cold War Essential Questions: Why did tension develop and escalate between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. at the end of WWII? How did the U.S. counter the communist threat?

2 I. Post-WWII outcomes? 1) United Nations- formed near end of WWII as a body of nations to prevent future global wars What organization had been formed at the end of WWI to prevent global war?

3 2) Japan: -Occupied by American forces -Adopts democratic form of government (MacArthur Const.) -Resumed self-gov’t -Ally of U.S. Look on the bottom of your grandparent’s figurines to see if they were made in “occupied Japan.” I. Post-WWII outcomes?

4 3) Europe: -Lay in ruins -Soviet controlled East Europe -Germany divided into East (Communist) and West (Democratic) Divided Berlin I. Post-WWII outcomes?

5 4) Origins of Cold War What do we mean by Cold War??? I. Post-WWII outcomes?

6 Cold War - Ideological Differences Old WoundsSuspicionsManhattan ProjectControl of Europe Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

7 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Old WoundsSuspicionsManhattan ProjectControl of Europe Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

8 Cold War- 45 year competition about values. (end of WWII-collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 — 8 presidents) OR COLD WAR U.S. and West -Democracy -Individual Freedom -Market economy Soviet Union and East -Totalitarianism -Socialism: state centered -Communist II. Cold War: Defined

9 “Make Mine Freedom” (1948) Produced by Harding College How does this video portray capitalism? How does this video portray communism?

10 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old WoundsSuspicionsManhattan ProjectControl of Europe Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

11 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 SuspicionsManhattan ProjectControl of Europe Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

12 The Bolshevik Revolution

13 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan ProjectControl of Europe Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

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15 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan Project The Soviets were left out of the Manhattan Project (the US, UK, & Canada worked together to develop the atomic bomb) Control of Europe Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

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17 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan Project The Soviets were left out of the Manhattan Project (the US, UK, & Canada worked together to develop the atomic bomb) Control of Europe The US & USSR had major disagreements over the future of Post-War Germany & Eastern Europe (At Yalta & Potsdam) Early Causes of Cold War Tension America’s Policy of Containment The Truman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

18 The Yalta Conference (February 4 to February 11, 1945) The Potsdam Conference (July 16 to August 2, 1945)

19 Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech” Westminster College (March 5, 1946) The Cold War is Declared *Stettin & Triest (on map) *Berlin, Prague, & Vienna (on map) *A fifth column is a group of people who secretly undermine a nation from within. During WW2, these fears led to the internment of Americans of Japanese and German descent. Baltic Sea Adriatic Sea

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23 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan Project The Soviets were left out of the Manhattan Project (the US, UK, & Canada worked together to develop the atomic bomb) Control of Europe The US & USSR had major disagreements over the future of Post-War Germany & Eastern Europe (At Yalta & Potsdam) Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman Doctrine The stated Cold War policy of President Truman announced in 1947 pledging U.S. support for “free peoples” resisting communism The Marshall PlanNATONSC-68

24 Harry Truman delivered the speech that would spell out the “Truman Doctrine” on March 12, 1947 before a Joint Session of Congress

25 ***CONTAINMENT- Do not let Communism spread, resist it; reduce influence of Soviet Union. Truman Doctrine- Help “free peoples” resist Communism Give aid to Greece and Turkey to contain Communism – avoid having them fall under the influence of the Soviet Union Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Harry Truman ( )

26 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan Project The Soviets were left out of the Manhattan Project (the US, UK, & Canada worked together to develop the atomic bomb) Control of Europe The US & USSR had major disagreements over the future of Post-War Germany & Eastern Europe (At Yalta & Potsdam) Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman Doctrine The stated Cold War policy of President Truman announced in 1947 pledging U.S. support for “free peoples” resisting communism The Marshall Plan 1947 program of economic recovery after WWII, financed by the U.S., which was intended to help European countries rebuild and resist communism NATONSC-68

27 Marshall Plan- massive financial aid to rebuild Europe. George Marshall III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy

28 St. Louis Post-Dispatch Editorial Cartoon Collection, November 28, 1947 St. Louis Post-Dispatch Editorial Cartoon Collection, July 20, 1947

29 Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Berlin Airlift ( )- Soviets block access to west Berlin. Truman orders supplies airlifted. *2.3 million tons of supplies 8-4gw&feature=related

30 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan Project The Soviets were left out of the Manhattan Project (the US, UK, & Canada worked together to develop the atomic bomb) Control of Europe The US & USSR had major disagreements over the future of Post-War Germany & Eastern Europe (At Yalta & Potsdam) Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman Doctrine The stated Cold War policy of President Truman announced in 1947 pledging U.S. support for “free peoples” resisting communism The Marshall Plan 1947 program of economic recovery after WWII, financed by the U.S., which was intended to help European countries rebuild and resist communism NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) military alliance established in 1949 with a goal of collective security (the USSR responded by forming the Warsaw Pact in 1955) NSC-68

31 NATO vs. The Warsaw Pact Cold War Alliances NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, The organization established a system of collective security whereby its member states agreed to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Warsaw Pact a military alliance that was formed to counter the perceived threat from the NATO alliance. The treaty was signed in Warsaw, Poland on May 14, 1955.

32 Cold War - A state of tension and hostility between nations that falls short of direct military confrontation. A Cold War began between the U.S. and the USSR after WWII and ended circa 1991 after the fall of the USSR. Ideological Differences Soviets feared capitalist exploitation & Americans feared revolutionary oppressive communism Old Wounds The U.S. ended diplomatic relations w/Russia in 1917& did not extend diplomatic recognition to the USSR until 1933 Suspicions A delayed allied invasion on the Western Front during WWII (June 1944) led to massive Soviet casualties on the Eastern Front… did the US want a weakened USSR? Manhattan Project The Soviets were left out of the Manhattan Project (the US, UK, & Canada worked together to develop the atomic bomb) Control of Europe The US & USSR had major disagreements over the future of Post-War Germany & Eastern Europe (At Yalta & Potsdam) Early Causes of Cold War Tension Responses to Cold War Tension The Truman Doctrine The stated Cold War policy of President Truman announced in 1947 pledging U.S. support for “free peoples” resisting communism The Marshall Plan 1947 program of economic recovery after WWII, financed by the U.S., which was intended to help European countries rebuild and resist communism NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) military alliance formed by U.S., Canada, 10 other countries; pledged to help one another if attacked (collective security) Warsaw Pact Soviet response to NATO. Included Soviet Union and 7 satellites in Eastern Europe. Cemented division of Europe into eastern and western blocs.

33 NSC – 68 Highlight the part of the text that answers the following questions: According to NSC-68 (section V.), what is the objective of the Kremlin? According to NSC-68 (section VI.), what is our overall policy? According to NSC-68 (section VI.), what are the goals of containment policy? According to NSC-68 (section VII.), what is the impact of the Soviets in possession of atomic weapons? How is NSC-68 different from the Marshall Plan? cuments/sectioned.php?pagenumber=38&documentdate= &documentid=10-1

34 1949 Soviet Union successfully explodes an atomic bomb st Hydrogen Bomb tested by U. S. *Much more powerful than the Atomic Bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki THE STAKES ARE HIGH (BOTH U.S. and Soviet Union hold capability to destroy each other)

35 (1949)- Mao Zedong leads Communist takeover in China (rival to Soviet Union) REACTION: Increased fears of communist domination U.S. spent $3 million in support of Nationalist, Chiang Kai-shek, only to have failed! Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy

36 After WWII, Japan surrendered Korea to the Allies Russia occupied Northern half, the US occupied the Southern half Dividing line was 38 th parallel North Korea – communist June, 1950 Communist North Korea invades across the 38 th parallel, attacking democratic South Korea Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Apply Cold War policy: What should be the main objective in the Korean War? Korean War ( ):

37 U.N. pass a resolution and request that North Koreans withdraw, they refuse U.N. troops (made up of 90% Americans) defend South Korea First test of UN – first time used military force against aggressor Led by Douglas MacArthur Called a “police action” no formal declaration of war Able to push North Koreans out

38 U.N. Security Council meets to discuss Korean Crisis Who is accused of aiding the North Koreans? What are some of the key questions before the U.N.? n-Acheson_speech_Korea-war_American-flag

39 MacArthur advances into North Korea 300,000 Communist Chinese troops come into war on side of North Korea Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy

40 Stalemate at 38 th parallel – continues to be a divided country 54,000 Americans die Billions of Dollars spent MacArthur wants to carry war into China, Truman does not. MacArthur publicly pushes for all out war President Truman believed that General MacArthur’s conduct threatened the concept of civilian control over the military MacArthur fired for insubordination

41 Robert Richards, Copley Press asks: “Mr. President, would you mind commenting on the strategic importance of Indochina (Vietnam) for the free world? I think there has been, across the country, some lack of understanding on just what it means to us.” President Eisenhower responds: “…you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the "falling domino" principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly.” PRESIDENT DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER Presidential Press Conference April 7, 1954 Apply the domino theory to Harry Truman’s policy of containment. Explain how they are related to each other in 3 to 5 lines.

42 Who won the 1952 election?

43 IV. Cold War: Dwight Eisenhower (“massive retaliation”)

44 V. COLD WAR: HOMEFRONT **A. Fear of Nuclear War. Americans were urged to build bomb shelters in their own basements.

45 Federal Civil Defense Administration (1950) -Educate people how to survive Atomic blast -Mobilize people in event of Atomic warfare What was the purpose of the “Bert the Turtle” campaign?

46 School children practice “duck and cover” drills

47 Senator Joseph McCarthy- (1950s) recklessly accused many government officials and citizens of being communist. (McCarthyism- making false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association.) B. Fear of Communist- “Red Scare”

48 Conviction of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for spying for the Soviet Union and the construction of nuclear weapons by Soviets using secrets obtained through spying increased fears.

49 QUIZ TODAY ON COLD WAR!

50 QUIZ 1.What were 4 post-WWII outcomes? 2.What was the Cold War? (why cold?) 3.How long did the Cold War last? 4.What was the Truman Doctrine? (foreign policy) 5.Why were the stakes so high in the Cold War? 6.What was NATO? 7.What was the Warsaw Pact? 8.What happen in 1949 to increase fears during the Cold War? 9.What influence did the Cold War have on the Virginia economy? 10.What started the Korean War? 11.What country sent 300,000 troops to help the North Koreans? 12.What was the result of the Korean War? 13.What approach did Eisenhower use to “contain” communism? (Dulles) 14.How did the Soviet launch of Sputnik impact the U.S.? 15.What was the U-2 incident?


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