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The Cold War Crisis Deepens 1948-1962. Berlin Crisis.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Crisis Deepens 1948-1962. Berlin Crisis."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War Crisis Deepens

2 Berlin Crisis

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5 Berlin Crisis 1948 American-Soviet disagreement over Berlin led Soviets to blockaded access to West Berlin American-Soviet disagreement over Berlin led Soviets to blockaded access to West Berlin West Berliners became hostages of the Soviets West Berliners became hostages of the Soviets What could the US do? US had two choices: What could the US do? US had two choices: (1) Use army and possibly risk WWIII or (1) Use army and possibly risk WWIII or (2) Do nothing (2) Do nothing Neither option was acceptable US chose airlift which lasted 11 months US & allies airlifted food, coal, everything Berliners needed

6 Berlin Airlift

7 Impact of the Berlin Crisis & Airlift World opinion turned against the USSR World opinion turned against the USSR Was propaganda victory for the US which was seen as rescuing starving victims from Soviets Was propaganda victory for the US which was seen as rescuing starving victims from Soviets Berlin became symbol of the US struggle against Communism and leader of the Free World. Berlin became symbol of the US struggle against Communism and leader of the Free World. When the blockade was lifted Germany became officially divided into West and East Germany When the blockade was lifted Germany became officially divided into West and East Germany Will lead to NATO Will lead to NATO

8 Checkpoint Charlie

9 Formation of NATO 1949

10 Major effect of Berlin Crisis was formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 Major effect of Berlin Crisis was formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 This was 1 st alliance the US entered into since the American Revolution This was 1 st alliance the US entered into since the American Revolution If USSR attacked any of the 12 member alliance this would act as a tripwire bringing each to the defense of the other. If USSR attacked any of the 12 member alliance this would act as a tripwire bringing each to the defense of the other. The Soviets responded with an alliance of their own in 1954 called the Warsaw Pact. The Soviets responded with an alliance of their own in 1954 called the Warsaw Pact. Today there are 26 members & many are from the former Warsaw Pact Today there are 26 members & many are from the former Warsaw Pact

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12 Cold War in China

13 Two rival groups competed for power in China before the war (Nationalists and Communists) Two rival groups competed for power in China before the war (Nationalists and Communists) In 1937 they joined forces against the Japanese who invaded country. In 1937 they joined forces against the Japanese who invaded country. The Nationalists lost much of their power during the war whereas the Communists expanded their control and support by the people The Nationalists lost much of their power during the war whereas the Communists expanded their control and support by the people The US supported the Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) in the civil war that followed WWII The US supported the Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) in the civil war that followed WWII This was opportunity to apply containment & stop what the US saw as Soviet aggression This was opportunity to apply containment & stop what the US saw as Soviet aggression US also wanted to maintain markets for American products US also wanted to maintain markets for American products

14 Truman supported Nationalists and gave them $3 billion Truman supported Nationalists and gave them $3 billion Told Chiang to end corruption & solve domestic problems Told Chiang to end corruption & solve domestic problems Chiang continued to ignore those problems while support for Mao Zedong grew because he did address the peasant’s problems Chiang continued to ignore those problems while support for Mao Zedong grew because he did address the peasant’s problems Eventually Chiang fled to Taiwan Eventually Chiang fled to Taiwan This represented a failure of containment This represented a failure of containment Truman admin was blamed for “losing China” Truman admin was blamed for “losing China”

15 NSC-68 & the Arms Race High level study of US defenses resulted in the NSC-68 report High level study of US defenses resulted in the NSC-68 report Conclusions were: Conclusions were: (1) USSR was bent on world domination (2) US as leader of the free world had duty to prevent Soviet expansion (3) Required massive defense system and buildup of arms (4) How did the Korean War affect NSC-68?

16 Korean War

17 Background: 38 th parallel Background: 38 th parallel How did the Korean War seem to validate the NSC-68 Report? How did the Korean War seem to validate the NSC-68 Report? What policy did Truman want to apply to Korea? What policy did Truman want to apply to Korea? Did Truman act alone or with the UN? Did Truman act alone or with the UN? What exactly was the role of the UN? What exactly was the role of the UN? What prompted Chinese involvement? What prompted Chinese involvement? Over what did Truman and General MacArthur disagree? Over what did Truman and General MacArthur disagree? Do you agree with Truman’s decision to fire MacArthur? Do you agree with Truman’s decision to fire MacArthur?

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19 Impact of the Korean War Accelerated the arms race. Accelerated the arms race. Defense spending increased from $22.3 billion in 1951 to $50.4 billion in 1953 Defense spending increased from $22.3 billion in 1951 to $50.4 billion in 1953 Confirmed findings of the NSC-68 report. Confirmed findings of the NSC-68 report. US troops remain there today. US troops remain there today.

20 Impact of the Korean War

21 Interpret this cartoon

22 Eisenhower’s Cold War Strategy New Look New Look How did this policy differ from NSC-68? How did this policy differ from NSC-68? Massive retaliation – Balance of Terror Massive retaliation – Balance of Terror This was different from Truman’s willingness to engage in limited Wars This was different from Truman’s willingness to engage in limited Wars Brinkmanship Brinkmanship Did massive retaliation ever take place? Did massive retaliation ever take place?

23 Arms Race & Geneva Talks Eisenhower first meets with new Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1954 Geneva. Eisenhower first meets with new Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1954 Geneva. Main purpose was to smooth relations and address the arms race. Main purpose was to smooth relations and address the arms race. Eisenhower proposes Open Skies idea which is rejected by Khrushchev who saw it as an attempt to spy on the USSR Eisenhower proposes Open Skies idea which is rejected by Khrushchev who saw it as an attempt to spy on the USSR

24 The CIA National Security Act 1947 National Security Act 1947 How did the CIA affect the ability of presidents to act in foreign affairs? How did the CIA affect the ability of presidents to act in foreign affairs? Covert operations Covert operations Congressional role and the CIA? Congressional role and the CIA? CIA involvement in Latin America and Iran will generate resentment CIA involvement in Latin America and Iran will generate resentment

25 The CIA in Iran Importance of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company Importance of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company What were CIA objective’s in Iran? What were CIA objective’s in Iran? Why was Mossadeq considered a threat to Western interests? Why was Mossadeq considered a threat to Western interests? How did the CIA intervene in Iranian affairs? How did the CIA intervene in Iranian affairs? Analyze CIA actions in Iran. Did Iran benefit or lose from CIA activity? Analyze CIA actions in Iran. Did Iran benefit or lose from CIA activity?

26 Third World Nations LDCs LDCs Misperception by US that struggles for self- determination were orchestrated by the USSR. Misperception by US that struggles for self- determination were orchestrated by the USSR. Failure to understand need to throw off the colonial past Failure to understand need to throw off the colonial past Many LDCs wanted to be non-aligned Many LDCs wanted to be non-aligned Soviets reminded LDCs of poor race relations in the US Soviets reminded LDCs of poor race relations in the US

27 The Suez Crisis 1956 What were the chain of events that led to Suez Crisis What were the chain of events that led to Suez Crisis Aswan Dam >Czech Arms Deal>Renege on Aswan Dam > Nationalization of the Canal >1956 Suez Crisis. Aswan Dam >Czech Arms Deal>Renege on Aswan Dam > Nationalization of the Canal >1956 Suez Crisis. How did the Suez Crisis threaten US interests in the Middle East? How did the Suez Crisis threaten US interests in the Middle East? What were American objectives behind the Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 What were American objectives behind the Eisenhower Doctrine 1957

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32 Sputnik 1957 Soviets launch the first satellite to orbit the globe Leads to “missile crisis” Americans fear they have lost the advantage to the Soviets Leads to massive R&D in science & math

33 La Brigada & the Bay of Pigs La Brigada was formed during Eisenhower admin to overthrow Castro regime? La Brigada was formed during Eisenhower admin to overthrow Castro regime? Why did the USG object to Castro’s government? Why did the USG object to Castro’s government? Not until JFK did the Bay of Pigs fiasco take place? Not until JFK did the Bay of Pigs fiasco take place? What effect did the Bay of Pigs have on Cuba and the US? What effect did the Bay of Pigs have on Cuba and the US?

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35 Cuban Missile Crisis The CMC is a consequence of what event? The CMC is a consequence of what event? Identify key issues in the CMC. Identify key issues in the CMC. What were Soviet objectives? What were Soviet objectives? What were American objectives? What were American objectives? How was it resolved? How was it resolved? Did brinkmanship succeed? Did brinkmanship succeed? What lessons are to be learned from this crisis? What lessons are to be learned from this crisis?

36 Who are these two people? What are they doing? What is trying to get out of the box?

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