2 the start of the United Nations When World War II ended, the leaders of the Allies made plans to try to stop any future wars. Part of this plan was to make an organization called the United Nations. The goal of this new organization would be to peacefully solve problems between nations so they would not have to go to war.
3 Today, 191 of the world’s nations are members of the UN Today, 191 of the world’s nations are members of the UN. Every member nation sends a delegate to the United Nations to represent its country. All of these members meet together in one large meeting called the General Assembly. The General Assembly discusses issues and votes on resolutions.
4 The United Nations also has another body called the Security Council The United Nations also has another body called the Security Council. The Security Council is a smaller group of nations. It includes five permanent members: the US, Russia, France, Great Britain, and China, plus ten temporary members chosen randomly from any other country represented in the General Assembly.
5 comprehension check What is the United Nations? What is the mandate (purpose) of the United Nations?What are the two different parts of the United Nations and how is each different?Today, the United Nations still has very little power. Do you think it should be made stronger? Explain your opinion.
6 the Start of the Cold War In 1945, when World War II ended, the world was divided. The Soviet Union had moved into some countries to beat the Axis, and the United States and Great Britain had moved into others. The Soviets occupied Eastern Europe and some parts of Asia such as North Korea. The United States and Great Britain occupied Western and Southern Europe as well as some parts of Asia including South Korea.
7 Many Americans believed war with the Soviet Union was inevitable Many Americans believed war with the Soviet Union was inevitable. They believed that World War II had been a fight for freedom against totalitarianism. The Soviet Union was a totalitarian nation, so some people believed the fight for freedom was not finished. These people were angry that the Soviet Union occupied so many countries. They also believed Stalin wanted to control the whole world and would soon try to attack the United States.
8 But a war between the Soviet Union and the United States never happened. Instead of fighting each other directly they each supported other countries and people in their smaller fights. For example, the Soviets would secretly give weapons to communist revolutionaries in a country friendly with the United States, and America would try to stop the revolution by helping that country’s government.
9 This new kind of war was called, the Cold War This new kind of war was called, the Cold War. For 45 years, the superpowers---the USSR and the USA---fought against each other through forces in other countries. The Soviet Union tried to spread communism, and the United States tried to stop them. This war was largely about ideology. American wanted to convince the world that democracy and capitalism were the best way. The Soviet Union wanted to convince the world that communism was the best way.
10 Great Britain and America set up democratic governments and capitalist economies in the nations they occupied. The Soviets set up communist dictatorships in the countries they controlled. The line that separated the communist countries from the free countries was called the Iron Curtain.
11 comprehension checkWhat was the Cold War?What was the Iron Curtain?
12 President Truman fights communism During the Cold War, the Soviet Union sent agents all over the world. These agents secretly worked to spread communism. Truman wanted to stop communism from spreading. He called his new policy containment.
13 Truman said that the United States had to support nations that were fighting against communism. This statement was called the Truman Doctrine.
14 In Greece and Turkey, communists were trying to take over the governments. Truman convinced Congress to give $400 million dollars to those two countries to fight against the communist rebels.
15 the Beginning of the CIA By 1946 President Truman was very aware that Soviet agents were traveling around the world spreading communism. Truman believed America needed its own agents to travel around the world and gather information on the Soviet Union and its agents, so he formed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
16 the Marshal PlanThe most important part of the Truman Doctrine was the Marshal Plan. The Marshal Plan was program that gave millions of dollars to the European nations with democratic governments so they could rebuild their nations and become prosperous and successful. Truman believed that making the people of those countries happy would be the best way to keep them from becoming communists. The United States also helped rebuild Japan and showed them how to set up a democratic government.
17 With the Marshal Plan, Western Germany was united and rebuilt, but the Soviets refused to let go of Eastern Germany. The capital of Germany, Berlin, was in the Soviet controlled area. It was also divided between West and East, democratic and communist.
18 The Soviets were angry that America was rebuilding Germany The Soviets were angry that America was rebuilding Germany. They believed Germany was dangerous. They did not trust Germany or America and believed that the two would some day try to invade them again. The Soviets wanted to build up Eastern Europe as a strong force to protect the USSR from invasion. Part of this plan was to take all of Berlin for the communists.
19 The Soviets shut off all roads going to Berlin so they could not get any food or supplies. They wanted to force the people of American-controlled West Berlin to surrender to the Soviets. America helped the people of West Berlin by sending food and supplied by airplane. For almost an entire year, America used its planes to support an entire city of people.
20 This was called the Berlin Airlift. The Berlin Airlift was successful This was called the Berlin Airlift. The Berlin Airlift was successful. Eventually, the Soviets gave up and allowed the people of Berlin to use the roads to cross Soviet-controlled East Germany to bring food and supplies. West Berlin remained like an island of democracy behind the Iron Curtain.
21 the Arms RaceEach of the two superpowers tried to build a bigger and better military. This competition was called the Arms Race. In 1949, the Soviets made their first atomic bomb. After 1949, America and the Soviet Union competed to see who could make more bombs, bigger bombs, better bombers, and eventually, missiles.
22 Soon they both had enough firepower to destroy the whole planet if a war started. People were afraid that the end of the world was near, but this fear stopped the two superpowers from ever fighting each other directly.
23 Truman wanted to make it clear that the Soviets should never invade Europe. To do so, he made a military alliance that included America and all the nations of Western Europe. If any one nation was attacked, then all the other nations would come to its assistance. It was called NATO---the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.the Start of NATO
24 the Warsaw PactTo counter NATO, the Soviets Union made its own military alliance called the Warsaw Pact. It included all the communist countries in Eastern Europe.
25 Comprehension check What was containment? What actions did Truman take to stop the spread of communism?In what ways was the Marshal Plan a success?If you were President Truman, what would you have done about the USSR?Why do you think the two superpowers never really fought each other directly?
26 China Becomes a Communist Country Before World War II, China was having a civil war between communists led by Mao Zedong and Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek. Both agreed to stop fighting each other and work together when the Japanese invaded. For years, both the Communist and Nationalist Chinese got support from the United States and worked with the Allies. Once the Japanese were beaten, they went back to fighting each other.
27 In 1949, the Communists won the civil war In 1949, the Communists won the civil war. Mainland China became the People’s Republic of China and the Nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan and became a different country. Mao Zedong became the dictator of China and worked with the Soviets to spread communism throughout Asia.
28 After World War II, Korea was divided After World War II, Korea was divided. The Soviets occupied the North and the United States occupied the South. The line of division was the 38th parallel. The Soviets set up a communist dictatorship in the North. The United States set up an anti-communist government in the South.the Korean War
29 The leader of North Korea was Kim Il Sung The leader of North Korea was Kim Il Sung. He had fought hard against the Japanese for Korean independence and wanted Korea to be united. In 1950, Kim Il Sung ordered his troops to invade South Korea. Using weapons from the Soviet Union, Kim Il Sung captured South Korea in only three days.
30 In 1950, China was not yet a part of the United Nations because the United States would not let China join. The USSR and other communist nations protested by refusing to attend UN meetings. Without the communist countries attending, the United States was able to pass a resolution to send UN troops to help South Korea.
31 Truman chose General MacArthur to lead the UN forces in South Korea Truman chose General MacArthur to lead the UN forces in South Korea. MacArthur quickly recaptured South Korea and then started invading North Korea. MacArthur quickly captured all of North Korea and had UN troops waiting on the Chinese border.
32 In America, MacArthur was a hero, but Truman was nervous In America, MacArthur was a hero, but Truman was nervous. Truman was afraid MacArthur would start a world war. MacArthur even asked permission to invade China. He wanted to use the atomic bomb.
33 China sent a message to America China sent a message to America. It said that if any UN troops crossed into China, then it would mean war with China. American spy planes flew over China looking for any troops on the border. They didn’t see any. MacArthur sent troops into China to look around. They also did not see any Chinese troops.
34 On Christmas Morning, 250,000 Chinese soldiers appeared out of nowhere and took the UN troops by complete surprise. The UN troops, mostly American, were killed. China helped Kim Il Sung recapture North Korea, then stopped on the 38th parallel.
35 General MacArthur blamed Truman for the failure General MacArthur blamed Truman for the failure. He told people in America that America was losing because Truman would not let him use the bomb on China. Truman eventually fired MacArthur.
36 In 1953, the two Koreas agreed to a truce In 1953, the two Koreas agreed to a truce. With the truce, they stopped fighting but the war never officially ended. In fact, the two nations are still officially at war today.
37 34,000 American soldiers and four million Koreans died in that war 34,000 American soldiers and four million Koreans died in that war. America still keeps a large number of troops on the 38th parallel today. It is commonly called the DMZ (the Demilitarized Zone).
38 comprehension check How did the Korean War start? Why did Truman fire MacArthur?How did the war stop?How do you feel about MacArthur? Do you think he was a hero?
39 HUAC and the Red ScareMany Americans were alarmed by the way that communism was quickly spreading all over the world. It looked like America was losing. They were afraid that the communists would eventually take every country and surround the United States.
40 A lot of Americans believed that the Soviet Union had agents inside the United States making America weak and spreading communism. In 1948, Congress formed the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). The purpose of this special committee was to question people and find communists inside the U.S. government.
41 Americans watched HUAC hearings on television Americans watched HUAC hearings on television. HUAC accused many people of being Soviet spies. People accused of being Soviet spies lost their jobs and everything. Some even had to leave the country. Most of those people were probably innocent.
42 In 1949, when the Soviets got their own atomic bomb, Americans were shocked and scared. Many people said that the Soviets must have used spies to steal the secret from the United States. Soon, two people were arrested for this, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. This couple, husband and wife, had both worked in the U.S. atomic bomb laboratories. Although nobody ever proved the Rosenbergs were guilty, they were both executed.
43 One Senator, named Joseph McCarthy, tried to use HUAC and the fear of communism to build his own political career. He showed people an envelope. He said it held the names of 205 people in the State Department who were actually Soviet spies, but he never showed anybody what was in the envelopes. He even claimed that there were Soviet spies in the U.S. military. Finally, he even claimed that the President was a communist!McCarthyism
44 McCarthy was dangerous McCarthy was dangerous. He accused many people of being communists and ruined the lives of many innocent people. Any time anybody criticized McCarthy, McCarthy would accuse that person of being communist. People were afraid of McCarthy and let him control Washington for a while.
45 Eventually, very brave people had the courage to step up and criticize McCarthy at HUAC on live television. They dared him to tell the names of those people in the envelope and try to actually prove anyone was a Soviet spy instead of just making wild and scary claims. McCarthy refused to open the envelope. As the people who were once scared of him all turned on him, McCarthy got scared and left the building. On live television, McCarthy’s political career ended. Today, the word McCarthyism is used to describe the practice of falsely accusing people of being traitors for political gain.
46 Eisenhower becomes President In 1952, America elected General Dwight D. Eisenhower to be the President of the United States. People voted for Eisenhower because he was a Republican and they believed the Democrats had been too weak against communism.
47 comprehension check What was HUAC? What strategy did Senator McCarthy use to get more power?What do you think would have happened if people hadn’t stood up to Senator McCarthy?
48 the Spread of the Cold War around the World After World War II, imperialist countries such as England and France still had many colonies around the world. The people of those countries fought for independence. In most cases, the Soviets supported these revolutionary groups. America tried to support anybody who was fighting against communism. In this way, the whole world became a battleground during the Cold War.
49 the start of CIA Covert Action In 1953 John Foster Dulles was the Director of the CIA. Dulles was very frustrated because Soviet agents were traveling all over the world trying to start revolutions and the CIA could do very little to stop them. In Iran, there was a new president named Mossadegh. Mossadegh wanted the government of Iran to take control of all of Iran’s oil. This meant that he would take control of Iran’s oil away from the American oil companies. Dulles believed Mossadegh was secretly working for the Soviets. He wanted to get rid of Mossadegh.
50 Dulles had an idea. He would offer to pay generals in the Iranian military millions of dollars to kill Mossadegh and take over the government. They would then make the king of Iran, called the Shah, the leader of the government, and the Shah would work for the United States. The plan was very successful. Mossadegh was gone and the Shah became the dictator of Iran.
51 The CIA used Dulles’s idea in many nations all around the world The CIA used Dulles’s idea in many nations all around the world. The CIA was responsible for the overthrow of many democratic governments. It also encouraged people to assassinate enemies of the US and gave weapons to rebels in communist countries. These kinds of secret activities are called covert actions.
52 comprehension check What did Dulles do in Iran? What are some examples of covert action?Do you believe that the US covert action was justified?
53 the Start of the Space Race In 1957, Russia surprised the world by being the first country to put a satellite into outer space. It showed the world that communist countries could do amazing things. So, America had to prove it could travel in space too. America started spending millions of dollars on its space program, NASA. For decades, the Soviet Union and the US used space travel to compete to show the world which system was better: American democracy, or Soviet communism.
54 Revolution in CubaIn 1959, most of the land and many of the businesses in Cuba were owned by Americans. Cuba was not a colony of the United States but America pretty much told the government of Cuba what to do. Cuba had many poor people.
55 Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba. He wanted to break America’s hold on Cuba and make the country communist. His revolution was very successful because he was popular with the many poor people of Cuba. Fidel Castro made Cuba an ally of the Soviet Union and used it as a base to spread communist revolutions throughout Latin America.
56 America supported Latin American governments in their fight against communism even though many of those countries were not democratic. This showed that America was not concerned about whether a nation was democratic or not; America would support any government that was anti-communist.
57 In the end, the Cold War was a dirty game with no rules or limits In the end, the Cold War was a dirty game with no rules or limits. There were no good guys or bad guys. Both the US and the USSR did many terrible things.
58 comprehension check What was the Space Race? How did the Cold War affect Latin America?What mistakes do you believe America made during the Cold War?See movie
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