4“I remember those embraces without any ulterior motives, truly friendly embraces… Certainly, no one thought then about any aggravations of the situation; everyone thought that the peace had come, the peaceful times arrived, and that it would stay for a long time. It is only there in the higher circles of the state apparatus that they were already thinking about something in the future, and Stalin declared that the future war would be a war with the U.S. But on our level, on the level of an average commander, soldier, and sergeant, everything looked bright.” Soviet General Valentin Larionov
5AN UNEASY ALLIANCEThe war left the U.S. & the Soviet Union as the world’s dominant powers.Each viewed the other with deep mistrust.The Soviets resented the U.S. for cutting off diplomatic ties with them after the 1917 Revolution and for refusing to recognize the Soviet government until 1933 (under FDR).
6AN UNEASY ALLIANCEAmericans harbored fears of the Soviet Union because of communism.Past Soviet agreements with Germany upset many Americans.Soviet withdrawal from WWI in 1917 forced the West to fight Germany without Soviet help.Stalin signed a short-lived non-aggression pact with Hitler.
7Two views of the worldThe Western Soviet Union was a scene of awful destruction at the end of WWII.20 million Soviets had died4.7 million homes, 2,000 towns and 70,000 villages destroyed.Nothing was more important to Soviet leaders than protecting themselves from a rearmed Germany, rebuilding their economy, and punishing Germany.American deaths numbered 500,000, the economy was booming and controlled nearly 50% of the world’s wealth. Our homeland had not been destroyed.
8Remember Yalta? Meeting of the Big Three in Feb. 1945 Churchill hoped to save the British EmpireStalin intended to protect his borders and rebuild his country.FDR sought the worldwide spread of democracy and free trade.Meeting marked a high point of cooperation among the Big Three.
9Remember Yalta? Agreements made: --Stalin agreed to join the fight against Japan and support free elections in Poland and other Soviet-occupied Eastern European countries.--He also pledged Soviet support of the United Nations (UN), an international peacekeeping organization.
10Remember Yalta?However, they disagreed on how to keep Germany under control:--Stalin wanted to punish Germany by demanding $20 billion in war reparations. (Half would go to the Soviet Union)--FDR and Churchill knew Germany didn’t have the money and they feared they would have to support Germany.
11Stalin said (during the war)… “ We are now smashing the Germans. And many people now assume that the Germans will never be able to threaten us again. Well, that’s simply not true. I HATE THE GERMANS! It’s impossible to destroy the Germans for good. We are fighting the Germans, and we will finish the job. But we must bear in mind that our allies will try to save the Germans and conspire with them. We will be merciless toward the Germans, but our allies will seek to treat them more leniently.”
12Remember Yalta?The compromise: The three agreed that each nation would control the part of Germany its troops held at the end of the war.Other touchy issues included Eastern Europe:Stalin wanted Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Austria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia to protect his western border.FDR and Churchill supported independence for these countries and feared Stalin would install communist governments.
13Conflicting Post-War Goals United States’ Goals…Soviet Goals…Spread democracy and support all nations’ right to self- determinationGain access to raw materials and markets for its industriesRebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets for American goodsReunite Germany!Spread communismRebuild its war-ravaged economy using E. Europe’s industrial equipment and raw materialsControl Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western EuropeKeep Germany divided and weak!
14THE UNITED NATIONSOn April 25, 1945, 50 countries met in San Francisco to draft the charter for the United Nations.The purpose of the UN—to maintain international peace and security.The U.S. hoped the UN would help bring about a world in which every country would be free to run its own government.Truman signs UN Charter.
16MEETING AT POTSDAMTruman, Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam (suburb of Berlin) in July Germany had surrendered in May, but we were still fighting Japan.The three leaders reached an agreement on Germany—the country would be completely disarmed and its war industries dismantled. Each occupying nation would be allowed to take war payments from its zones.
18Potsdam agreementThe western half of Germany would remain under British, French and U.S. control.The eastern half would remain in the hands of the Soviets.The capital city of Berlin, 110 miles deep in the Soviet zone would also be carved up among the four nations.
19The idea of containment Stalin continued to oppress most of Eastern Europe forcing loyalty to the Soviet Union. These satellite nations (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Finland, Yugoslavia and East Germany/aka the Eastern Bloc) acted like a protective barrier for the Soviet Union.
20The idea of containment On Feb. 9, 1946, Stalin added to the growing tension with an important speech in which he declared capitalism a danger to world peace.George Kennan, a diplomat at the Amer. embassy in Moscow advised Truman that the U.S. needed to pursue Containment—the restriction of communism to its current borders.
21GEORGE F. KENNAN AND CONTAINMENT “It is clear that the United States cannot expect in the foreseeable future to enjoy political intimacy with the Soviet regime. It must continue to regard the Soviet Union as a rival, not a partner, in the political arena. It must continue to expect that Soviet policies will reflect no abstract love of peace and stability, no real faith in the possibility of a permanent happy coexistence of the socialist and capitalist worlds, but rather a cautious, persistent pressure toward the disruption and, weakening of all rival influence and rival power.”"Long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies."The Truman Doctrine was the first employment of the policy of containment
22The idea of containment Winston Churchill spoke of an “iron curtain”—referring to it existing between western Europe and eastern Europe, now being controlled by the Soviets.
23Stalin’s Response to Churchill’s speech “Mr. Churchill comes somewhere near the truth when he speaks of the increasing influence of the Communist parties in Eastern Europe. It must be remarked, however, that he is not quite accurate. The influence of the Communist Parties has grown not only in Eastern Europe but in nearly all the countries of Europe which were previously under fascist rule…The increased influence of the Communists cannot be considered fortuitous. It is a perfectly logical thing. The influence of the Communists has grown because.. the communists showed themselves trusty, fearless, self-sacrificing, fighters against the fascist regime for the liberty of the people.”
24Cold warCold war had begun—a U.S. and Soviet conflict in which the two powers would avoid fighting each other directly but would block one another’s goals around the world.The cold war world—a complex system of alliances.
25The spread of communism The Soviet Union was trying to force the Turks to share control of a key shipping channel between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.In Greece the government was fighting communist rebels, although the Soviet Union was not directly involved.On March 12, 1947, Truman called a joint session of Congress.
26Truman doctrineHe stated that the U.S. must help all free people who were “resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures”.He asked for $400 million in military and economic aid to support the Greek and Turkish governments. It was approved!The Truman Doctrine defined U.S. foreign policy for the next 20 years.
27Marshall planSec. of State, George Marshall suggested another way to bolster freedom—a plan for helping Europe to rebuild.Marshall’s plan involved spending billions of dollars to help out Europe, including the Soviet Union, get back on its feet.To qualify for the aid, nations had to agree to spend the dollars on goods from the U.S.
28Marshall planThe Soviets refused to take part in the plan, criticizing it as the U.S.’s way of taking over Europe.The Soviet’s went on to seize Czechoslovakia.Then Truman approved the Marshall Plan.
29EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN GERMAN CITY OF HAMBURG IN 1947 BEFORE THE MARSHALL PLANEFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLANHAMBURG, 1952, AFTER THE MARSHALL PLAN
30TO CALCULATE HOW MUCH THE NUMBERS WOULD BE IN 2001 DOLLARS MULTIPLY THE 1948 AMOUNTS BY I.E. ONE DOLLAR IN 1948 WOULD BUY THE EQUIVALENT OF $7.63 CENTS IN 2001.
31The Berlin crisisThe U.S., Britain and France planned to rebuild the three western zones of Germany, tie their economies to the rest of Europe, and lay groundwork for a free West German state.When the three announced a new currency for the three western zones and West Berlin, Stalin was outraged, reminding the western allies that they had agreed to treat all of Germany as one state.
32The Berlin crisisThe Soviets retaliated by declaring their currency would begin to circulate in Eastern Germany and all four zones of Berlin.Soviet troops blockaded the highways and railroads into West Berlin and shut off power to W. Berlin.
33The Berlin crisisSuddenly 2 million West Berliners became hostages. Sealed off from the outside world, they had no way to import 4,000 tons of food, fuel and clothes they needed every day.Stalin hoped to force the Allies into giving up their plans for West Germany or surrendering Berlin.
34The Berlin crisisTruman had two choices: 1. He could order Amer. troops to force open the roads and railroads and risk provoking WWIII, or 2. he could hand Berlin over to Stalin.His advisors; however, gave him another plan—Truman launched an airlift to the trapped city.More than 139 cargo planes, all war-weary and badly in need of repair, were put into service.
35The Berlin airliftFor 11 mos. Amer. & British pilots worked to exhaustion, flying through summer thunderstorms and the dangerous fog and rain of Berlin’s winter.At first they landed every 3 mins. carrying 2,400 lbs. of supplies a day. At the peak, they landed every 45 seconds.This melted the hatred between former Amer. and German enemies. It was a complete disaster for Stalin.
37MAKING SMALL PARACHUTES TO DROP CANDY TO BERLIN CHILDREN EVERYTHING FROM COAL TO CHOCOLATE WAS FLOWN IN BY FLEETS OF AMERICAN AND BRITISH CARGO PLANESLOADING BAGS OF COALMAKING SMALL PARACHUTES TO DROP CANDY TO BERLIN CHILDREN
42IN MAY OF 1949 THE RUSSIANS ENDED THE BERLIN BLOCKADE
43North Atlantic treaty organization The blockade convinced Allies that Western Europe needed military as well as economic support to remain free.U.S., Canada and 10 European nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).NATO would work like a “trip-wire”. If the Soviets dared to invade Western Europe, it would trip the wire and set off an American military response.An attack on one or more nations in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against all.
45FIRST MEMBERS OF NATOBELGIUM, CANADA, DENMARK, FRANCE, ICELAND, ITALY, LUXEMBOURG, THE NETHERLANDS, NORWAY, PORTUGAL, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE UNITED STATES. LATER JOINED BY GREECE, SPAIN, TURKEY AND WEST GERMANY.
46FIRST SESSION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY COUNCIL APRIL 1949, DEAN ACHESON SIGNS THE NATO TREATY FOR THE US WITH PRESIDENT TRUMAN OBSERVINGNATO PHOTOFIRST SESSION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY COUNCIL
47Warsaw PactIn 1955, when West Germany was allowed to rearm and join NATO, the Soviet Union grew fearful and formed their own alliance.Warsaw Pact = military alliance between the Soviet Union and 7 Eastern European countries.
48Civil war in china At the end of WWII, revolution was raging in China. Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek), leader of the nationalist government was fighting a civil war with Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung), leader of the communist forces.Chiang KaishekMao Zedong
49Civil war in chinaTo most Americans, Kaishek’s success seemed essential to world peace.Americans believed a strong anti-communist government in China, the most populous nation in the world, would block Soviet expansion and give U.S. an important trading partner.
50Civil war in chinaThe Communists gained the support of the Chinese peasants by giving them their own plots of land.In time, more and more Chinese people felt Mao’s Communists protected and took care of them.
51Civil war in china Truman steps in Late in 1945, Truman sent George Marshall to meet with Kaishek and Mao to find a way for the two leaders to share control.Marshall could not and he had to choose a side—he chose Kaishek.Truman told Kaishek to stop the corruption of his regime and to answer the cry for land reform dividing the land more fairly among the people.
52Civil war in china Truman steps in Kai Shek continued to ignore these problems. In December the Communists took over.To many American’s Mao’s victory represented a frightening failure of containment.Mao established The People’s Republic of China on Oct. 1, 1949.
53MAO ZEDONG, COMMUNIST LEADER OF CHINA OCTOBER 1ST 1949 THE COMMUNISTS WON THE CHINESE CIVIL WAR AND THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA IS ESTABLISHED WITH THE USSR AS ITS MAIN ALLY. IN THE US “LOSING CHINA” BECOMES A POLITICAL ISSUE.MAO ZEDONG, COMMUNIST LEADER OF CHINA
54TAIWANCHIANG KAI SHEK LEADER OF NATIONALIST CHINA WAS FORCED TO FLEE TO THE ISLAND OF TAIWAN TO ESCAPE THE COMMUNISTS
55The arms raceIn Jan. 1950, Truman ordered a high-level study of the defenses of the U.S.The top secret National Security Council Report NSC-68 suggested a massive buildup of weapons to stay ahead of the Soviets.As the leader of the “free world”, only the U.S. could be expected to lead the fight against Soviet expansion.
56IN 1949 THE USSR EXPLODED AN ATOMIC BOMB AND BECAME THE SECOND NUCLEAR POWER
57War flares in KoreaAt the end of WWII, Korea suffered a fate much like Germany’s.The victors divided Korea along the 38th parallel, leaving a communist government with a powerful army in the north and a pro-Western government in the South.
58War flares in KoreaBoth governments wanted to reunify Korea, but on their own terms.On June 25, 1950, some 75,000 North Korean troops following Soviet-made tanks poured across the 38th parallel into South Korea.Without seeking approval from Congress, Truman ordered air and naval forces to Korea on June 27.
59War flares in KoreaThe UN Security Council (Soviet delegate absent because they were protesting Taiwan) agreed to provide money to South Korea and provide supporting UN forces.UN force, primarily American forces, fought with South Korea to push back the communists, under the command of Douglas MacArthur.(520,00 troops committed – 90% American)
60War flares in KoreaThrough the summer the North Korean army swept southward, cornering UN forces in the southeast around Pusan.On Sept. 15, MacArthur launched a brilliant naval invasion behind enemy lines at a port city near Seoul. (1/2 North Korean forces surrendered)
61War flares in KoreaWith 18,000 marines and tanks, he rolled east and freed Seoul. From there the UN forces drove the North Koreans back to the 38th parallel, eventually pushing them back to the Yalu River on the border with China.
62War flares in KoreaMao (Communist leader of China) warned MacArthur to back off but he paid no attention.MacArthur instead launched another attack in the north.In November 300,000 Chinese troops surged across the Yalu and attacked the UN forces, pushing them back across the 38th parallel.
63War flares in Korea A stalemate then occurs at the 38th. Truman decides to give up the idea of freeing all of Korea and to seek a peace settlement.MacArthur demands permission to attack China, using nuclear weapons if necessary and Truman refuses.MacArthur publicly criticizes Truman’s policy of limited war (not using nuclear weapons).
64War flares in Korea In April 1951, Truman fires MacArthur. Government officials agreed with Truman, but his public popularity took a nosedive as MacArthur received widespread support.
65War flares in KoreaPeace talks began in July 51. The fighting would continue for two more years and it would be President Eisenhower that finally made peace.When it ended in 53, the official border was set not far from where the fighting began/ communists controlled the north and a pro-Western gov. the south.
66Truman at homeTruman was able to lead the U.S. out of WWII, but his popularity at home continued to decline.Some disliked his support of Civil Rights.He had begun the desegregation of the armed forces and urged the Justice Dept. to prosecute cases in which African Americans were deprived of civil rights.
67Truman at homeOthers disliked that he extended the New Deal, with his own plan called the Fair Deal.Fair Deal—called for such causes as national medical insurance, extension of Social Security, new public power projects and public housing.
68Hunt for communists at home The fear of communism grew explosively after the development of the Soviet atomic bomb.The spread of communism in the world and the fact that 100,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party contributed to the communist panic sweeping the country.HUAC—The House Un-American Activities Committee held hearings that explored communism in the U.S.
69the case of alger hissCongressman Richard Nixon became the voice of the HUAC.Nixon met with Whittaker Chambers, a senior editor at Time magazine who had once been tied to the communist party.Chambers told Nixon that during his communist days he became closely involved with a man named Alger Hiss —who had served in influential positions in the government.
70The case of Alger hissBy proving Alger Hiss had communist ties, the HUAC would be seen as credible.When Hiss was arrested he was president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (peace organizations were often accused of softening the U.S. for communist takeover).The HUAC began to investigate Hiss.
71The case of Alger hissChambers who accused Hiss also said he had evidence to convict him.Late in 1948, two investigators visited Chamber’s farm in Maryland where he led them into a pumpkin patch.He pulled off the top of a pumpkin and produced a roll of microfilm which showed copies of secret State Dept. documents that were linked to Hiss.
72The case of Alger hissHiss was convicted in 1950 on two counts of perjury and sentenced to five years in prison (it was too late to try him for espionage).There were many flaws in the case leading to his conviction. Hiss always maintained his innocence.
73The Rosenbergs1950, British scientist, Klaus Fuchs, admitted he had handed over to the Soviets, American gov. specifications for the manufacture of the atomic bomb.Investigations led to Ethel and Julius Rosenberg of NYC.
74The RosenbergsThe Rosenbergs were charged with conspiracy in a plot that prosecutors said was intended to transmit top secret bomb specifications to the Soviets.Ethel’s brother accused them of recruiting him to collect the info.The couple were convicted and sentenced to death.
75The Rosenbergs They were executed on July 19, 1953 by electrocution. They had frequently been offered a deal: to testify against others and avoid the death penalty, but they would not.The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War.
76McCarthy eraSenator Joseph McCarthy made a name for himself by taking up the anti-communist cause.On Feb. 20, 1950, McCarthy stood up at a Republican women’s club meeting and waved some papers in the air, announcing he had a list of “205” communists working in the State Dept. The list would later be “81”, then “a lot”.
77McCarthy eraMcCarthy never produced a shred of credible evidence; however, in hearings and public statements, he attacked and ruined official after official in the U.S. gov. The accused either resigned under a cloud of suspicion or were fired as security risks.This time period became known as “The McCarthy Era”.
78McCarthy eraHe added a new word, McCarthyism —It referred to the use of intimidation and often unfounded accusations in the name of fighting communism.McCarthy often had public support. Eventually he took it too far by accusing the U.S. army who was prepared for this.
79Hollywood blacklistThe Hollywood blacklist was a group of primarily Jewish film actors, directors, and screenwriters in the late 1940s and early 1950s, including at least ten who were members of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA), who were investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee.
80Hollywood blacklistArthur Miller. Would write The Crucible as a parable to the Red Scare.George Orson Welles— The War of the Worlds
81Dwight d. EisenhowerEisenhower was a famous WWII general. He ran for President in 1952 and he chose a staunch anti-communist as his running mate—Richard Nixon.
82Nixon for V.P.It looked as though the choice of Nixon would backfire on Eisenhower as there were accusations of Nixon having a “secret fund” of illegal money to support his extravagant life-style.
83The checkers speechNixon took his case to the voters in a live TV broadcast where he gave a thorough account of all his financial holdings. He did admit to one contribution for personal use—the family dog— “Checkers”. He said his daughters loved that dog and he would not give it back. He won America over.
87EISENHOWER AND VICE PRESIDENT NIXON ON ELECTION NIGHT NOVEMBER 1952 THE “CHECKERS” SPEECH WAS NIXON’S RESPONSE TO CHARGES HE TOOK ILLEGAL DONATIONS AS A SENATOR. THE SPEECH SAVED NIXON AS EISENHOWER WAS CLOSE TO REMOVING HIM FROM THE TICKET.
89The election of 1956 featured a rematch between Eisenhower and Stevenson with similar results
90New worlds to conquer, 37 new countries emerged. Loyal to neither the U.S. nor the Soviet Union, these newly independent nations became a new cold war battleground.The U.S. depended on rich stores of rubber, oil and other natural resources from developing countries and on their vast markets for American products.
91Views of emerging nations Drawing emerging nations into the American camp was difficult. Many wanted no part of outside control—U.S. or Soviet.Establishing friendships was difficult. The emerging nations resented U.S. wealth. Soviet propaganda pointed to America’s troubled race relations.Our primary method to win friendships was foreign aid.
92The central intelligence agency Eisenhower relied increasingly on the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to promote American Allegiance.The CIA had been created by the National Security Act under Truman and reported directly to the President. The National Security Council was also created.The CIA spied and conducted covert operations—undercover missions of all kinds.
93The central intelligence agency Congress gave the CIA sweeping powers—the CIA shall perform “functions and duties related to intelligence affecting national security as the National Security Council will direct”.The CIA enabled the President to take quick, controversial action in foreign trouble spots without waiting for congressional or public approval. The President had virtual control of foreign policy.
94Revolution in CubaBy early 1950s, U.S. corporations virtually controlled the island nation of Cuba.Only a few high-level Cubans lived well. Most suffered in poverty.In 1952 Fulgencio Batista overthrew the government and installed himself as dictator, friendly to the U.S. He did little to help the Cuban people.In 1958, Fidel Castro led a group of peasants and middle-class Cubans in a successful revolt.
95Revolution in CubaCastro moved quickly to solve Cuba’s problems by demanding control of American properties. When the U.S. refused to discuss the matter, Castro turned to the Soviets for economic help.Eisenhower ordered the CIA to train a secret force of anti-Castro Cubans called La Brigada, which could be used to overthrow Castro.In 1961, as Eisenhower was preparing to leave office, Cuba made a trade agreement with the Soviets. We broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.
96Nikita KhrushchevStalin dies in March 1953 and Nikita Khrushchev comes to power.Khrushchev denounced many of Stalin’s practices and pursued a course of reform.Temporary “thaw” in tensions between the U.S. and Soviet Union.
97The nuclear threatEisenhower believed in the domino theory—if one country in a region fell to communism, others would follow.Eisenhower stepped up the American weapons development program to counter the new Soviet nuclear threat.Between , the U.S. conducted 19 hydrogen bomb tests. These proved to be 750 times more powerful than the a-bomb dropped at Nagasaki.
98The nuclear threatEisenhower’s Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, adopted a policy of Brinkmanship – the willingness to go to the brink or edge of all-out war.Geneva Talks—(1955) Eisenhower put forth an “Open-Skies” proposal—U.S. and Soviet Union would allow flights over one another’s countries to prevent surprise attacks.
99Continued TensionsGeneva Talks—(1955) Eisenhower put forth an “Open-Skies” proposal—U.S. and Soviet Union would allow flights over one another’s countries to prevent surprise attacks.
100Continued Tensions U2 Incident CIA began making secret high-altitude flights over Soviet territory.Used U2 planes, planes that could fly without detection, to take pictures of Soviet missile sitesU.S. officials grew nervous about the flights by 1960.John Foster Dulles authorizes one last flight in 1960Pilot Francis Gary Powers’ plane is brought down in Soviet territory
101Continued Tensions U2 Incident Significance: The “thaw” in tensions was now over.1960s begin with greater tension between the two powers.
102SputnikThe technology gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union became apparent when the Soviets used one of their ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) to launch Sputnik—the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. – 1957.The U.S. was horrified that we were behind. We also realized they were equipped to perhaps launch a hydrogen bomb.
103Shows Khrushchev riding Sputnik. Uncle Sam realizing the U.S. is falling behind in the arms race.Shows Khrushchev riding Sputnik.
104The nuclear threatAmericans became fearful of a Soviet nuclear attack.Some built bomb shelters in their back yards and many towns had fallout shelters for citizens should an attack occur.The government made efforts to prepare the public for such attacks and calm the fear of Americans using propaganda.
110REASONS FOR PROSPERITY Life in the 1950'sOVERVIEWECONOMIC DATAREASONS FOR PROSPERITYAFFLUENCEBABY BOOMAMERICAN DREAMLEVITTOWNDEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTSCHANGING WORKPLACEAUTOMATION
1111950’s OVERVIEWTHE 1950’s ARE REMEMBERED AS A TIME WHEN THE MAJORITY OF AMERICANS EXPERIENCED PROSPERITY, STABILITY AND CONFIDENCE IN THE FUTURE. MORE AMERICANS BEGAN TO CONSIDER THEMSELVES PART OF THE MIDDLE CLASS AS CLASS DISTINCTIONS BLURRED.GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT, THE TOTAL OUTPUT OF ALL GOODS AND SERVICES, ROSE 250% BETWEEN 1945 AND 1960.THE U.S., WITH JUST 6% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION, PRODUCED HALF OF THE WORLDS GOODS AND PRODUCTS AND CONSUMED ALMOST 1/3RD OF THE WORLD’S OUTPUT.AMERICAN CORPORATIONS BEGAN A SERIES OF TAKEOVERS AND BUYOUTS FORMING GIGANTIC CONGLOMERATES. CONGLOMERATES WERE BUSINESSES WHO HAD INTERESTS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUSTRY. FOR EXAMPLE, INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH BOUGHT SHERATON HOTELS, CONTINENTAL BAKING, HARTFORD FIRE INSURANCE AND AVIS RENT-A-CAR.OTHER CORPORATIONS BEGAN INVESTING OVERSEAS WHERE LABOR COSTS WERE LOWER.
112RISE IN GNP (TOTAL IN BILLIONS) BILLIONS OF DOLLARS
114REASONS FOR THE UNPRECEDENTED POST-WAR PROSPERITY PENT UP DEMAND FOR CONSUMER GOODS BROUGHT ABOUT BY WWII SHORTAGES. THE NUMBER OF CARS PRODUCED QUADRUPLED AND CHEAP MORTGAGES LED TO A RAPID EXPANSION OF HOME CONSTRUCTION.INCREASED DEFENSE SPENDING TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE COLD WAR.THE MARSHALL PLAN LED TO A HUGE EXPANSION IN EXPORTS.FULLY TWO-THIRDS OF AMERICANS QUALIFIED AS MIDDLE CLASS IN THE POSTWAR ERA. IN THE 1920’s, LESS THAN ONE-THIRD COULD BE CONSIDERED MIDDLE CLASS.
119BIRTH RATE PER THOUSAND FOR WOMEN 15-44 YEARS OLD
120THE AMERICAN DREAM OWN YOUR OWN HOME MOST NEW HOUSING CONSTRUCTION TOOK PLACE OUTSIDE MAJOR CITIES IN NEWLY CREATED SUBURBSTHERE WAS TREMENDOUS PENT UP DEMAND FOR HOUSING AS THERE HAD BEEN LITTLE CONSTRUCTION DURING THE DEPRESSION OR WWIICOUPLES WERE HAVING MORE CHILDREN AND WANTED THEIR OWN HOMES TO RAISE THEM INFEDERAL GOVERNMENT LOANS MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR MORE FAMILIES TO PURCHASE THEIR OWN HOMESCARS AND SHOPPING CENTERS BECAME THE CENTER PIECES OF THE NEW SUBURBAN LIFESTYLE
121LEVITTOWN'S WERE THE SYMBOL OF THE NEW AMERICAN SUBURB WHERE ALMOST ANYONE COULD AFFORD A NEW HOME. THEY WERE SMALL HOMES BUILT USING MASS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES.WILLIAM LEVITT ONE OF THE OWNERS OF LEVITT AND SONS THAT BUILT SEVERAL LEVITTOWNS.AERIAL VIEW OF A LEVITTOWN. THE ORIGINAL HOMES COST $8,000 ($60,00 IN 2002).
124BEATS: LITERARY REBELS AGAINST CONFORMITY AND THE CONSUMER CULTURE THEY TOOK THEIR NAME FROM A ZEN BUDDHIST TERM WHICH MEANS TO SEARCH FOR INNER GRACE.BEATS MET IN COFFEE HOUSES WHERE THEY RECITED POETRY ACCOMPANIED BY JAZZ MUSICSEVERAL FAMOUS POETS AND AUTHORS IDENTIFIED WITH THE BEAT MOVEMENT. ALLEN GINSBURG’S POEM HOWL SERVED AS AN ANTHEM FOR THE MOVEMENT.JACK KEROUAC, THE MOST FAMOUS WRITER OF THE GROUP, HAD LITERARY AND FINANCIAL SUCCESS WITH HIS NOVELS, THE MOST POPULAR BEING ON THE ROAD.THE BEATS WERE A FORERUNNER TO THE LARGER COUNTERCULTURE MOVEMENTS WHICH WOULD TAKE PLACE IN THE 1960’s.
126MALVINA REYNOLDS PROTEST FOLK SONG Little boxes on the hillside, Little boxes made of ticky-tacky, Little boxes, little boxes, Little boxes, all the same. There's a green one and a pink one And a blue one and a yellow one And they're all made out of ticky-tacky And they all look just the same.2. And the people in the houses All go to the university, And they all get put in boxes, Little boxes, all the same. And there's doctors and there's lawyers And business executives, And they're all made out of ticky-tacky And they all look just the same.3. And they all play on the golf-course, And drink their Martini dry, And they all have pretty children, And the children go to school. And the children go to summer camp And then to the university, And they all get put in boxes And they all come out the same.4. And the boys go into business, And marry, and raise a family, And they all get put in boxes, Little boxes, all the same. There's a green one and a pink one And a blue one and a yellow one And they're all made out of ticky-tacky And they all look just the same.
127ROCK ‘N’ ROLLROCK ‘N’ ROLL MUSIC BECAME POPULAR AMONG TEENAGERS IN THE 1950’s. SINCE MANY ADULTS DID NOT LIKE THE MUSIC IT WAS SEEN AS A TEENAGE FORM OF EXPRESSION DIFFERENT FROM THE PREVAILING CONFORMITY.THE MUSIC WAS A BLEND OF BLACK BLUES, WHITE COUNTRY, AND BLACK GOSPEL.ROCK ‘N’ ROLL DANCING SHOCKED ADULTS MANY OF WHOM ALSO DISLIKED THE INTERRACIAL NATURE OF THE MUSIC.THE “KING” OF ROCK ‘N’ ROLL WAS ELVIS PRESLEY.
128Elvis eventually went on to sell 77 million albums in the 20th century.