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Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins. Post War Depression High prices as price controls removed High prices as price controls removed Lots of strikes in 1946.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins. Post War Depression High prices as price controls removed High prices as price controls removed Lots of strikes in 1946."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins

2 Post War Depression High prices as price controls removed High prices as price controls removed Lots of strikes in 1946 4.6 million workers will strike at one time another – Steel, automobile, coal strikes Lots of strikes in 1946 4.6 million workers will strike at one time another – Steel, automobile, coal strikes Caused by inflating prices and loss of high wages made during the war which caused more strikes Caused by inflating prices and loss of high wages made during the war which caused more strikes GM introduce the contract tied to cost of living GM introduce the contract tied to cost of living Republicans push through Taft Hartley Act 1947 Republicans push through Taft Hartley Act 1947 – Outlawed the closed shop – Permitted employers to sue unions for broken contracts or damages – Established a federal mediation service – 80 day cooling off period in strikes involving national health or safety – Union leaders had to take a loyalty oath.

3 Demobilization We bring our troops home with too much haste and create power vacuum which the Russians fill We bring our troops home with too much haste and create power vacuum which the Russians fill No jobs for returning soldiers No jobs for returning soldiers GI bill of rights education benefits GI bill of rights education benefits Tremendous inflation when price controls are removed 33% in one year 1945-1946 Tremendous inflation when price controls are removed 33% in one year 1945-1946 – Scarce goods – Heavy savings

4 Long Economic Boom War helped to rebuild the depression plagued economy War helped to rebuild the depression plagued economy Huge military budgets especially in 1950 for the Korean War Huge military budgets especially in 1950 for the Korean War Cheap Energy Cheap Energy American Productivity enhanced by the rising educational level 1970 – 90% of school aged children attend school American Productivity enhanced by the rising educational level 1970 – 90% of school aged children attend school Shift of the workforce out of farming because of productivity gains Shift of the workforce out of farming because of productivity gains

5 The Sunbelt Post war movement -- an average of 30 million people change residence every year Post war movement -- an average of 30 million people change residence every year –Hard on families –Dr. Spock’s book “The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care” –Sunbelt from Virginia to Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California –Search of Jobs, climate, and lower taxes –Roosevelt had put a lot of defense money into the South –Left the “Rustbelt” the Ohio valley. –Every elected President since 1964 has come from the Sunbelt

6 Move to the Suburbs FHA and VA loans made it more affordable to by your own home FHA and VA loans made it more affordable to by your own home Tax deductions on interest helps provide financial incentive Tax deductions on interest helps provide financial incentive Government built highways gave people to live in the “burbs” and commute to the city for their jobs. Government built highways gave people to live in the “burbs” and commute to the city for their jobs. Levittown in New York Long Island Levittown in New York Long Island White flight White flight

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8 Baby Boom Adds 50 million babies to the nations population by the end of the 50s Adds 50 million babies to the nations population by the end of the 50s Strains many aspects of American life Strains many aspects of American life –Education –Healthcare –Social Security

9 Harry Truman No college education No college education Fought in WWI Fought in WWI Judge Judge Senator from Missouri Senator from Missouri Vice Pres under Roosevelt Vice Pres under Roosevelt Became a give them hell speaker Became a give them hell speaker Hot tempered and half cocked sometimes Hot tempered and half cocked sometimes “The buck stops here” “The buck stops here” “If you can’t stand the heat get out of the kitchen” “If you can’t stand the heat get out of the kitchen” Like Grant he permits old friends to become part of his administration and is very loyal despite their dishonesty Like Grant he permits old friends to become part of his administration and is very loyal despite their dishonesty

10 Yalta Conference Feb. 1945 Final conference of the big three (Roosevelt dies) Final conference of the big three (Roosevelt dies) Final plans for smashing Germany discussed Final plans for smashing Germany discussed Stalin agrees that Poland should have a representative government Stalin agrees that Poland should have a representative government Stalin soon to break that pledge Stalin soon to break that pledge Bulgaria, Romania to have free elections (a promise also lost) Bulgaria, Romania to have free elections (a promise also lost)

11 Yalta Continued Multi-power conference to be held in San Francisco to Organize the United Nations Multi-power conference to be held in San Francisco to Organize the United Nations Most controversial decision concerned the Far East Most controversial decision concerned the Far East Atomic bomb not yet tested Atomic bomb not yet tested From Roosevelt’s stand point it was a good idea to have Russia enter the war in the Pacific to pin down Japanese troops in Manchuria and Korea From Roosevelt’s stand point it was a good idea to have Russia enter the war in the Pacific to pin down Japanese troops in Manchuria and Korea Stalin horse trades Stalin horse trades Agreed to attack Japan within 2-3 months after Germany’s fall Agreed to attack Japan within 2-3 months after Germany’s fall Russia to receive southern half of the Sakhalin Island and Japan’s Kurile Islands Russia to receive southern half of the Sakhalin Island and Japan’s Kurile Islands Joint control of the Railroads in Manchuria and special privileges at port Dairin and Arthur Joint control of the Railroads in Manchuria and special privileges at port Dairin and Arthur Russia enters the war at the last minute in order to claim its prize

12 Post War World Post War World

13 Soviet Sphere of influence created in Europe International Monetary Fund created International Monetary Fund created – To encourage world trade – Also founds the World Bank – US takes the lead in the formation of these in contrast to the end of WWI

14 The formation of the UN Post war world organization was discussed at all major conference Post war world organization was discussed at all major conference 1945 invitations went out – one of Truman first acts was to accept the invite 1945 invitations went out – one of Truman first acts was to accept the invite April 25, 1945 the conference assembles in San Francisco April 25, 1945 the conference assembles in San Francisco Took two months to write the charter but all 50 nations sign Took two months to write the charter but all 50 nations sign

15 UN organization Provides a General Assembly where each nation has one vote Provides a General Assembly where each nation has one vote –Largely to discuss problems Security council Security council –given the power to resolve international disputes – Consisted of five permanent members US, Britain, France, Russia, China and six elected members – Each major power given a veto to protect their vital interests Other Aspects of the UN Other Aspects of the UN – Economic and social council 18 members chosen by General Assembly – World court of 15 judges – Secretaries, and trusteeship Passed by congress Passed by congress

16 Berlin Airlift 1948 Germany was to be partitioned but the German Republic was to be treated as an economic whole (decided at Potsdam) Germany was to be partitioned but the German Republic was to be treated as an economic whole (decided at Potsdam) Berlin had been partitioned into 4 sectors Berlin had been partitioned into 4 sectors No provisions for control of land routes No provisions for control of land routes Russians use this when they become upset over controversies involving 4 power control in 1948 Russians use this when they become upset over controversies involving 4 power control in 1948 Americans begin and around the clock airlift 4500 tons a day. Planes landing every 3 minutes for almost 1 year. Americans begin and around the clock airlift 4500 tons a day. Planes landing every 3 minutes for almost 1 year. Russians back off – brings about 2 Germanys Russians back off – brings about 2 Germanys

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18 Reconstruction US could not afford to see the people of Europe fall to communism US could not afford to see the people of Europe fall to communism Helped UN Relief and Rehabilitations Admin. Helped UN Relief and Rehabilitations Admin. CARE encouraged private relief Corporation for American Remittance to Europe CARE encouraged private relief Corporation for American Remittance to Europe Nuremberg war crimes trial Nuremberg war crimes trial 22 leading Germans tried 19 convicted 12 sentenced to death 7given life 22 leading Germans tried 19 convicted 12 sentenced to death 7given life American (allied) policy was to help Germany – to keep them from the communist camp American (allied) policy was to help Germany – to keep them from the communist camp

19 Truman doctrine 1947 Truman get tough policy Truman get tough policy George F. Kennan -- Containment George F. Kennan -- Containment Britain could no longer bear financial and military load of Greece and Turkey to keep them from communism Britain could no longer bear financial and military load of Greece and Turkey to keep them from communism We fear the loss of the East Med. We fear the loss of the East Med. Establishes the policy of containment Establishes the policy of containment Congress appropriates 400 million in economic and military aid Congress appropriates 400 million in economic and military aid

20 Marshall Plan 1947-48 Sec of state George Marshall Sec of state George Marshall Encourage a European conference to work out plans of economic recovery Encourage a European conference to work out plans of economic recovery Conference held July 1947 in Paris Conference held July 1947 in Paris Plan of Marshall’s was to spend billions over 4 years in 16 coop. Countries 12.5 billion Plan of Marshall’s was to spend billions over 4 years in 16 coop. Countries 12.5 billion Congress approves after a communist coup in Czech. Congress approves after a communist coup in Czech. Within a few years most European countries were exceeding their pre war output Within a few years most European countries were exceeding their pre war output Communism lost ground in important countries like France and Italy Communism lost ground in important countries like France and Italy

21 Dealing with the Soviet Menace NATO signed on April 4, 1949 an attack on one member was as attack on all and the signatories would then take action they deemed necessary NATO signed on April 4, 1949 an attack on one member was as attack on all and the signatories would then take action they deemed necessary 12 original signatories later 14 with Greece and Turkey added. 12 original signatories later 14 with Greece and Turkey added. Congress enacts the first peace time draft Congress enacts the first peace time draft Soviets have the bomb in 1949– we begin the development of the H-Bomb. Soviets have the bomb in 1949– we begin the development of the H-Bomb.

22 Causes the US military to be unified under the national security act of 1947 It creates the Dept. Of Defense-- cabinet official Sec. of Defense -- Forms the Joint Chief of Staff – army, navy, air force It creates the Dept. Of Defense-- cabinet official Sec. of Defense -- Forms the Joint Chief of Staff – army, navy, air force National security council formed to advise the pres on security matters National security council formed to advise the pres on security matters The CIA formed to organize foreign fact finding The CIA formed to organize foreign fact finding Voice of America authorize by congress in 1948 Voice of America authorize by congress in 1948

23 Point Four American money and technological aid to go to foreign nations to prevent them from becoming communist American money and technological aid to go to foreign nations to prevent them from becoming communist Launched in 1950 Launched in 1950 Helped Latin American, Africa, Near East, Far East Helped Latin American, Africa, Near East, Far East

24 Red Scare Truman loyalty program 1947 Truman loyalty program 1947 Attorney general drew up a list of 90 disloyal organizations Attorney general drew up a list of 90 disloyal organizations A loyalty review board investigates 3 mill. Fed. Employees -- 3000 resign or are dismissed A loyalty review board investigates 3 mill. Fed. Employees -- 3000 resign or are dismissed Individual states create loyalty oaths Individual states create loyalty oaths The question could be asked: could freedom of speech exist in the face of international communism? The question could be asked: could freedom of speech exist in the face of international communism?

25 Fear Creates a Witch Hunt Richard Nixon leads the red catching as a chairman of the House Committee on Un- American Activities – against Alger Hiss Richard Nixon leads the red catching as a chairman of the House Committee on Un- American Activities – against Alger Hiss Feb. 1950 McCarthy charges that there are scores of communist in the state department and begins a massive witch hunt Feb. 1950 McCarthy charges that there are scores of communist in the state department and begins a massive witch hunt 1950 Truman vetoes the McCarran Internal Security Bill but congress passes the bill over the veto 1950 Truman vetoes the McCarran Internal Security Bill but congress passes the bill over the veto –authorizes the president to arrest or detain suspicious persons during an internal security emergency Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted in 1951 of espionage and were electrocuted in 1953 – only people in American history to be executed in peace time for espionage. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted in 1951 of espionage and were electrocuted in 1953 – only people in American history to be executed in peace time for espionage.

26 Election of 1948 Rep. nom. Dewey Rep. nom. Dewey Demos. nom. Truman – Southern demos revolt because of Truman’s stand on civil rights Demos. nom. Truman – Southern demos revolt because of Truman’s stand on civil rights Southern Demos. nom. Gov. Strom Thurmond Southern Demos. nom. Gov. Strom Thurmond Progressives nom. Henry Wallace, Roosevelt’s former VP Progressives nom. Henry Wallace, Roosevelt’s former VP – Very liberal pro soviet Democrat attempt to nominate Eisenhower fails when he refuses Democrat attempt to nominate Eisenhower fails when he refuses Truman wins Truman wins

27 Fair Deal Sweeping program for unemployment, housing, higher ed., min. wage, went further than new deal Sweeping program for unemployment, housing, higher ed., min. wage, went further than new deal only a small portion achieved only a small portion achieved Social Security broadened Social Security broadened Public housing progresses Public housing progresses Min. wage increases 40-75 cents Min. wage increases 40-75 cents

28 Korean War Japan surrenders to Russia North of 38 degrees parallel in Korea Japan surrenders to Russia North of 38 degrees parallel in Korea Both powers U.S. and Russia said they wanted a unified Korea Both powers U.S. and Russia said they wanted a unified Korea 1949 Both had pulled out but Russia had left North Korea heavily armed 1949 Both had pulled out but Russia had left North Korea heavily armed June 25,1950 North Korea invades South Korea June 25,1950 North Korea invades South Korea Push South Korea to Pusan Push South Korea to Pusan

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30 Truman takes it to the U.N. Russia absent because they protested the non-seating of communist China Russia absent because they protested the non-seating of communist China U.N. orders assistance to South Korea U.N. orders assistance to South Korea Gen. MacArthur was appointed U.N. commander Gen. MacArthur was appointed U.N. commander 16 nations 16 nations MacArthur lands at Inchon MacArthur lands at Inchon Push to Yalu makes Chinese nervous – China attacks Nov. 1950 Push to Yalu makes Chinese nervous – China attacks Nov. 1950

31 MacArthur wants to bomb bases in Manchuria Truman says no Truman says no MacArthur takes it to the public MacArthur takes it to the public Truman fires MacArthur April 11,1951 Truman fires MacArthur April 11,1951

32 War drags on for next 2 years 1952 elections Demos. 1952 elections Demos. – Adlie Stevenson –Rep. Eisenhower Nixon V.P. – Eisenhower very popular, Nixon did most of campaigning labeling Democrats as soft communists Eisenhower goes to Korea Eisenhower goes to Korea Stalin dies, Soviet Union loses interest in continuing war Stalin dies, Soviet Union loses interest in continuing war Armistice signed 1953 (July), 54,000 Americans died Armistice signed 1953 (July), 54,000 Americans died


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