With the impending defeat of Germany, the Allies needed to plan for the post-war period. [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0903.gif]
The Yalta Conference (February 1945) was an effort on the part of the Allies to determine the future of Germany.
The Big Three Allies agreed to the creation of the United Nations at Yalta. Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to adopt a charter. [Image source: http://www.dfait- maeci.gc.ca/department/history/site/images/ UN3.jpg]
In April 1945, following the death of FDR, Vice president Harry S. Truman assumed became president of the United States. [Image source: http://www.srmason-sj.org/web/temple-files/hall-of-honor/TRUMAN.JPG]
Even with the creation of the United Nations in 1945, there was a lot of tension between the winners of WWII. [Image source: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/imagebank/unlogo.jpg]
The United Nations held its first meeting in San Francisco during January 1946. [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1031.gif]
The Five permanent members on the Security Council were the United States, the Soviet Union, Nationalist China, Great Britain, and France. [Image source: http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/united-nations-security-council-3.jpg]
President Truman wanted the people of Poland to have elections and choose their form of government.
Uncle Joe said “Nyet!” [Image source: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~1930s/PRINT/Life/life_joshmary/life_web/stalin.jpg]
After losing more than 20 million people, Russia was determined to build satellite nations on their borders that were friendly to Communism. [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw0468.jpg]
Josef Stalin refused to cooperate with new agencies like the World Bank and... [Image source: http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/o/maro99/bank.gif]
... the International Monetary Fund. [Image source: http://www.newint.org/issue312/Images/imf.GIF]
These goals were at odds with each other. The Soviet Union helped create communist governments in: Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
The result of these differences was a divided Europe. [Image source: America – Pathways to the Present, page 743.]
In February of 1946 Stalin predicted that communism would triumph over capitalism. [Image source: http://members.surfeu.at/horvath/stalin.htm]
Stalin established the Cominform, a Soviet agency intended to direct and co-ordinate the activities of Communist parties around the world. [Image source: http://rocinante.colorado.edu/~mnowak/TICK/rscare.jpg]
[Image source: http://oldwww.nvg.ntnu.no/songs/arve_hjalmars/jwayne.gif] Them sound like fightin’ words to me!
Winston Churchill declared in a that an “Iron Curtain” had descended across Europe.
When Stalin threatened the stability of Greece and Turkey, the United States decided “Enough is enough!” [Image source: http://www.trumanlibrary.org/teacher/europe1a.jpg]
US gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey. We also set up military bases in each country. “Containment” and the Truman Doctrine guided US foreign policy during the Cold War for 45 years.
Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson stated what everyone already knew: “Only two great powers remain in the world, the United States and the Soviet Union.
In March of 1947, President Truman committed the United States to support free people everywhere in resisting communism. [Image source: http://www.soldatini.org/images/recensioni/wa004_1.jpg]
This became known as the Truman Doctrine. [Image source: http://www.smh.com.au/ffxImage/urlpicture_id_1058034877314_2003/07/13/unclesam.jpg] Back off, or there’ll be big trouble!
The National Security Act of 1947 Department of Defense (DoD) Air Force (USAF) Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) National Security Council (NSC) We were slowly returning to a war-time mentality.
In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall outlined his plan for rebuilding Europe following World War II.
The Soviet Union Rejects the Marshall Plan (July 1947) [Image source http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1271.gif]
Seventeen Western Nations joined the plan. Russia and its allies did not participate. You don’t like the Marshall Plan comrade? NYET!
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov believed the Marshall Plan was a vicious American scheme for using dollars to “buy its way” in European affairs. [Image source: http://digilander.libero.it/secondaguerra/molotov.jpg]
As tensions rose, Stalin tightened the USSR’s hold on East Germany and isolating West Germany (US controlled.)
The German city of Berlin was divided into a Russian- controlled sector and a sector controlled by Britain, France, and the United States. [Image source: http://www.foothill.fhda.edu/divisions/unification/images/berlin.gif]
On 24 th June 1948, Russia closed off Western Berlin when American, British, and French leaders merged their zones of control. [Image source: http://www.cs.utah.edu/~hatch/images/eu rope/checkpoint.charlie.jpg]
The Soviet Union stops road and rail traffic to Berlin (April 1948) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1409.gif]
The Berlin airlift begins (June 1948) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1467.gif]
Paul Hoffman was the head of the Economic Cooperation Administration, administering the Marshall Plan.
The US supplied West Berlin with food, medicine, and all other materials for 2.5 million people by air for 15 months. This was known as the Berlin Airlift. [Image source: http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter16/images/airlift.jpg]
The Berlin airlift continues (September 1948) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1490.gif]
Trouble continues in Palestine (January 1949) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1549.gif]
The Berlin Airlift Continues (February 1949) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1566.gif]
Plans for NATO published (March 1949) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1580.gif]
India become republics (April 1949) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1594.gif]
During the summer of 1949 Western nations made a bid for collective security when they created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). [Image source: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/images/map11_3.jpg]
The US seemed prepared to handle Russia with NATO, the UN, and the Truman Doctrine, but in 1949 the Communists made several advances.
George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four is published (June 1949) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1611.gif]
East Germany established (October 1949) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1670.gif]
Problems continue when China falls to the Communist forces of Mao Zedong. The United States subsequently blocked their entry into the UN. [Image source: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/images/mao-zedong-3.jpg]
North Korea invades South Korea (June 1950) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1772.gif]
Britain sends troops to Korea to serve with the United Nations (July 1950) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1776.gif]
China enters the Korean War (November 1950) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1807.gif]
North Korean advance stopped by the UN (January 1951) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1824.gif]
Iran nationalizes its oil industry (March 1951) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1854.gif]
A truce is signed between North and South Korea (November 1951) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw1899.gif]
The Korean truce holds (December 1951) [Image source: http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw2913.gif]
In 1955, in response to NATO, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact, a political, economic, and military alliance comprising the nations in Eastern Europe. [Image source: http://www.wwnorton.com/wo rlds/images/map11_3.jpg]
Belgium Canada Denmark France Great Britain Iceland Italy Luxembourg Norway Portugal United States Greece Turkey West Germany Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union (USSR)
President Harry Truman officially recognized Israel as a country in 1948, complicating our foreign policy with Arab nations. [Image source: http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/0415236614/resources/maps/map71.jpg]
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for espionage after being convicted of divulging secrets of our atomic weapons to the Russians. [Image source: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t304/T304779A.jpg]
America became paranoid. Truman began a Loyalty Program with FBI background checks, loyalty oaths, and a Loyalty Review Board. Are you lookin’ at me?
Congress created the House Un- American Activities Committee which investigated charges of disloyalty. Many Hollywood stars were accused of Commie connections. Humphrey Bogart and Shirley Temple were two of them.
Bogart denied involvement with communist party.
America had become the police state that they feared Communists wanted to create! Many lives were destroyed with false accusations. [Image source: http://www.perthimc.asn.au/storyuploads/1999/follow.jpg]
State Department employee Alger Hiss was accused of spying for Russia and spent four years in prison. [Image source: http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images1/hiss.jpg]