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The Early Cold War: 1945-1960.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Cold War: 1945-1960."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Cold War:

2 1945 Yalta Conference A It was decided at Yalta to divide Germany and Berlin into four zones, with Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France each controlling a zone. It was also agreed that Germany would pay reparations for damage caused by the war. For the next several years, arguments about these reparations and economic policy in Germany would become one of the major causes of the Cold War. B. Tensions rose when the Soviets did not follow agreements made at Yalta, which caused Soviet-American relations to deteriorate. C. President Roosevelt died and Vice President Harry S Truman became the next President.

3 Truman Takes Control A. Harry S Truman took office, making it clear he would stand firm against Stalin to keep promises he made during Yalta. B. In July 1945, Truman and Stalin met at Potsdam near Berlin to work out a deal regarding Germany. They discussed what do to about German industry. Truman also told Stalin the US had the A-bomb. C. Other issues at Potsdam did not end successfully. The Declaration of Liberation of Europe was not upheld, and the Soviet army’s presence led to pro-Soviet Communist governments being established in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. These Communist countries of Eastern Europe became known as the satellite nations. Although they had their own governments and were not directly under direct Soviet control, they had to remain Communist and follow Soviet approved policies. D. As Communists began taking over Eastern Europe, Winston Churchill’s term, the iron curtain, was used to describe the separation of the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West.

4 The Ideological Struggle
Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world-wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

5 The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

6 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT
George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] Restoration of the balance of power Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia] Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Exploitation of tensions in international communism.

7 George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application
Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations.

8 Truman Doctrine [1947] Civil War in Greece.
Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.

9 Marshall Plan [1948] “European Recovery Program.”
Secretary of State, George Marshall The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].

10 Post-War Germany

11 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)

12 The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?”
The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain

14 Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia
East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania

15 Truman vs. Eisenhower “Containment” [George Kennan]
“Brinksmanship” [John Foster Dulles] Mutual security agreements. Massive retaliation. M. A. D. “Domino Theory” CIA & covert operations Eisenhower Doctrine Marshall Plan Truman Doctrine Berlin Airlift NATO Korean War

16 Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you De-Stalinization Program

17 Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!

18 The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”

19 The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]

33,741 US Dead 23,615 Killed In Action 92,134 US Wounded**   4,820 US Missing In Action (Declared Dead) 7,245 Prisoners Of War 2,847 Died in POW Camp 389 POWs known to have been alive after all U.S. POWs supposedly returned.

21 Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”
Middle East: 1953  CIA sponsored coup in Iran 1956  Suez Crisis. 1958  Civil War in Lebanon

22 Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”
Latin America: 1948  O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Truman’s administration. 1954  CIA covert ops. in Guatemala. 1950s  Puerto Rican independence movement.

23 Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

24 Nixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate” (1959)
Cold War ---> Tensions <--- Technology & Affluence

25 Let’s look at the 1950’s America

26 Kennedy Years The early 1960’s

27 Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

28 Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

29 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Checkpoint Charlie

30 President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

31 Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961

32 Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)

33 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

34 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

35 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

36 Vietnam War:

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