21945 Yalta ConferenceA It was decided at Yalta to divide Germany and Berlin into four zones, with Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France each controlling a zone. It was also agreed that Germany would pay reparations for damage caused by the war. For the next several years, arguments about these reparations and economic policy in Germany would become one of the major causes of the Cold War.B. Tensions rose when the Soviets did not follow agreements made at Yalta, which caused Soviet-American relations to deteriorate.C. President Roosevelt died and Vice President Harry S Truman became the next President.
3Truman Takes ControlA. Harry S Truman took office, making it clear he would stand firm against Stalin to keep promises he made during Yalta.B. In July 1945, Truman and Stalin met at Potsdam near Berlin to work out a deal regarding Germany. They discussed what do to about German industry. Truman also told Stalin the US had the A-bomb.C. Other issues at Potsdam did not end successfully. The Declaration of Liberation of Europe was not upheld, and the Soviet army’s presence led to pro-Soviet Communist governments being established in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. These Communist countries of Eastern Europe became known as the satellite nations. Although they had their own governments and were not directly under direct Soviet control, they had to remain Communist and follow Soviet approved policies.D. As Communists began taking over Eastern Europe, Winston Churchill’s term, the iron curtain, was used to describe the separation of the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West.
4The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
5The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
6George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual ApplicationEncouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion.Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan]Restoration of the balance of powerCooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia]Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power.Exploitation of tensions in international communism.
7George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences.Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations.
8Truman Doctrine  Civil War in Greece. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
9Marshall Plan  “European Recovery Program.” Secretary of State, George MarshallThe U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
12The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
13North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
14Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East GermanyHungaryPolandRumania
15Truman vs. Eisenhower “Containment” [George Kennan] “Brinksmanship” [John Foster Dulles]Mutual security agreements.Massive retaliation.M. A. D.“Domino Theory”CIA & covert operationsEisenhower DoctrineMarshall PlanTruman DoctrineBerlin AirliftNATOKorean War
16Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury youDe-Stalinization Program
17Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power! Mao’s Revolution: 1949Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
18The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-SungSyngman Rhee“Domino Theory”
20A FEW FACTS ABOUT "THE FORGOTTEN WAR“ 33,741 US Dead23,615 Killed In Action92,134 US Wounded** 4,820 US Missing In Action (Declared Dead)7,245 Prisoners Of War2,847 Died in POW Camp389 POWs known to have been alive after all U.S. POWs supposedly returned.
21Foreign Policy “Hot Spots” Middle East:1953 CIA sponsored coup in Iran1956 Suez Crisis.1958 Civil War in Lebanon
22Foreign Policy “Hot Spots” Latin America:1948 O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Truman’s administration.1954 CIA covert ops. in Guatemala.1950s Puerto Rican independence movement.
23Sputnik I (1957)The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!