What Perl Is Perl is a general purpose programming language that’s especially good at manipulating text.
Script? Program? Scripts and programs are changed (“compiled”) into commands the computer can understand. Scripts are compiled each time you run them. Programs are compiled once, when you finish writing them.
Still, we use the word “programming” to refer to creating scripts.
Some write it “PERL” “Practical Extraction and Report Language” Actually this is a backronym, just like “Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden” (Golf).
What do I need to get started? –A computer –A text editor –A Perl script –A Perl interpreter –Perl modules (if needed by the script) –Input
Computer –Your workstation (Windows, Mac, etc.) –Just about any server (web, e-mail, Windows, etc.) –Almost never your Innovative server
Which computer you use depends on the particular task and/or what computers you have access to.
Text editor For creating & editing Perl scripts A program for editing plain text files –letters, numerals, symbols, tab, newline –no fileformat-specific control characters for things like bold, italic, fonts, columns, tables
Text Editors –Not Microsoft Word, Wordpad, etc. –Built-in: Notepad (Windows) SimpleText or TextEdit (Mac) –Other specialized editors for programming exist
Perl script A plain text file that you write (or copy from somebody else) Written in the Perl language Looks like this:
Beyond the Basics If you want, and you have everything you need for this, you can automate the running of scripts. Some libraries automate the running of Create Lists, process the output with a Perl script, and output an HTML file directly on their web servers. Of course, you can create and post a web page without doing it this way.
Beyond the basics: Expect An Expect script logs into the character-based system, runs Create Lists, and produces the input for a Perl script.
Actually, Expect scripts can do just about anything in the character- based system.
Beyond the basics: Scheduling an Expect script UNIX: cron Windows: Scheduled Tasks
Beyond the basics: E-mail pipe method –UNIX mail servers only (probably) –Receives e-mail and uses /etc/aliases file to “pipe” the e-mail to a Perl script on that server
Beyond the basics: Output –Save the output file to the live directory on a web server or intranet server. –It’s easier if your mail and web are on the same server.
Beyond the basics, putting it all together: Scheduling + Expect + email pipe method + web server
Other advanced uses Using a Perl script to: –Construct a database –Query a database –Interact with another script –Communicate with another computer
What Libraries Are Doing with Perl Create Lists Prepare Bib & Patron Data for Loading OPAC functionality Circulation System administration
Create Lists: How Perl Can Help Reformat the output of Create Lists to: –Create a web page. –Create an RSS feed. –Etc.
Create Lists: How Perl Can Help Bring out data that Create Lists can't display. Further refine your Create Lists query. Save the data in a different database (like MySQL).
Simple Examples of Using Perl with Create Lists for the Public
Creates a web page that’s a list of circulating videos from Create Lists output http://library.mills.edu/screens/videocirc.html Mills College Script available from Alma Garcia (email@example.com)
Generates new items RSS feeds from create lists output. http://library.bury.gov.uk/screens/new_items_feeds.html Alan Brown Bury Libraries Script available at http://www.innovativeusers.org/ cgi-bin/clearinghouse/view.pl?id=166
Creates web pages and RSS feeds of recent acquisitions grouped by broad subject area, department/program, and call number http://library.lafayette.edu/collections/newacq Bob Duncan Lafayette College Script available from firstname.lastname@example.org
More Complex Examples of Using Perl with Create Lists for the Public
Creates a web page and RSS feeds of new items which can be narrowed by subject area, media, library, time (today, last month, last 6 months), and sorted by title, call number, or author Uses Perl, MySQL, and Perl/Expect http://trilogy.brynmawr.edu/cgi-bin/ newbooks/newbook.pl Tri-Colleges (Bryn Mawr, Haverford, Swarthmore)
Creates a title browse for videos and DVD's which can be limited by format and limited to new titles Uses Perl to populate a MySQL database, with a PHP front end http://library.truman.edu/videos/TrumanVideos/ videosPHP.php Stephen Wynn Truman State University Script available from email@example.com
Simple Examples of Using Perl with Create Lists for Staff
Creates a shelf list, delivered automatically to a printer, of items for which overdue notices are about to be sent so that Circulation staff can check the shelves before sending notices Stephen Wynn Truman State University Script available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Creates and sends e-mail notices to requestors, alerting them that materials they have ordered are available in the library Stephen Wynn Truman State University Script available from email@example.com
Finds items that are awaiting processing which have bib-level holds and notifies cataloging staff via email Stephen Wynn Truman State University Script available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Reads Create Lists output and creates files of OCLC numbers for batch update, which are then updated using an AutoIt script Phil Youngholm MARINet
More Complex Examples of Using Perl with Create Lists for Staff
Notifies selectors that their materials have arrived based on the selector field in order records Uses Expect module for Perl Tri-Colleges (Bryn Mawr, Haverford, Swarthmore)
Creates a list of items on reserve, sorted by course title Uses Create Lists and Patron API John D. Boggs Peninsula Library System email@example.com
Uses a monthly full MARC extract (using Data Exchange) and populates a rudimentary stock management tool; generates reports from this database such as top issuing authors, missing items, and worn stock Uses Perl and MySQL Alan Brown Bury Libraries
You Can’t Do that with Create Lists… but you can if you add Perl
Finds and reports duplicate patrons Stephen Wynn Truman State University Script available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Identifies duplicate copies for weeding John Wenzler San Francisco State University Library email@example.com
Creates a web page of purchase alerts based on the holds per title ratio, based on output from Create Lists http://odie.aadl.org/iug_clearinghouse/ pa_example.html Glen Modell Ann Arbor District Library Script available at http://innovativeusers.org/ cgi-bin/clearinghouse/view.pl?id=189
Creates patron barcodes for incoming student data loads given a beginning barcode (without check digit) Christopher King Appalachian School Of Law Script available at http://www.asl.edu/library/hal/pbargen.pl
Adds additional patron barcode field entries before loading patron records (the barcode without leading digits and the campus ID number) Steve Sowder Andrews University Script available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Creates MARC patron records from a delimited text file created from an Excel file received by the Admissions Office Amy Moberly California Western School of Law Script available from email@example.com
Extracts last four digits of phone number from Create lists output, inserts this as a PIN field, and creates a delimited file that can be turned into MARC format using MarcEdit Phil Shirley Cuyahoga Falls Library Script available from pshirley@CuyahogaFallsLibrary.org
Reorders the ISBN's in bib records, putting the 10 digit ISBN first in order to use Amazon book jackets Alan Brown Bury Libraries
Rearranges data in MARC records for electronic resources to make them work with existing load tables – easier than creating new load tables (uses MARC module for Perl) Michael Kreyche Kent State University
Creates a web-based system for retrieving, validating, reviewing, and manipulating MARC records, and documenting loads (uses Perl, the MARC module for Perl, and PHP) Michael Kreyche Kent State University
Coverts a special collection from excel files to MARC Ann Anderson The Boeing Company
Converts data into a format to feed in an enterprise search Ann Anderson The Boeing Company
Cleans and separates data in MARC records for uploading to union catalogs and other services Alan Brown Bury Libraries
Creates a catalog feature allowing patrons to navigate through Library of Congress call number outlines to class number level, where patrons can search by that class number, search the associated subject heading, find most popular titles in a class, and more. http://bullpup.lib.unca.edu/scripts/lcclass/outline.htm Mark Stoffan Western North Carolina Library Network
Updates ITYPEs for ILL materials that have not been checked out (as loan periods for ILL's are controlled through ITYPE at this library), and notifies ILL staff when such materials should be returned to the lending library Stephen Wynn Truman State University Script available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Posts Ariel document delivery to a web server John Dillon Saint Anselm College
Takes the web server log, a list of items for electronic resources, and a list of courses, and produces usage stats for each resource by course Mark Huppert The Australian National University Script available at http://preview.tinyurl.com/68s6qm
Reformats paging slips and sends them to the appropriate groups for disposition. Reformats and sends notices via e-mail Ann Anderson The Boeing Company
Creates and sends out courtesy notices Sends e-mails to indicate that an item is in the mail for a patron (takes advantage of the Oracle back end) Ann Anderson The Boeing Company
Logs into the character-based system to run reports and perform maintenance tasks (uses Expect module for Perl) Tri-Colleges (Bryn Mawr, Haverford, Swarthmore)
Works with EZproxy and Patron API to allow users to verify on either PIN or last name John D. Boggs Peninsula Library System
Works with a proxy server for access to electronic resources Steve Sowder Andrews University
Synchronizes EZProzy and URL's in the catalog by creating a list of new or modified 856 fields and transforming them to EZProxy format (uses Perl Expect module, PHP, and MySQL) Tri-Colleges (Bryn Mawr, Haverford, Swarthmore)
Examines CybraryN log files and calculates the number of users Cuyahoga Falls Library
Processes a web form and e-mails the results Cuyahoga Falls Library
Where to find more of other libraries' scripts IUG Clearinghouse and listserv http://www.innovativeusers.org/
How to learn the Perl language –Books such as: Learning Perl by Randal Schwartz, Tom Christiansen, Larry Wall A good book for beginners Programming Perl Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, Jon Orwant A great reference Win32 Perl Programming by Dave Roth Good for automating Windows functions
Another Resource Perl4lib: Perl for Libraries listserv and web site http://Perl4lib.Perl.org/
Other tools MarcEdit Other scripting languages