Presentation on theme: "Do Now How did the WWII conferences lead to tension between the U.S and Soviet Union? What decisions did Stalin make that furthered the divide between."— Presentation transcript:
Do Now How did the WWII conferences lead to tension between the U.S and Soviet Union? What decisions did Stalin make that furthered the divide between the U.S and USSR?
There are now two great nations in the world, which starting from different points, seem to be advancing toward the same goal: the Russians and the Anglo-Americans.... Each seems called by some secret design of Providence one day to hold in its hands the destinies of half the world. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835) Fortune Teller or Genius You Decide…
Truman April 12, 1945 Truman becomes president What conference was Truman at? Potsdam What was the problem at Potsdam???
The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [ George Kennan] Ways to “Fight” Each other: 1.Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] 2.Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3.Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] 4.Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]``
The Ever Brilliant Churchill “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. ” Iron Curtain
Satellite Nations Remember the land that Stalin wanted??? Those places become known as Satellite Nations
"The United States will defend free people and their free institutions at any place at any point in the world where outside communist aggression threatens that nation's internal stability." President Truman, 1947 ActionReaction U.S. Containment "I'm sick of babying the Soviets " Soviets : Stalin hostile speech - communism & capitalism were incompatible Soviets: Threaten the weak governments of Turkey and Greece U.S. Truman Doctrine U.S.: Fears further Soviet threat in the weakened European countries: Result: Marshall Plan "directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos" - but called by Truman "two halves of the same walnut" Soviets: No country under Soviet influence can accept the money from the U.S. Soviet Blockade of West Berlin U.S. Berlin Airlift (Great PR for the U.S. in Europe) Soviets: Communist coup took over Czechoslovakia U.S.: Brussels Pact organized to protect Europe from communism U.S.: NATO treaty signed (1949) Soviets: Warsaw Pact (1955)
Cold War Policies Heat Up.. National Security Act (1947) Involvement in NATO (Remaining a world power) (1948) Truman's Loyalty Program created to catch Cold War spies Ordered justice dept. to produce list of possible subversives in 1948 Created loyalty boards authorized dismissal of people considered bad security risks government established lists of dissident organization
Soviet Propaganda Text on Belly: "Capitalist economy" Text on Fat Leg: "Military industry" Text on Thin Leg: "Civil industry" "CIA the weapon of terrorism of the American state." "Under the roof of the capital"
President Truman's Statement Announcing the First Soviet A-Bomb September 23, 1949 I believe the American people, to the fullest extent consistent with national security, are entitled to be informed of all developments in the field of atomic energy. That is my reason for making public the following information. We have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the U.S.S.R. Ever since atomic energy was first released by man, the eventual development of this new force by other nations was to be expected. This probability has always been taken into account by us. This recent development emphasizes once again, if indeed such emphasis were needed, the necessity for that truly effective enforceable international control of atomic energy which this Government and the large majority of the members of the United Nations support.
The Policy Gets Defined By 1950, Truman government decides that U.S. could no longer rely on others to take the initiative in resisting communism The government issues a report (NSC-68) that states the U.S. must take the lead in stopping communism wherever it occurred, regardless of the strategic or economic value of that area to the U.S. This leads to major expansion of the American military power, along with vastly increased defense spending NSC-68 will dictate our response to communism for over 30 years It will play a major role in how we look at countries trying to gain independence from colonial powers--leading revolutionaries in many of those nations to turn to Soviet Union for help