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Cold War Origins. Long Term Causes Bolshevik Revolution Marxist-Leninists take power in Russia and form Soviet Union 1921 Western powers had sent troops.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War Origins. Long Term Causes Bolshevik Revolution Marxist-Leninists take power in Russia and form Soviet Union 1921 Western powers had sent troops."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War Origins

2 Long Term Causes Bolshevik Revolution Marxist-Leninists take power in Russia and form Soviet Union 1921 Western powers had sent troops to fight against Bolsheviks Western appeasement of Hitler Leads to distrust of west German-Soviet non-agression pact Leads to distrust of USSR

3 WW2 Alliance German invasion of USSR and US entry into war lead to war time alliance Big 3 - Churchill, FDR and Stalin Each side feared a separate peace with Hitler Stalin wanted 2 nd front Not until 1944 Stalin believed US, UK wanted Ger. to bleed USSR

4 Big three met at Tehran to discuss strategy in 1943 FDR wants to include Stalin in post war Europe vis-à-vis Atlantic charter Met again at Yalta to discuss post war Europe – Feb 1945 Polish Question German question Each of big three had different goals and visions of post war Europe

5 Final meeting of big three at Potsdam July 1945 New leaders, Truman replaces FDR and Atlee replaces Churchill Allied Control Council (ACC) set up Germany to reduced to light industrial and agricultural economy (Morganthau Plan) Reparations to be taken by USSR Included 10% of industry from western zones and forced labor Territorial changes made

6 Conflicts and Disagreements Soviet domination of Eastern Europe Free and Fair elections have different interpretations Stalin only allows people who are friendly to USSR are allowed to take power Only Czechoslovakia has consensus government Disagreements on Germany lead to deadlock on what to do

7 Truman less trusting of Soviet intentions More in line with Churchill End of war with Japan and Atomic bombs lets Truman exclude USSR from any say on post war Japan. Sec. State Byrnes holds hard line on Germany and Eastern Europe Morganthau plan seen as unworkable Domestic concerns on economy also impact US decision on post war world

8 Stalin sees need for security zone in eastern Europe Wants a weak Germany or one dominated by USSR Strips Germany of all industrial equipment Western Allies see Soviet actions as against the spirit of Yalta and Potsdam Poland the biggest issue Soviets won’t budge on prewar agreements on Germany

9 Stalin makes a speech on Feb that says that war between Capitalists and Communists inevitable Truman asks for a report on reasons for Soviet actions Request is sent through State Dept. to Russian expert at US embassy in Moscow George Kennan Kennan sends response in a “Long telegram” on Feb 22

10 Long Telegram Based on Riga Axioms Soviet conduct based on Bolshevik Communism and traditional Russian imperialism Said that the USSR would continually try expand When published as an article later called for a policy of containment

11 Iron Curtain Speech Delivered on March in Fulton Missouri Said that the USSR had put the states of Eastern and Central Europe in a state of bondage Called for an Anglo-American alliance to hold against further expansion Often cited as the declaration of the Cold War

12 Problems with in Europe US stated its intent to stay in Europe in Sept and that it no longer would follow the Morganthau Plan Cold weather and destruction of war led to severe problems throughout 1946 and 47 The status of Germany remained undecided as the ACC and council of Foreign Ministers remained deadlocked Stalin continued to increase USSRs hold on Eastern Europe Communist parties in Italy and France gained power amid economic stagnation and uncertainty

13 Truman Doctrine GB was supporting the Greek government against Communist rebellion GB announced it could not afford to maintain support for Greek government USSR had tried to gain influence in Turkey and Iran Following the tenets of the Long Telegram Truman announces that US would aid any government facing aggression in an address to Congress on March Established Policy of Containment that would last until end of Cold War

14 Defense Reorginization Act 1947 Created Central Intelligence agency Created US Air Force as separate branch Replaced Dept of War and Dept of Navy with Dept of Defense which include all branches of military Create National Security Council Designed to meet new security needs

15 Marshall Plan Europe not recovering from war. US needed economic trading partners Communist influence was growing Sec. of State George Marshall announces a program called the European Recovery Program Stated that US would offer massive financial aid to any European country that asked for it

16 Countries that requested aid were required to follow certain economic policies that supported free market economics and purchase industrial supplies from US and Canada Soviet Union called it economic imperialism and forbade any country under its control from participating Czech leader was summoned to Moscow after he initially requested aid

17 Effectively split Europe into cold war lines Cements allegiance of Western Europe to US Communist parties in west lose influence Aids US post war economic boom Western Germany eventually receives aid and benefits the most from it

18 Causes of Cold War Ideology - Capitalist-Democracy vs. Communism (Marxism-Leninism) Security – both sides feared for their own security Domestic Concerns – US needed international free market to prevent new great depression, USSR needed external enemies to keep population in control Both nations were historically imperialistic

19 Historeography Orthodox – it’s the Soviet’s fault Revisionist – it’s the US’s fault Post revisionist 1 – It’s both their faults Post revisionist 2 – it was inevitable neither had much choice Post revisionist Gaddis – Both but more USSR than US


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