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The Cold War 1945-1991. What was it? Cold War Competition that took place between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Competition that took place between.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991. What was it? Cold War Competition that took place between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Competition that took place between."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

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5 What was it?

6 Cold War Competition that took place between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Competition that took place between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Begun in 1945 Begun in 1945 Ended in 1991 (the collapse of the Soviet Union) Ended in 1991 (the collapse of the Soviet Union)

7 Why is the competition called the Cold War?

8 Cold War While both sides prepared for war against the other, no direct fighting between the two ever actually took place While both sides prepared for war against the other, no direct fighting between the two ever actually took place

9 Cold War Included a race to build more and more sophisticated weapons as a means for countries to defend their territory in the event of war Included a race to build more and more sophisticated weapons as a means for countries to defend their territory in the event of war

10 Truman Doctrine Truman first implemented the containment policy in response to a soviet threat after WWII Truman first implemented the containment policy in response to a soviet threat after WWII What was the threat? What was the threat?

11 Truman Doctrine Communist-led uprising against the government in Greece & Turkey Communist-led uprising against the government in Greece & Turkey

12 Truman Doctrine President asked Congress in March 1947 for $400 million in economic & military aid to assist the “free people” Greece & Turkey against totalitarian regimes President asked Congress in March 1947 for $400 million in economic & military aid to assist the “free people” Greece & Turkey against totalitarian regimes

13 Truman Doctrine U.S. policy of providing economic & military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents U.S. policy of providing economic & military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents

14 Truman Doctrine It gained bipartisan support from Republicans & Democrats in Congress It gained bipartisan support from Republicans & Democrats in Congress

15 Marshall Plan After the war, Europe lay in ruins After the war, Europe lay in ruins Short of food & deep in debt Short of food & deep in debt Harsh winter of further demoralized Europeans Harsh winter of further demoralized Europeans

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19 Marshall Plan Discontent encouraged the growth of the Communist Party, especially in France and Italy Discontent encouraged the growth of the Communist Party, especially in France and Italy

20 Marshall Plan Truman administration feared that the western democracies might actually vote the Communists into power Truman administration feared that the western democracies might actually vote the Communists into power

21 Marshall Plan In June 1947, George Marshall outlined an extensive program of U.S. economic aid to help nations of Europe revive their economies, and at the same time strengthen their economies In June 1947, George Marshall outlined an extensive program of U.S. economic aid to help nations of Europe revive their economies, and at the same time strengthen their economies

22 What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?

23 Marshall Plan (1) To help nations of Europe revive their economies (1) To help nations of Europe revive their economies (2) Strengthen Democratic governments (2) Strengthen Democratic governments

24 Why did the Soviet Union refuse aid?

25 Feared that their country might become dependent on the U.S.

26 Marshall Plan: Effects (1) Helped Western Europe achieve self-sustaining growth by the 1950s (1) Helped Western Europe achieve self-sustaining growth by the 1950s (2) Ended any real threat of Communist political success in the region (2) Ended any real threat of Communist political success in the region

27 Marshall Plan: Effects (3) Bolstered U.S. prosperity by greatly increasing U.S. exports to Europe (3) Bolstered U.S. prosperity by greatly increasing U.S. exports to Europe (4) However—it deepened the rift between non-Communist West and the Communist East (4) However—it deepened the rift between non-Communist West and the Communist East

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29 Korean Peninsula Japan had annexed Korea in 1910 & ruled it until 1945 Japan had annexed Korea in 1910 & ruled it until 1945 As WWII ended, Japanese troops north of the 38 th parallel surrendered to the Soviets As WWII ended, Japanese troops north of the 38 th parallel surrendered to the Soviets Japanese troops south of the parallel, surrendered to the Americans Japanese troops south of the parallel, surrendered to the Americans

30 Korean Peninsula In 1948, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in the zone occupied by the U.S. In 1948, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in the zone occupied by the U.S. Communists formed the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) Communists formed the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)

31 Korean War First war in which a world organization, the U.N., played a military role First war in which a world organization, the U.N., played a military role Korean War was a major challenge for the U.N., which had come into existence only 5 years earlier Korean War was a major challenge for the U.N., which had come into existence only 5 years earlier

32 Korean War Often called the “forgotten war” Often called the “forgotten war” Its placement between the glory of WWII and the agony caused by the Vietnam War Its placement between the glory of WWII and the agony caused by the Vietnam War

33 Korean War Began on June 25, 1950 when troops from Communist ruled North Korea invaded South Korea Began on June 25, 1950 when troops from Communist ruled North Korea invaded South Korea UN called the invasion a violation of international peace & demanded that the Communists withdraw from South Korea UN called the invasion a violation of international peace & demanded that the Communists withdraw from South Korea

34 Korean War After the Communists kept fighting, the UN asked its member nations to give military aid to South Korea After the Communists kept fighting, the UN asked its member nations to give military aid to South Korea 16 UN countries sent troops to help the South Koreans & 41 countries sent military equipment or food 16 UN countries sent troops to help the South Koreans & 41 countries sent military equipment or food

35 Korean War U.S. provided about 90% of the troops, military equipment & supplies that were sent to South Korea U.S. provided about 90% of the troops, military equipment & supplies that were sent to South Korea China fought on the side of North Korea & the Soviet Union gave military equipment to the North Koreans China fought on the side of North Korea & the Soviet Union gave military equipment to the North Koreans

36 Korean War Congress never declared war in Korea Congress never declared war in Korea Unlike Vietnam, there was no formal Congressional assent to the action (Gulf of Tonkin Resolution) Unlike Vietnam, there was no formal Congressional assent to the action (Gulf of Tonkin Resolution) Truman used an executive action to send troops Truman used an executive action to send troops

37 Korean War Technically, the U.S. was never officially at war in Korea Technically, the U.S. was never officially at war in Korea Instead—U.S. was involved in a United Nations “police action” Instead—U.S. was involved in a United Nations “police action”

38 The Korean War Ended July 27, 1953 Ended July 27, 1953 UN & North Korea signed an armistice agreement UN & North Korea signed an armistice agreement A permanent peace treaty between South Korea & North Korea has never been signed A permanent peace treaty between South Korea & North Korea has never been signed

39 The Korean War U.S. military forces remain in South Korea to discourage a resumption of hostilities between the two parts of Korea U.S. military forces remain in South Korea to discourage a resumption of hostilities between the two parts of Korea

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41 United Nations Unlike the rejection of the League of Nations following WWI, Congress readily accepted the peacekeeping organization that was conceived during WWII & put in place after the war Unlike the rejection of the League of Nations following WWI, Congress readily accepted the peacekeeping organization that was conceived during WWII & put in place after the war

42 United Nations Meeting in Dumbarton Oaks, Allied representatives from the U.S., the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and China proposed the international peacekeeping org Meeting in Dumbarton Oaks, Allied representatives from the U.S., the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and China proposed the international peacekeeping org

43 United Nations Next, in April 1945 delegates from 50 nations assembled in San Francisco to draft a charter for the United Nations Next, in April 1945 delegates from 50 nations assembled in San Francisco to draft a charter for the United Nations

44 United Nations The Senate quickly voted to accept U.S. involvement in the U.N. The Senate quickly voted to accept U.S. involvement in the U.N. On October 24, 1945, the U.N. came into existence when the majority of member-nations ratified its charter On October 24, 1945, the U.N. came into existence when the majority of member-nations ratified its charter

45 Expectations In a final speech, which he never delivered, Franklin Roosevelt wrote: In a final speech, which he never delivered, Franklin Roosevelt wrote: “The only limits to our realization of tomorrow will be the doubts of today.” “The only limits to our realization of tomorrow will be the doubts of today.”

46 Expectations There were doubts about the new world order to emerge from WWII There were doubts about the new world order to emerge from WWII

47 Expectations There were also widely share hopes that life would be better & more prosperous after the war than before There were also widely share hopes that life would be better & more prosperous after the war than before

48 Expectations U.S. in 1945 was at once the most prosperous & most powerful nation in the world U.S. in 1945 was at once the most prosperous & most powerful nation in the world

49 Expectations U.S. had played a major role in defeating the Fascist dictators U.S. had played a major role in defeating the Fascist dictators Now people looked forward with some optimism to both a more peaceful & more democratic world Now people looked forward with some optimism to both a more peaceful & more democratic world

50 Expectations Unfortunately, the conflict of postwar aims of the Soviet Union with those of the U.S. & the A-bomb would dim these expectations Unfortunately, the conflict of postwar aims of the Soviet Union with those of the U.S. & the A-bomb would dim these expectations

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53 Nuclear Arms Race Scientific achievements that led to the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bombs caste a shadow of nuclear holocaust over the 1950s Scientific achievements that led to the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bombs caste a shadow of nuclear holocaust over the 1950s

54 Nuclear Arms Race Misunderstanding & mistrust between the US & the Soviet Union (USSR) escalated into an arms race Misunderstanding & mistrust between the US & the Soviet Union (USSR) escalated into an arms race

55 Nuclear Arms Race Drained national economies Drained national economies Instilled fear in people all over the world Instilled fear in people all over the world Americans built bomb shelters Americans built bomb shelters Air-raids became part of the school curriculum Air-raids became part of the school curriculum

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