Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Presidency"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 The Presidency To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas EditionsAmerican Government: Roots and Reform, 10th editionKaren O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009
2How does this cartoon illustrate Nixon’s comment that “Those on the right can do what only thoseon the left can only talk about”?
3Roots of the Presidency No chief executive under Articles of Confederation.Natural-born citizen, 35 years old.Two four-year terms, per Twenty-Second Amendment.Little attention to vice president.Can be impeached by Congress.Order of succession in Twenty-Fifth Amendment.Royal Governor PowersAppointment, military command, expenditure, pardon, law-makingAfter 1776Most states lessen power of the office of GovernorNew York was exception – popular electionJames Wilson-PhiladelphiaSuggest single more powerful president and:Veto powerIndependent of legislaturePopularly Elected
4Constitutional Powers More limited than Article I powers of Congress.Appointments to executive, Cabinet, and judiciary.Convene Congress.Make treaties or executive agreements.Veto legislation; no line-item veto.Act as commander in chief of armed forces.Pardon individuals accused of crimes.Appointment (Powerful Policy-making tool)Advice and Consent of Senate (simple majority vote)3,000 appointees of which 1,000 need Senate confirmationAppointment of Judges has lasting influenceBush and Clinton attempt to change to ‘look like America’Clinton first to not receive 97% approval of nomineesEffect relationship with Senate and perception by publicConvene CongressState of the Union AddressExtraordinary Circumstances – TreatiesExecutive Agreements Pg. 282 (treaties v. executive agreements)Used since Washington was PresidentSecret arrangements w/nations w/o Senate Appvl.Used more frequently than treatiesMake Treaties and Receive AmbassadorsSenate 2/3 vote of approvalRecognize existence of other nations70% approved rejectedTreaty of Versailles – League of NationsOpposed idea of U.S. as World PowerCan be amended – Carter turned over Panama CanalCan un-signing – Bush withdrew support of International Criminal Court
5Constitutional Powers More limited than Article I powers of Congress.Appointments to executive, Cabinet, and judiciary.Convene Congress.Make treaties or executive agreements.Veto legislation; no line-item veto.Act as commander in chief of armed forces.Pardon individuals accused of crimes.Trade AgreementsCongressional ‘fast track’ authorityBar amendmentsUp or down vote within 90 daysVeto Power and Threat of VetoBen Franklin feared abuse of veto to extort money2/3 vote to overturn as remedyExecutive orders and signing statements used to have some legislative controllLine item veto first used by U.S. GrantClinton v. City of New YorkBalanced Budget Act of 1997Provision to forgive $2.6 billion in taxes levied against Medicaid providers by the State of New York.Ruled unconstitutional by Supreme CourtPardoning Power (Peter Yarrow, George Steinbrenner, Junior Johnson, Patti Hearst)Before or after conviction – Clinton criticized for Marc Rich pardon (oil deals and tax evasion)Nixon pardoned by Ford to avoid prosecution for Watergate scandalUsed for general amnesty10,000 Draft dodgers who fled U.S. during Viet Nam conflict pardoned by Carter
6Executive Orders and Signing Statements 1978 Presidential Records Act to ‘need to know basis’Reagan, Bush, Clinton and ObamaE.O. on stem cell research and freedom of conscience provision in Hyde Amendment, and federal funding of Planned ParenthoodYoungstown Sheet and Tube V. SawyerTruman seized mills, mines and factoriesCrucial to continue war efforts in Korean War
7Presidential Qualifications Age 3514 Years residencyNatural born citizenDiplomats were often out of countryTwo terms standard established by WashingtonFear of constitutional monarch22nd Amendment – due to FDR four term election2 – 4 year termsVice President can serve for 10 yearsRatified 1951Ben Franklin supported impeachmentWithout, assassination would be more prevalent
8Executive Privilege Executive Privilege invoked first by Washington The Battle of Wabash defeatWashington eventual relinquishedFirst established as a legal right in:U.S. v. Nixon (1974)Watergate - Court rules E.P. cannot be exercisedMust comply with court order for evidence in a crimeUse of executive privilege to protect internal discussions and deliberations can be traced back to George WashingtonWashington –refused to disclose documents pertaining to discussions leading to the Jay Treaty to the House of RepresentativesThomas Jefferson – Refused to release letter received from Aaron Burr in his criminal trial for Treason due to National Security concernsPresident Bush exercises after the firing of 8 US attorneys by Alberto Gonzales; and again in Valerie Plame, CIA leak investigationCarl Rove, Harriet Miers, White House Deputies issued supoenasEisenhower exerts when Joseph McCarthy communist hunting committee demands documents related to communications between the Army and the Administration. He argues that the President needs to be able to have candid exchanges when discussing important issues.During the Iran-Contra scandal, Reagan waived executive privilege, making his documents, diaries and entire staff available for congressional scrutiny. But, limited the Freedom of Information Act requests and imposed harsh penalties to whistleblowers.Clinton – record 14 times mostly over the Monica Lewinsky investigation – no threat to public interest or securityGW Bush – 6 times - Info on Cheney’s meeting with energy executives; and Karl Rove in the investigation of the firing of 8 federal prosecutors; Harriet Myers in CIA leak investigation involving Valerie Plame and husband Joseph WilsonPresident Obama invoked executive privilege to shied documents related to the Fast and Furious gun walking scandal
9Roles of the President Chief law enforcer. Leader of the party. Commander in chief.Shaper of domestic policy.Player in legislative process.Chief of state.
10Establishing Presidential Power George Washington sets precedent.Claimed inherent powers for national government.John Adams and Thomas Jefferson follow lead.Andrew Jackson asserts power through veto.Abraham Lincoln uses Civil War to expand office.Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal ushers in new era.
11George Washington Chief Executive Chief Diplomat Whiskey Rebellion (taxes)Est.Federal SupremacyCabinet SystemChief DiplomatForeign RelationsEngland v France WarEstablished idea of strict neutralityInherent powersJay Treaty – normalize relations with the United States and Great Britain as a trading partner and also establish a position of neutralityHouse of Representatives demanded to see the documents revealing the details of the negotiations. Exerted Executive Privilege
12Thomas Jefferson Informal Exercise of Power Chief ExecutiveLouisiana PurchaseInherent power to acquire territoryOver objections of CongressCongress has duty of admitting new states to the Union
13Theodore Roosevelt Informal Exercise of Power Stated the President has the right and duty to “do anything that the needs of the Nation demanded, unless such was forbidden by the Constitution or by the laws.”Broke from the Republican Party to establish a populist party “The Bull Moose Party”Issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine to include the authority to intervene in the economic affairs of other countries – exercise international policy powerRein in the power of corporations and break up monopolies – “trust buster” reputationUse of the bully pulpit to reach out to the public“Going public” to gain support of the people by going over the heads of members of Congressencourage them to contact Congressmen to put pressure on them.As how Obama is using the bully pulpit with his jobs bill – has it been effective
14Andrew Jackson Chief Legislator Chief Executive Communicator 12 vetoes Appointed members of Congress to cabinet positions as rewardChief Executive12 states added to UnionExpanded Post OfficeCommunicatorCommon man’s manJacksonian Democracy
15Abraham Lincoln Immediate Needs of the Nation Chief ExecutiveWartime presidentDid what was necessary to preserve the unionIgnored CongressSuspended habeas corpusExpanded army passed Congressional limitsBlockade of southern ports (act of war)Closed U.S. Mail to treasonable correspondence
16Franklin Delano Roosevelt Immediate Needs of the Nation Legislator/Economic PlannerExpanded role of government due to Great DepressionNew Deal legislationSocial and economic programs to create jobsEstablished Executive Office of the PresidentSet up Federal Agencies to regulate industry600,000 employees 1933 to 3 million in 1945
17Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) Commander in Chief Legislator Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionCongress grants power to escalate Viet Nam WarLegislatorCivil Rights LegislationGreat SocietyWar Powers Act – Puts a 60 day limit on introducing US armed forces into hostilities.Only exception is to supply, replacement, repair, or train forces of a foreign nationMust report to Congress for Declaration of War, special authorization to extend operations for additional 30 days
18Harry S. TrumanLegislatorSeized the steel industry
19Ronald Reagan Use of the Media Television, radio, newspapers, White House WebsiteMedial provides a forum for presidential messages“The Great Communicator”
20Jimmy Carter Judicial Power Chief Diplomat Amnesty to draft dodgers from Viet Nam WarChief DiplomatPanama CanalReturned to Panama
21George W. Bush Commander-in-Chief Chief Executive Legislator Iraq ResolutionAxis of Evil (Korea, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran)Chief ExecutiveDepartment of Homeland SecurityLegislatorPatriot Act
22Presidential Establishment Growing power of the vice president.Cabinet advisors to deal with a variety of issues.First ladies act as informal advisors.Executive Office of the President.White House staff directly responsible to president.
23Carries more responsibility than in the past Vice PresidentCarries more responsibility than in the pastDick Cheney considered most powerful V.P.Walter Mondale (Jimmy Carter’s V.P.) was first to have more than just ceremonial dutiesChosen as running mate for political reasonsBalances out the ticket politically or geographicallyJohn McCain chooses Palin to appeal to social conservatives and womenObama choses Biden to make up for his inexperience in foreign policyJohn Kerry choses John Edwards from the SouthJoseph Biden - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act; college affordability; manufacturing; extensive foreign policy experience, he advises the president on foreign policy issues (START treaty w/Russia on nuclear arms reduction); traveled to Iraq 8 times to help negotiate the end of the war; traveled extensively around the world China, Japan, Mongolia, South America, etc.
24First Ladies Informal advisors to the president Behind the scenes role, but often very influentialEdith B.G. Wilson, Abigail Adams and Nancy Reagan and Rosalynn CarterClosest AdvisorsSome take a more public role – more visibleEleanor Roosevelt – columnist, lecturer, delegate to the U.N.Hillary Clinton – crafted healthcare legislationMichele Obama – active in pushing for healthcare legislationLaura Bush – spoke out in behalf of women in the Middle EastNancy Reagan called for the firing of Donald Regan, former Secy of Treasury; and Chief of Staff
25Executive Office of the President Established by FDRMini-bureaucracy that advances president’s policy preferencesNational Security Council (NSC), Council of Economic Advisors (CEA), Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of V.P.NSC – Pres., V.P., Secys of State and Defense, head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and director of the CIABush created Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives
26White House Staff Not subject to Senate confirmation Whitehouse Counsel, Lobbyist to Congress, Policy Strategists, Communications StaffChief of Staff – Rahm Emmanuel replaced by William Daily (Secy of Commerce under Clinton) Well respected in Business Community2nd most powerful person in WashingtonGatekeeper functionManages the president’s scheduleUsually a past politicianProtect president from mistakes (Donald Regan - Iran Contra Affair)
27President as Policy Maker FDR is first president to send policy to Congress.Very difficult to get presidential policies passed.Ability to get desired budget passed helps.Office of Management and Budget plays key role.Use of executive order to avoid Congress.
28President as Policymaker FDR as legislator and Contract with AmericaDivided government makes legislative duties nearly impossiblePatronageExecutive AgreementsTruman – Ended segregation of militaryLBJ – affirmative action – executive order 11246Reagan, Clinton, G.W. Bush, ObamaStem Cell ResearchAbortion CounselingFreedom of Conscience
29Presidential Leadership Leadership ability and personality can be key.“Power to persuade.”Bully pulpit and going public.Approval ratings can help or hinder.
30Presidential Leadership State of the Union Address to draw public attentionLeadership StyleShape national destiny (Lincoln and FDR)“Stage” or “fitting honor” to cap one’s careerRichard Neustadt“the power to persuade”Important to start rating the president immediatelyThe Great Initiator – clerkship and decisionmaker
31Presidential Leadership Style Separates the mediocre from the greatUse of the Media to stay connected to the people and gain support – not press conferencesFDR fireside chatsClinton – Larry King Live on CNNBush gave important speeches to militaryObama on David LettermanState of the Union AddressBully PulpitPower to PersuadeCrucial according to Richard Neustadt
32Public PerceptionHigh approval ratings – usually at the beginning of term (honeymoon period)President carries more cloutBush after 9/11 and the U.S. Patriot ActObama and Healthcare Legislation, LBJ and Great SocietyHelp win congressional and gubernatorial contestsCan even push policies unpopular with the publicClinton able to survive scandals after 1996 DNCLow approval ratingsMembers of Congress distance themselvesMake favored policies difficult to implement2008 election – referendum on Bush and Iraq WarObama did little campaigning in 2010 election
33Presidential Personality James David Barber, The Presidential CharacterCharacter, Style, and World View are main determinants of whether a president will:Adapt positively to challengers -or -Retreat negatively to challengesPredict by looking into president’s pastChildhood – Character grows out of relating to peers, siblings and parentsAdolescence – World View - observing othersEarly Adulthood – Style developed from first successesHow something is done is profoundly importantGrasps that style and hangs on to it
34World View effects what president pays attention to: CharacterSelf esteem is prime resourceDerived from either sense of achievement orAffection from othersStyleHabitual way of performingRhetoric, Relationships, HomeworkWorld View effects what president pays attention to:Social CausalityHuman NatureCentral Moral Conflicts
35Presidential Character ActivePassiveAchieve ResultsHigh Self EsteemValues high productivityDifficulty w/ IrrationalPolitical BehaviorOrientation toward DutyGuardian of ‘Right andProper Way’Emphasize Civic VirtuePower-seekingIntense EffortLow emotional rewardCompulsiveAggressivePerfectionistVague Self ImageAchieve love as reward‘Other’ directed compliantLow Self EsteemSuperficial OptimismLikely to be disappointedPositiveNegative
36PositiveNegative Active ADAPTIVE: self-confident; flexible; creates opportunities for action; enjoys the exercise of power, does not take himself too seriously; optimistic; emphasizes the "rational mastery" of his environment; power used as a means to achieve beneficial results. Thomas Jefferson, F. D. Roosevelt, H. Truman, J. F. Kennedy, G. Ford, G. W. Bush(?)COMPULSIVE: power as a means to self-realization; expends great energy on tasks but derives little joy; preoccupied with whether he is failing or succeeding; low self-esteem; inclined to rigidity and pessimism; highly driven; problem managing aggression. John Adams, W. Wilson, H. Hoover, A. Lincoln, L. B. Johnson, R. Nixon, PassiveCOMPLIANT: seek to be loved; easily manipulated; low self-esteem is overcome by ingratiating personality; reacts rather than initiates; superficially optimistic. James Madison, W. H. Taft, W. Harding, R. Reagan, Bill ClintonWITHDRAWN: responds to a sense of duty; avoid power; low self-esteem compensated by service to others; responds rather than initiates; avoids conflict and uncertainty. emphasizes principles and procedures and an aversion to politicking. George Washington, C. Coolidge, D. Eisenhower
37Power of the Situation Level of public support Party balance in CongressSupreme CourtExpectations and NeedsClimate of Expectations – recurring themesReassurance to ease anxietyProgress and actionSense of legitimacyMaster politician that appears to be above politicsProof of fitfulness – presidentialReligiosity – defender of faith
4125th AmendmentFollowed 1947 Presidential Succession Act – See Table 8.2Assured continuation of ActNew V.P. appointed by President w/Senate ApprovalIncapacitation of PresidentV.P. appointed as PresidentPresident Bush makes Dick Cheney President Temporarily in 2002Underwent colonoscopy