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To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato  Pearson.

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Presentation on theme: "To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato  Pearson."— Presentation transcript:

1 To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato  Pearson Education, 2009  Chapter 8 The Presidency

2 How does this cartoon illustrate Nixon’s comment that “Those on the right can do what only those on the left can only talk about”?

3 Roots of the PresidencyPresidency  No chief executive under Articles of Confederation.  Natural-born citizen, 35 years old.  Two four-year terms, per Twenty-Second Amendment.  Little attention to vice president.  Can be impeached by Congress.  Order of succession in Twenty-Fifth Amendment.succession

4 Constitutional Powers  More limited than Article I powers of Congress.  Appointments to executive, Cabinet, and judiciary.Appointments  Convene Congress.  Make treaties or executive agreements.Make treaties or executive agreements  Veto legislation; no line-item veto.Veto legislation  Act as commander in chief of armed forces.  Pardon individuals accused of crimes.

5 Constitutional Powers  More limited than Article I powers of Congress.  Appointments to executive, Cabinet, and judiciary.Appointments  Convene Congress.  Make treaties or executive agreements.Make treaties or executive agreements  Veto legislation; no line-item veto.Veto legislation  Act as commander in chief of armed forces.  Pardon individuals accused of crimes.

6 Executive Orders and Signing Statements 1978 Presidential Records Act to ‘need to know basis’ Reagan, Bush, Clinton and Obama –E.O. on stem cell research and freedom of conscience provision in Hyde Amendment, and federal funding of Planned Parenthood Youngstown Sheet and Tube V. Sawyer –Truman seized mills, mines and factories –Crucial to continue war efforts in Korean War

7 Presidential Qualifications Age Years residency Natural born citizen –Diplomats were often out of country Two terms standard established by Washington –Fear of constitutional monarch –22 nd Amendment – due to FDR four term election 2 – 4 year terms Vice President can serve for 10 years Ratified 1951 Ben Franklin supported impeachment –Without, assassination would be more prevalent

8 Executive Privilege Executive Privilege invoked first by Washington –The Battle of Wabash defeat –Washington eventual relinquished First established as a legal right in: U.S. v. Nixon (1974) Watergate - Court rules E.P. cannot be exercised Must comply with court order for evidence in a crime

9 Roles of the President  Chief law enforcer.  Leader of the party.  Commander in chief.  Shaper of domestic policy.  Player in legislative process.  Chief of state.

10 Establishing Presidential PowerPresidential Power  George Washington sets precedent.  Claimed inherent powers for national government.  John Adams and Thomas Jefferson follow lead.  Andrew Jackson asserts power through veto.  Abraham Lincoln uses Civil War to expand office.  Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal ushers in new era.

11 George Washington Chief Executive –Whiskey Rebellion (taxes) Est.Federal Supremacy –Cabinet System Chief Diplomat –Foreign Relations England v France War Established idea of strict neutrality Inherent powers

12 Thomas Jefferson Informal Exercise of Power Chief Executive Louisiana Purchase –Inherent power to acquire territory Over objections of Congress –Congress has duty of admitting new states to the Union

13 Theodore Roosevelt Informal Exercise of Power Stated the President has the right and duty to “do anything that the needs of the Nation demanded, unless such was forbidden by the Constitution or by the laws.”

14 Andrew Jackson Chief Legislator –12 vetoes –Appointed members of Congress to cabinet positions as reward Chief Executive –12 states added to Union –Expanded Post Office Communicator –Common man’s man –Jacksonian Democracy

15 Abraham Lincoln Immediate Needs of the Nation Chief Executive –Wartime president Did what was necessary to preserve the union –Ignored Congress Suspended habeas corpus Expanded army passed Congressional limits Blockade of southern ports (act of war) Closed U.S. Mail to treasonable correspondence

16 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Immediate Needs of the Nation Legislator/Economic Planner –Expanded role of government due to Great Depression –New Deal legislation Social and economic programs to create jobs –Established Executive Office of the President –Set up Federal Agencies to regulate industry 600,000 employees 1933 to 3 million in 1945

17 Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) Commander in Chief –Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress grants power to escalate Viet Nam War Legislator –Civil Rights Legislation –Great Society

18 Harry S. Truman Legislator –Seized the steel industry

19 Ronald Reagan Use of the Media Television, radio, newspapers, White House Website Medial provides a forum for presidential messages “The Great Communicator”

20 Jimmy Carter Judicial Power –Amnesty to draft dodgers from Viet Nam War Chief Diplomat –Panama Canal Returned to Panama

21 George W. Bush Commander-in-Chief –Iraq Resolution –Axis of Evil (Korea, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran) Chief Executive –Department of Homeland Security Legislator –Patriot Act

22 Presidential Establishment  Growing power of the vice president.  Cabinet advisors to deal with a variety of issues.Cabinet  First ladies act as informal advisors.  Executive Office of the President.  White House staff directly responsible to president.

23 Vice President Carries more responsibility than in the past –Dick Cheney considered most powerful V.P. –Walter Mondale (Jimmy Carter’s V.P.) was first to have more than just ceremonial duties Chosen as running mate for political reasons –Balances out the ticket politically or geographically –John McCain chooses Palin to appeal to social conservatives and women –Obama choses Biden to make up for his inexperience in foreign policy –John Kerry choses John Edwards from the South

24 First Ladies Informal advisors to the president Behind the scenes role, but often very influential –Edith B.G. Wilson, Abigail Adams and Nancy Reagan and Rosalynn Carter Closest Advisors Some take a more public role – more visible –Eleanor Roosevelt – columnist, lecturer, delegate to the U.N. –Hillary Clinton – crafted healthcare legislation –Michele Obama – active in pushing for healthcare legislation –Laura Bush – spoke out in behalf of women in the Middle East

25 Executive Office of the President Established by FDR Mini-bureaucracy that advances president’s policy preferences National Security Council (NSC), Council of Economic Advisors (CEA), Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of V.P. –NSC – Pres., V.P., Secys of State and Defense, head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and director of the CIA –Bush created Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives

26 White House Staff Not subject to Senate confirmation Whitehouse Counsel, Lobbyist to Congress, Policy Strategists, Communications Staff Chief of Staff – Rahm Emmanuel replaced by William Daily (Secy of Commerce under Clinton) Well respected in Business Community –2 nd most powerful person in Washington –Gatekeeper function –Manages the president’s schedule –Usually a past politician –Protect president from mistakes (Donald Regan - Iran Contra Affair)

27 President as Policy Maker  FDR is first president to send policy to Congress.  Very difficult to get presidential policies passed.  Ability to get desired budget passed helps.  Office of Management and Budget plays key role.  Use of executive order to avoid Congress.

28 President as Policymaker Policymaker –FDR as legislator and Contract with America –Divided government makes legislative duties nearly impossible –Patronage –Executive Agreements Truman – Ended segregation of military LBJ – affirmative action – executive order Reagan, Clinton, G.W. Bush, Obama –Stem Cell Research –Abortion Counseling –Freedom of Conscience

29 Presidential Leadership  Leadership ability and personality can be key.personality  “Power to persuade.”  Bully pulpit and going public.  Approval ratings can help or hinder.Approval ratings

30 Presidential Leadership State of the Union Address to draw public attention Leadership Style –Shape national destiny (Lincoln and FDR) –“Stage” or “fitting honor” to cap one’s career Richard Neustadt –“the power to persuade” –Important to start rating the president immediately –The Great Initiator – clerkship and decisionmaker

31 Presidential Leadership Style Separates the mediocre from the great Use of the Media to stay connected to the people and gain support – not press conferences –FDR fireside chats –Clinton – Larry King Live on CNN –Bush gave important speeches to military –Obama on David Letterman State of the Union Address –Bully Pulpit Power to Persuade –Crucial according to Richard Neustadt

32 Public Perception High approval ratings – usually at the beginning of term (honeymoon period) –President carries more clout Bush after 9/11 and the U.S. Patriot Act Obama and Healthcare Legislation, LBJ and Great Society Help win congressional and gubernatorial contests Can even push policies unpopular with the public Clinton able to survive scandals after 1996 DNC Low approval ratings –Members of Congress distance themselves –Make favored policies difficult to implement –2008 election – referendum on Bush and Iraq War –Obama did little campaigning in 2010 election

33 Presidential Personality James David Barber, The Presidential Character Character, Style, and World View are main determinants of whether a president will: – Adapt positively to challengers -or - – Retreat negatively to challenges Predict by looking into president’s past – Childhood – Character grows out of relating to peers, siblings and parents – Adolescence – World View - observing others – Early Adulthood – Style developed from first successes How something is done is profoundly important Grasps that style and hangs on to it

34 Character –Self esteem is prime resource Derived from either sense of achievement or Affection from others Style –Habitual way of performing –Rhetoric, Relationships, Homework World View effects what president pays attention to: –Social Causality –Human Nature –Central Moral Conflicts

35 Presidential Character Achieve Results High Self Esteem Values high productivity Difficulty w/ Irrational Political Behavior Orientation toward Duty Guardian of ‘Right and Proper Way’ Emphasize Civic Virtue Power-seeking Intense Effort Low emotional reward Compulsive Aggressive Perfectionist Vague Self Image Achieve love as reward ‘Other’ directed compliant Low Self Esteem Superficial Optimism Likely to be disappointed ActivePassive Positive Negative

36 PositiveNegative Active ADAPTIVE: self-confident; flexible; creates opportunities for action; enjoys the exercise of power, does not take himself too seriously; optimistic; emphasizes the "rational mastery" of his environment; power used as a means to achieve beneficial results. Thomas Jefferson, F. D. Roosevelt, H. Truman, J. F. Kennedy, G. Ford, G. W. Bush(?) COMPULSIVE: power as a means to self-realization; expends great energy on tasks but derives little joy; preoccupied with whether he is failing or succeeding; low self-esteem; inclined to rigidity and pessimism; highly driven; problem managing aggression. John Adams, W. Wilson, H. Hoover, A. Lincoln, L. B. Johnson, R. Nixon, Passive COMPLIANT: seek to be loved; easily manipulated; low self- esteem is overcome by ingratiating personality; reacts rather than initiates; superficially optimistic. James Madison, W. H. Taft, W. Harding, R. Reagan, Bill Clinton WITHDRAWN: responds to a sense of duty; avoid power; low self-esteem compensated by service to others; responds rather than initiates; avoids conflict and uncertainty. emphasizes principles and procedures and an aversion to politicking. George Washington, C. Coolidge, D. Eisenhower

37 Power of the Situation Level of public support Party balance in Congress Supreme Court Expectations and Needs Climate of Expectations – recurring themes –Reassurance to ease anxiety –Progress and action –Sense of legitimacy Master politician that appears to be above politics Proof of fitfulness – presidential Religiosity – defender of faith

38 AV- Presidential Approval  Back

39 Table 8.1- U.S. Presidents  Back

40 Table 8.2- Presidential Succession  Back

41 25 th Amendment Followed 1947 Presidential Succession Act – See Table 8.2 Assured continuation of Act New V.P. appointed by President w/Senate Approval Incapacitation of President –V.P. appointed as President –President Bush makes Dick Cheney President Temporarily in 2002 Underwent colonoscopy

42 Table 8.3- Women on Presidential Teams  Back

43 Table 8.4- Treaties  Back

44 Table 8.5- Presidential Vetoes  Back

45 Table 8.6- Best and Worst Presidents  Back

46 Table 8.7- U.S. Cabinet  Back

47 Table 8.8- Presidential Personalities  Back


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