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The Postwar World & Origins of the Cold War Mr. Ermer U.S. History Miami Beach Senior High.

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Presentation on theme: "The Postwar World & Origins of the Cold War Mr. Ermer U.S. History Miami Beach Senior High."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Postwar World & Origins of the Cold War Mr. Ermer U.S. History Miami Beach Senior High

2 Origins of the Cold War ► U.S. & Soviets have different views of how postwar world should look  The Atlantic Charter (1941) Nations should solve problems through diplomacy—through an international organization—and nations of the world should be free w/ self determination ► Signed by United States, Great Britain, and Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) ► Soviets secretly want to take control of Eastern Europe after war ► British nervous about what A.C. means for their worldwide empire  Churchill and Stalin want the great powers to control different “spheres of influence” ► Casablanca Conf: Agree for total surrender of Axis ► Teheran Conf: Soviets agree to help with Japan after European war ends, disagreement over Poland’s future

3 The Yalta Conference ► The Big Three meet in February 1945 ► Roosevelt seeks Soviet help with Japan  Promises Japanese land to Stalin in exchange ► Creation of a new United Nations  Security Council: US, UK, France, USSR, China  First meeting set for April 1945 in San Francisco ► After war Germany to be split into four sectors controlled by US, UK, USSR & France, based on troop placement at the end of the war  Berlin too would be divided into four sectors ► Future of Poland left uncertain  Soviets already held Poland, installed pro-communist gov’t

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5 Potsdam and New Struggles ► Truman, now president, not as familiar with international politics as FDR, uses “Get Tough Policy”  FDR believed Stalin would ultimately listen to reason, Truman did not trust Russians in general, and was suspicious of Stalin ► July 1945: Potsdam Conference, Germany  Truman demands elections for all of Europe, fails  Stalin wins battle to move Polish border into German territory  Truman convinces Stalin to accept no reparations from Allied controlled parts of Germany, assuring Germany would stay split  Big Three agree to trials of Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, Germany( ) ► Churchill: “iron curtain has descended on the continent” splitting Europe east/west

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8 Two Super Powers ► After WWII, USA and Soviet Union emerge as superpowers  unrivaled military, political, & economic power ► Disagreements over how to rebuild post-war Europe breeds mistrust ► 1947:Truman Doctrine  The United States will help any country fight Communism ► Supported by the writings of diplomat George Kennan  Born from a fear of Soviet influence in the developing world

9 The Marshall Plan ► Motivations for helping Europe after the war:  Humanitarian concern for Europeans affected by war  Concern that Europe would be a drain on the U.S. economy  A recovered Europe would provide a market for American products  Strengthen pro-American, anti-Communist governments in Europe ► 1948 Communist coup in Czechoslovakia galvanizes American public support ► U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall offers plan:  Offered to all European nations, including Russia  Congress creates Economic Cooperation Administration ► $12 Billion in U.S. aid to European countries that accept Marshall Plan  U.S. companies help finance and rebuild European countries ► European industrial production increases by 64% by end of 1950  Keeps populations happy, Communism remains unpopular ► Soviet satellite states refuse American help  Soviet plans to help failed, not enough money available

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11 Division of Germany ► According to Yalta & Potsdam agreements Germany divided  United States, Soviet Union, U.K. & France split control over zones ► Berlin, German capital, also split in four  Berlin was located deep in Soviet East Germany ► West Germany united, Soviets blockade West Berlin  Soviets block supplies from reaching W. Berlin  Soviets hope to take control of entire city of Berlin ► Berlin Air Lift: supplies are flown into West Berlin by U.S. Air Force

12 Division of Germany

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14 Containment & the Bi-Polar World ► Policy of Containment: United States vow to keep Communism from spreading past its current boundaries, fight against Soviet aggression.  Communist government comes to power in Yugoslavia  U.S. helps Greece fight against Communist revolution  U.S. helps Turkey defeat Communist rebels ► The world splits into Communist and Anti-Communist alliances:  NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): U.S., U.K., Belgium, Lux, France, The Neth., Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, W. Germany, Turkey, Greece  Warsaw Pact: U.S.S.R. & Eastern European “Communist Block” ► By 1950s, USA allied with 42 nations against Communism

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16 Containment in Asia ► Rebuilding Japan seen as way of hedging American influence against Communist advances in China ► Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist government is friendly to U.S. interests, but corrupt, incompetent, and unpopular in China  Mao Zedong’s Communist forces gaining strength & popularity  United States seeks a “third force” to support ► Civil War erupts in China, Truman supports Chiang  Marshall maintains full out U.S. war in China only way Chiang can win, does not recommend fighting in China—Mao ultimately wins ► 1949: Communist government established in China  Chiang and his allies flee to island of Formosa (Taiwan), U.S. support  United States does not recognize Mao’s Communist China ► Japan and Taiwan stand in American sphere of influence  Hope for open, prosperous, democratic China fades

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18 Cold War Heats Up ► 1948: Truman revives Selective Service System, draft ► 1949: Soviets detonate an atomic bomb ► Arms Race: Soviets and Americans build up militaries and weapons, improve bombs  1946: Atomic Energy Commission created  1947: Congress passes the National Security Act ► Created Department of Defense to handle all military activities ► Created National Security Council (NSC) to oversee policy from White House ► Created Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as spy organization  1950: Truman approves creation of the Hydrogen Bomb  1950: National Security Council issues a report (NSC-68) toughening containment policy, the U.S. could no longer depend on other countries to help in containment, be the aggressor

19 Berlin Wall ► Arms race builds steam with hydrogen bomb, ICBMs and stronger nukes ► 1957: Soviet Sputnik I reaches space  USA believes it’s losing space race/arms race  1958: NASA created to compete with Soviet space program ► Nikita Khrushchev, new Soviet leader, sees problem with East Germans escaping to the much richer, freer West Berlin  Soviets build a wall around West Berlin to prevent escape

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21 ► On page 329, write and answer questions 1-4


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