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Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars. Korean War American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars. Korean War American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars

2 Korean War American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM Containment  “American policy of RESISTING the EXPANSION of communism around the world”Containment  “American policy of RESISTING the EXPANSION of communism around the world” War lasted 1950-1953 War lasted 1950-1953

3  Japan had ANNEXED the Korean peninsula before WWI; Japanese defeated in WWII  1945  Allies agreed on a TEMPORARY solution = temporary division of Korea at the 38 th PARALLEL  SOVIET-occupied NORTHERN zone  AMERICAN-occupied SOUTHERN zone Background

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5 Soon a PRO-AMERICAN government formed in SOUTH Korea and a COMMUNIST regime was established in NORTH Korea. Soon a PRO-AMERICAN government formed in SOUTH Korea and a COMMUNIST regime was established in NORTH Korea.

6 War breaks out in Korea Koreans on BOTH sides of the dividing line wanted to UNIFY their nation Koreans on BOTH sides of the dividing line wanted to UNIFY their nation JUNE 1950: the Korean War broke out when NORTH KOREAN troops INVADED South Korea over the 38 th parallel border  they were determined to reunite Korea BY FORCE JUNE 1950: the Korean War broke out when NORTH KOREAN troops INVADED South Korea over the 38 th parallel border  they were determined to reunite Korea BY FORCE

7 U.S. response 1)Pres. TRUMAN brought the issue of North Korean aggression to the UNITED NATIONS

8 2)Truman ordered American AIR and NAVAL support + GROUND troops to aid the South Koreans.

9 4) Truman did NOT go to CONGRESS for an official declaration of war (as required by the CONSTITUTION) - Article 1, Section 8: Congress maintains the power to DECLARE WAR

10 UN Police Action The U.S. chose Gen. Douglas MACARTHUR to be the COMMANDER of the UN forces The U.S. chose Gen. Douglas MACARTHUR to be the COMMANDER of the UN forces Americans made up roughly 80% of POLICE ACTION in Korea Americans made up roughly 80% of POLICE ACTION in Korea Police action: a LOCALIZED military action without declaration of warPolice action: a LOCALIZED military action without declaration of war

11 Waging the War American military forces led a United Nations COUNTERATTACK that drove deep into NORTH KOREA itself. American military forces led a United Nations COUNTERATTACK that drove deep into NORTH KOREA itself. Communist CHINESE forces came into the war on the side of North Korea to PUSH BACK UN forces Communist CHINESE forces came into the war on the side of North Korea to PUSH BACK UN forces STALEMATE developed between the two sides STALEMATE developed between the two sides

12 TRUCE signed in 1953 left Korea DIVIDED at almost the exact same place as before the war  near the 38 th PARALLEL TRUCE signed in 1953 left Korea DIVIDED at almost the exact same place as before the war  near the 38 th PARALLEL

13 Effects of Korean War 1) Enormous FRUSTRATION in United States  54,000 dead, 103,000 wounded for LIMITED results 2) RESISTANCE of Communist forces, containment WITHOUT nuclear war

14 3) INTEGRATION of UNITS in armed forces 4) Huge INCREASE in MILITARY SPENDING 5) Development of powerful MILITARY- INDUSTRIAL complex 6) Permanent MOBILIZATION of troops

15 Vietnam War American involvement in the VIETNAM WAR also reflected the Cold War policy of CONTAINMENT of communism American involvement in the VIETNAM WAR also reflected the Cold War policy of CONTAINMENT of communism

16 Background “DOMINO theory”: refers to the fear that if one SOUTHEAST ASIAN nation fell to the Communists, the others would also fall “DOMINO theory”: refers to the fear that if one SOUTHEAST ASIAN nation fell to the Communists, the others would also fall Because of its GEOGRAPHIC location, a Communist TAKEOVER of Vietnam posed a THREAT to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand Because of its GEOGRAPHIC location, a Communist TAKEOVER of Vietnam posed a THREAT to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand

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18 Increasing U.S. Involvement Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the COMMUNIST government of NORTH Vietnam attempted to install a communist government in SOUTH Vietnam BY FORCE Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the COMMUNIST government of NORTH Vietnam attempted to install a communist government in SOUTH Vietnam BY FORCE The UNITED STATES helped South Vietnam RESIST The UNITED STATES helped South Vietnam RESIST

19 The American military BUILDUP in Vietnam began under Pres. EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY The American military BUILDUP in Vietnam began under Pres. EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY After Kennedy’s ASSASSINATION in 1963, the military buildup was INTENSIFIED under Pres. Lyndon JOHNSON After Kennedy’s ASSASSINATION in 1963, the military buildup was INTENSIFIED under Pres. Lyndon JOHNSON

20 August 1964: Johnson announced that North Vietnamese TORPEDOES had attacked U.S. destroyers in the GULF of TONKIN (INTERNATIONAL waters) August 1964: Johnson announced that North Vietnamese TORPEDOES had attacked U.S. destroyers in the GULF of TONKIN (INTERNATIONAL waters) Johnson asked CONGRESS for authority to take ACTION against North Vietnam  Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin RESOLUTION Johnson asked CONGRESS for authority to take ACTION against North Vietnam  Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin RESOLUTION Gulf of Tonkin

21 Fighting the War Nearly 3 MILLION Americans served in the Vietnam War Nearly 3 MILLION Americans served in the Vietnam War Battlefield conditions were DIFFICULT: Battlefield conditions were DIFFICULT: Viet Cong (Communist guerillas in South Korea) were familiar with LANDSCAPEViet Cong (Communist guerillas in South Korea) were familiar with LANDSCAPE South Vietnamese seemed INDIFFERENTSouth Vietnamese seemed INDIFFERENT Couldn’t TRUST anyoneCouldn’t TRUST anyone Intense HEAT, jungle climateIntense HEAT, jungle climate

22 Ground War Viet Cong lacked sophisticated equipment, so they used GUERILLA warfare tactics Viet Cong lacked sophisticated equipment, so they used GUERILLA warfare tactics Worked in small groups to launch SNEAK attacksWorked in small groups to launch SNEAK attacks Hid in elaborate underground TUNNELSHid in elaborate underground TUNNELS Set BOOBY traps like camouflaged PITS and LAND MINESSet BOOBY traps like camouflaged PITS and LAND MINES

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24 Air War SATURATION bombing: huge B-52 American bombers dropped thousands of tons of EXPLOSIVES over large areas SATURATION bombing: huge B-52 American bombers dropped thousands of tons of EXPLOSIVES over large areas Chemical weapons: Chemical weapons: NAPALM: a destructive CHEMICAL, splattered and burned uncontrollably when dropped from airplanes, including on human FLESHNAPALM: a destructive CHEMICAL, splattered and burned uncontrollably when dropped from airplanes, including on human FLESH

25 AGENT ORANGE  HERBICIDE that killed leaves and undergrowth to expose Viet Cong hiding places; also killed CROPS and caused HEALTH problems

26 Despite the LARGE United States presence in South Vietnam (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts Despite the LARGE United States presence in South Vietnam (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

27 Tet Offensive Tet Offensive Major offensive launched by VIET CONG and NORTH Vietnamese on January 30, 1968Major offensive launched by VIET CONG and NORTH Vietnamese on January 30, 1968 Communists were extremely BRUTAL, killing anyone they labeled an enemyCommunists were extremely BRUTAL, killing anyone they labeled an enemy Viet Cong won PSYCHOLOGICAL victoryViet Cong won PSYCHOLOGICAL victory

28 Massacre at My Lai March 1968: U.S. infantry company entered MY LAI (small village that was supposedly sheltering Viet Cong) March 1968: U.S. infantry company entered MY LAI (small village that was supposedly sheltering Viet Cong) U.S. soldiers found only WOMEN, CHILDREN, and OLD MEN in the village  the U.S. soldiers massacred these civilians U.S. soldiers found only WOMEN, CHILDREN, and OLD MEN in the village  the U.S. soldiers massacred these civilians More than 400 INNOCENT Vietnamese died until a U.S. HELICOPTER crew stepped in to halt the slaughter More than 400 INNOCENT Vietnamese died until a U.S. HELICOPTER crew stepped in to halt the slaughter

29 Political Divisions The country became BITTERLY DIVIDED over the Vietnam War. The country became BITTERLY DIVIDED over the Vietnam War. Some Americans SUPPORTED the American military and the war effort, hoped for military victory Some Americans SUPPORTED the American military and the war effort, hoped for military victory Other Americans believed the war was MORALLY WRONG, urged immediate withdrawal Other Americans believed the war was MORALLY WRONG, urged immediate withdrawal

30 Student Activism Active opposition to the war occurred especially on COLLEGE campuses Active opposition to the war occurred especially on COLLEGE campuses Students were among the first to speak out against the Vietnam War: Students were among the first to speak out against the Vietnam War: “TEACH-INS”“TEACH-INS” DRAFT RESISTANCEDRAFT RESISTANCE PROTESTSPROTESTS

31 Nixon and “Vietnamization” After Johnson declined to seek re-election, President NIXON was elected on his pledge to bring the war to an HONORABLE END. He instituted the policy of “VIETNAMIZATION”  WITHDRAWING American troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese soldiers, while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese

32 End of the War January 1973: U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Viet Cong signed FORMAL PEACE AGREEMENTS January 1973: U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Viet Cong signed FORMAL PEACE AGREEMENTS Nixon FORCED out of office by the WATERGATE scandal (1972-1974) Nixon FORCED out of office by the WATERGATE scandal (1972-1974) Break-in at Democratic National Convention headquartersBreak-in at Democratic National Convention headquarters Nixon part of illegal cover-upNixon part of illegal cover-up Nixon impeached, then resignedNixon impeached, then resigned

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34 Ultimately “Vietnamization” FAILED when South Vietnamese troops were UNABLE to resist INVASION by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army Ultimately “Vietnamization” FAILED when South Vietnamese troops were UNABLE to resist INVASION by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army April 30, 1975  North Vietnam completed its CONQUEST of South Vietnam April 30, 1975  North Vietnam completed its CONQUEST of South Vietnam North and South Vietnam MERGED under communist control North and South Vietnam MERGED under communist control

35 Impact of Vietnam War More than 58,000 Americans dead More than 58,000 Americans dead 300,000 Americans wounded 300,000 Americans wounded More than 2,500 MIA (MISSING IN ACTION) and POWs (PRISONERS OF WAR) More than 2,500 MIA (MISSING IN ACTION) and POWs (PRISONERS OF WAR)

36 LONGEST and LEAST successful war in American history LONGEST and LEAST successful war in American history United States spent at least $150 billion on the Vietnam War United States spent at least $150 billion on the Vietnam War MORE bombs dropped on Vietnam than on all the Axis powers in WWII MORE bombs dropped on Vietnam than on all the Axis powers in WWII DIVIDED the nation more than any other war besides the Civil War DIVIDED the nation more than any other war besides the Civil War

37 Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C.

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