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US Foreign Policy Always a series of debates Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists.

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Presentation on theme: "US Foreign Policy Always a series of debates Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists."— Presentation transcript:

1 US Foreign Policy Always a series of debates Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists Internationalists vs. isolationists vs. nationalists Democrats vs. Republicans Democrats vs. Republicans Debates within political parties Debates within political parties Realists vs. Idealists Realists vs. Idealists Interventionists vs. Non- interventionists Interventionists vs. Non- interventionists Europe first vs. Asia first Europe first vs. Asia first

2 Current US Foreign Policy Rooted in some pre-Cold War policies Rooted in some pre-Cold War policies Still based on some Cold War policies Still based on some Cold War policies Some post-Cold War innovations Some post-Cold War innovations

3 Pre-Cold War Policies 1. Free Market economics Japan and ChinaJapan and China 2. Spreading Democracy Wilson’s IdeasWilson’s Ideas 3. Nervousness about Commitments: 1.Intervention 2.Participation in international institutions League of Nations League of Nations

4 Cold War Changes Some; Some Stay the Same Continuity Continuity Free market economics Free market economics Spreading Democracy Spreading Democracy New New Global Concerns Global Concerns Intervention Intervention Multilateralism Multilateralism Deterrence and Forward Presence Deterrence and Forward Presence

5 From 1945 to Present Cold War era and Post-Cold War era Cold War era and Post-Cold War era Consistency in US Foreign Policy even after Cold War ends Consistency in US Foreign Policy even after Cold War ends Some adjustments to how these policies are implemented Some adjustments to how these policies are implemented Adjustments based on different leader’s strategy for achieving the goalsAdjustments based on different leader’s strategy for achieving the goals

6 Examination of each element Cold War and Post-Cold War

7 1. Spreading Free Markets The Philosophical Element: US belief in free trade and free markets US belief in free trade and free markets Minimal government intervention in economic life Minimal government intervention in economic life Economic freedom and political freedom Economic freedom and political freedom Excellence, innovation, progress, political stability Excellence, innovation, progress, political stability

8 Political Stability and Free Trade Strong political economy strong stability through middle free markets class andfailure economic andof radical economic andof radical social mobilityideology* social mobilityideology*peace *radical ideologies: communism, radical Islam

9 Free Trade WTO: World Trade Organization (Truman to present) WTO: World Trade Organization (Truman to present) WTO IMF: International Monetary Fund (Truman to present) IMF: International Monetary Fund (Truman to present) IMF World Bank (Truman to present) World Bank (Truman to present) World Bank World Bank NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement (Bush 41 to present) NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement (Bush 41 to present) NAFTA FTAA: Free Trade Area of the Americas (Bush 41 to present) FTAA: Free Trade Area of the Americas (Bush 41 to present) FTAA APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Clinton to present) APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Clinton to present) APEC

10 The Criticism of US Economic Policies US economic policies designed to secure cheap land and cheap labor for US companies US economic policies designed to secure cheap land and cheap labor for US companies Exploitation of natural resources Exploitation of natural resources US economic dominance US economic dominance Latin American case Latin American case

11 2. Building Democracy Cold War Success in W. Europe, Japan Success in W. Europe, Japan Did Democracy really matter? Did Democracy really matter? Guatemala, Iran, ChileGuatemala, Iran, Chile US alliance with non-democratic statesUS alliance with non-democratic states China, Yugoslavia China, Yugoslavia Opportunistic policy Opportunistic policy S. Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, HaitiS. Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Haiti

12 Post-Cold War Democracy Building Clinton Doctrine Clinton Doctrine Criticism of human rights policies of nationsCriticism of human rights policies of nations Intervention in Bosnia, Somalia, HaitiIntervention in Bosnia, Somalia, Haiti Bush Doctrine Bush Doctrine Afghanistan and Iraq InterventionsAfghanistan and Iraq Interventions

13 Criticisms of US Democracy Building US violates other nations’ sovereignty US violates other nations’ sovereignty US ignores democracy and human rights issues when convenient (Saudi Arabia, Pakistan) US ignores democracy and human rights issues when convenient (Saudi Arabia, Pakistan) US favors trade over democracy and human rights US favors trade over democracy and human rights Limits to US power to transform other nations Limits to US power to transform other nations

14 3. Global Concerns Pre-1941: US is a Regional Power Pre-1941: US is a Regional Power Post-1941: Global Power Post-1941: Global Power US is concerned about international order in terms of power and valuesUS is concerned about international order in terms of power and values US wants to be the most powerful or one of the most powerful states US wants to be the most powerful or one of the most powerful states US wants a major role in ordering the international political and economic situation US wants a major role in ordering the international political and economic situation

15 Cold War-Era Anti-Soviet Realism Anti-Soviet Realism the problem is Soviet power the problem is Soviet power The strategy is balancing against Soviet power The strategy is balancing against Soviet power Example: Relations with China Example: Relations with China Anti-Communist Idealism Anti-Communist Idealism the problem is Communist values the problem is Communist values Anti-democratic Anti-democratic Anti-free trade Anti-free trade Human rights violations Human rights violations Expansionist dictators Expansionist dictators

16 Post-Cold War Globalism Realism Realism Balancing regional powers Balancing regional powers Eliminating regional powers Eliminating regional powers Weapons proliferation Weapons proliferation Iran, Iraq, N. Korea Iran, Iraq, N. Korea Idealism Idealism Spreading democracy and free markets Spreading democracy and free markets Opposing dictatorships (Burma) Opposing dictatorships (Burma)

17 4. Intervention: Consistency Direct Military Intervention Direct Military Intervention Korea 1950, Vietnam 1965, Iraq 2003Korea 1950, Vietnam 1965, Iraq 2003 Assistance to Allies Assistance to Allies Israel, Latin AmericaIsrael, Latin America Willingness to assist in overthrow of governments Willingness to assist in overthrow of governments Iran 1953, Guatemala, Chile, Afghanistan 2001Iran 1953, Guatemala, Chile, Afghanistan 2001 Aid to select foreign political groups (Europe 1950s, Iraq 1990s) Aid to select foreign political groups (Europe 1950s, Iraq 1990s)

18 Debate: When, Why, and How Do We Intervene? Korean War Korean War Vietnam War Vietnam War Iraq War Iraq War

19 5. Multilateralism Use international institutions Use international institutions Build alliances Build alliances UN UN Treaties Treaties Multilateralism, but not always multipolarity Multilateralism, but not always multipolarity Democrats vs. RepublicansDemocrats vs. Republicans

20 6. Deterrence and Forward Presence Atomic/Nuclear Weapons Atomic/Nuclear Weapons How many do we need?How many do we need? What types of weapons do we want?What types of weapons do we want? How should we use them?How should we use them?

21 Forward Presence US Military bases World Wide, 2007 US Military bases World Wide, 2007

22 Post-Cold War Debates Realists: Prevent a new great power from rising Realists: Prevent a new great power from rising Iraq Iraq Idealists: spread democracy; intervene in humanitarian tragedies Idealists: spread democracy; intervene in humanitarian tragedies Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti, KosovoSomalia, Bosnia, Haiti, Kosovo Rwanda?Rwanda?

23 Major Debates in Post-Cold War Hegemony or Multipolarity Hegemony or Multipolarity Intervene for strategic reasons or human rights Intervene for strategic reasons or human rights Somalia and BosniaSomalia and Bosnia Was Iraq about WMD or democracy and human rightsWas Iraq about WMD or democracy and human rights The threat of terrorism and radical Islam The threat of terrorism and radical Islam

24 Obama Doctrine? Free Trade Free Trade Spreading Democracy, but not through intervention Spreading Democracy, but not through intervention Global Concerns, but alliances with friends, partnerships with major states, attempts at engagement with enemies Global Concerns, but alliances with friends, partnerships with major states, attempts at engagement with enemies Selective intervention Selective intervention Multilateralism Multilateralism Deterrence and forward presence Deterrence and forward presence

25 Clinton Foreign Policy: Engagement and Enlargement (En-En) Strategy 1. Strengthen Liberal-Democratic Core 2. Transition States/Economies 3. Rogue States 4. Human Rights and Humanitarian Crises 5. Big Emerging Markets (BEM) 6. Arms Proliferation and WMD 7. Multilateralism

26 Sources on Clinton Doctrine A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1996 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1996 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1996 A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1996 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, May 1997 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, October 1998 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, October 1998 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, October 1998 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, October 1998 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, December 1999 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, December 1999 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, December 1999 A National Security Strategy for a New Century, December 1999 A National Security Strategy for a Global Age, December A National Security Strategy for a Global Age, December A National Security Strategy for a Global Age, December A National Security Strategy for a Global Age, December Speeches by Clinton, Lake, and Albright. September 1993 Speeches by Clinton, Lake, and Albright. September 1993September 1993September 1993 Speeches by Christopher and Albright, November 1993 Speeches by Christopher and Albright, November 1993November 1993November 1993

27 Bush Doctrine Choosing Sides Choosing Sides Preemption (Preventive War) Preemption (Preventive War) Linkage of terrorism and WMD Linkage of terrorism and WMD Regime Change Regime Change Multilateralism Multilateralism 1995 Spreading Democracy 1995 Spreading Democracy Bush 43 as an idealistBush 43 as an idealist

28 Documents on the Bush Doctrine Bush Administration’s National Security Strategy, September 2002 Bush Administration’s National Security Strategy, September 2002National Security StrategyNational Security Strategy Bush Administration National Security Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction Bush Administration National Security Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass DestructionNational Security Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass DestructionNational Security Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction President GW Bush’s West Point Commencement speech, June 2002 President GW Bush’s West Point Commencement speech, June 2002June 2002June 2002 President GW Bush’s Second Inaugural Address, January 2005 President GW Bush’s Second Inaugural Address, January 2005 January 2005 January 2005 President GW Bush’s State of the Union Address, February 2005 President GW Bush’s State of the Union Address, February 2005 February 2005 February 2005 President GW Bush speech on the war on terrorism October 2005 President GW Bush speech on the war on terrorism October 2005 October 2005 October 2005 Bush Administration’s, “National Security Strategy of the US,” March 2006 Bush Administration’s, “National Security Strategy of the US,” March 2006“National Security Strategy of the US,”“National Security Strategy of the US,”


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