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OGT Benchmark: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and contemporary conflicts. Post World War II President Harry S Truman United Nations.

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Presentation on theme: "OGT Benchmark: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and contemporary conflicts. Post World War II President Harry S Truman United Nations."— Presentation transcript:


2 OGT Benchmark: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and contemporary conflicts. Post World War II President Harry S Truman United Nations Beginning of the Cold War with the Soviet Union Containment/Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan The Problem With Germany The Berlin Blockade NATO The 2nd Red Scare Joseph McCarthy Arms Race Korean War Space Race JFK: Election/Background, Bay of Pigs, Berlin Wall, arms race, Man on the Moon, Cuban Missile Crisis, assassination Vietnam War

3 I. Postwar A.United States: 1.Lost thousands during the war 2.stronger than ever after the war 3.capitalism 4.believed the rest of the world should model us 5.want free elections, free trade, and business expansion all around the world B. Soviet Union –1. Lost over 7 million during the war –2. torn apart after the war. Wanted to build a strong country –3. communism –4. believed the rest of the world should be communist Old world order gone. U.S. could no longer be isolated. U.S. now relied on world trade to prosper!

4 II. President Harry S Truman A. Took over after FDR died B. Important decisions –1. Drop atomic bombs –2. United Nations

5 Harry S Truman

6 III. The United Nations A. April 12, 1944 1. San Francisco, California 2. 50 nations 3. United Nations formed a. Not a peace conference (war still being fought) 4. U.S. and S.U. disagreed on many things 5. U.S. Congress ratified on July 28, 1945 a. vote was 82-2

7 United Nations, continued B. General Assembly 1. All nations represented-each had one vote 2. Made recommendations to Security Council 3. Fixed budget and admitted new members C. Security Council 1. 11 members a. 5 permanent(US, GB, SU, France, China) --had right to veto b. 6 rotating countries --could not veto 2. Could act against any nation that threatened peace

8 United Nations, cont. D. Secretary-General 1. ran the UN 2. 1st was Trygve Lie of Norway E. International Court of Justice 1. Court of the UN OVERALL GOAL: TO CREATE AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION TO PRESERVE PEACE

9 UN Headquarters in New York

10 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The international organization created to preserve the peace after World War II was the A. United Nations B. League of Nations C. Organization of American States D. North Atlantic Treaty Organization

11 OGT Multiple Choice Which is true about the involvement of the United States in the League of Nations (after World War I) and the United Nations (after World War II)? A. The United States joined the United Nations, but not the League of Nations B. The United States joined the League of Nations, but not the United Nations C. The United States joined both organizations D. The United States did NOT join either organization

12 OGT Multiple Choice The first meeting to build the United Nations occurred on April 12, 1944 in A. Berlin, Germany B. Paris, France C. London, England D. San Francisco, California

13 IV. Beginning of the Cold War 1. Cold War = War with no fighting. Instead, used military threats, espionage, propaganda, and politics. 2. NUCLEAR WEAPONS DEVELOPED!!! 3. The period right after World War II will begin 50 years of Cold War between the US/SU. 4. U.S. and G.B. allies with S.U. for one reason--to beat Adolf Hitler 5. We did not trust Stalin. Did not tell him of the atomic bomb 6. Stalin expected entire world to become communist 7. U.S. and S.U. had very different views of the future

14 Beginning of Cold War, cont. 8. Problems with the Soviet Union a. Stalin makes Poland Communist b. Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania also under Soviet control ***Stalin wants communist buffer ***Communism now threatened all of Europe

15 Joseph Stalin

16 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The period after World War II is referred o as the “Cold War.” It is called this because the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union A. had several conflicts that never escalated into a full-scale war B. used nuclear weapons that lowered the temperature as they exploded C. has chilly but friendly relations during the is time period D. fought a war in Siberia to determine control of East Asia

17 OGT Multiple Choice During World War II, the United States was an ally of this country. After World War II, the United States became enemies with this country. A. France B. Great Britain C. Soviet Union D. Spain

18 OGT Multiple Choice The term ‘Cold War’ refers to A. A war with a lot of battles. B. Another name for the Korean War C. A war with no fighting. D. Another name given to World War II.

19 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) As World War II was nearing an end and it was clear that the Allies would be victorious, relations between the United States and the Soviet Union could be described as A. becoming increasingly suspicious of each other’s motives B. good as both Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin trusted each other C. never better as the tow nations agreed on postwar issues D. on the brink of going to war against each other

20 OGT Multiple Choice (2005 Practice Test) Which factor helped lead to the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union? A. the lack of U.S. aid to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease Program during World War II B. differing intentions between the two nations for the political and economic rebuilding of Eastern Europe after World War II C. both nations being members of the United Nations Security Council after World War II D. uneven prosperity between the two nations after the Great Depression

21 V. Containment and the Truman Doctrine “It must be the policy of the United States, to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. We must assist free people to work out their own destinies in their own way.” ***In other words--U.S. must help free states fight communism.

22 Containment, cont. Containment: U.S. wanted to contain communism--don’t let it spread We would be willing to fight

23 VI. Marshall Plan A. Europe is in shambles B. We did NOT want Communism to spread Q: How could we stop it from spreading? A: Improve conditions in Europe!

24 Marshall Plan, cont. A. The plan: give aid to European countries 1. passed April 3, 1948 2. Gave $5.3 billion to Europe for recovery 3. U.S. wants to save West Europe 4. This plan worked a. mostly helped GB, France, and W. Ger. b. 25% more output


26 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States Marshall Plan following World War II was an effort to provide A. military aid to its former enemies B. military aid to its allies C. economic aid to starving people in Africa D. economic aid to war-torn Europe

27 OGT Short Answer The Marshall Plan was a plan for European recovery after World War II. How did the Marshall Plan prove that the foreign policy of the United States was changing? (2 points)

28 VII. The Problem of Germany A. Germany--split into 4 (US, GB, France, SU) B. Berlin also split into 4 (surrounded by SU) C. Soviet Union: –1. Eventually, they took control of East Germany and East Berlin –2. Forced their regime and communism on their new territories, even though Stalin promised free and democratic elections in these places. a. Eastern European nations b. East Germany


30 The Problem of Germany, cont. A. Distrust between US and SU grew B. Collision course: freedom vs. communism C. SU: stop trading with West and start to develop atomic weapons D. This leads to: CONTAINMENT which leads to COLD WAR E. Churchill famous speech on Eastern Europe: – “an iron curtain has descended across the continent”

31 “Iron Curtain”

32 OGT Multiple Choice After World War II, Germany was split into 4 zones of influence. Which country DID NOT control a part of Germany? A. Spain B. Soviet Union C. Great Britain D. the United States

33 OGT Multiple Choice (Base Test March 2005) At the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the Cold War by A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East B. strengthening the authority of the United Nations C. bringing about the reunification of Germany D. dividing Europe into communist and non- communist spheres

34 VIII. The Berlin Blockade As Marshall Plan helped, US/SU relations got worse US, France, and GB: want strong Germany SU felt threatened SU put a blockade around W. Berlin –allowed nothing in; people were trapped

35 Berlin Blockade, cont. A. Berlin Airlift 1. US dropped supplies into Berlin 2. lasted 324 days 3. 277,000 total flights 4. 2 million tons of supplies 5. May 1949, Stalin cancels blockade –B. Germany divided shortly after blockade concelled 1. May 12, 1949 a. German Federated Republic 2. Oct., 1949 a. German Democratic Republic


37 OGT Multiple Choice (2005 Practice Test) After World War II, Germany was divided into two nations, East Germany and West Germany. Though they remained politically divided for over forty years, the people of these two nations shared a common cultural heritage. Which action was influenced by this cultural influence? A. West Germany joined NATO in 1955 B. East Germany joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955 C. The people of East Germany supported reunification with West Germany D. The people of West Germany supported withdrawing from the United Nations

38 OGT Extended Response The Berlin Blockade was an event that helped to start the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. (4 points) What is a Cold War? (1 point) Why did the Soviet Union want to deny freedom to Berlin? (1 point) What were the results of the Berlin Blockade (2 points)

39 IX. NATO and Warsaw Pact A.Throughout 40’s and 50’s Cold War intensified 1. Aug. 1949 = SU detonates atomic bomb 2. End of 1949 = China becomes Communist Communist leader is Mao Zedong.

40 NATO/Warsaw Pact, cont. B. The creation of NATO (MAP page 718) 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization a. U.S. + Canada join with 12 W. Eur. countries 2. Later = Greece, Turkey, and W. Germany 3. Signed April 4, 1949 C. Alliance 1. Attack on one = attack on all 2. Senate passes (82-13) 1st Peacetime alliance 3. DDE = commander of NATO

41 NATO/Warsaw Pact, cont. D. Warsaw Pact –1. 1955 –2. Alliance formed by SU –3. Countered NATO –4. This increased fears during the Cold War



44 OGT Multiple Choice The United States joined with Canada and 12 Western European countries to form our first peacetime alliance. This organization was called: A. League of Nations B. United Nations C. OPEC D. NATO

45 OGT Multiple Choice When China became a Communist country in 1949, who was their leader? A. Syngman Rhee B. Mao Zedong C. Joseph Stalin D. Chang Kai-shek

46 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) In the years following World War II there emerged the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact nations. These are examples of A. regional economic cooperative efforts B. environmental impact studies C. military alliance systems D. international tribunals

47 X. 2nd Red Scare A. The second red scare 1. Russians detonate atomic bomb (1949) and China becomes Communist (1949) 2. Possible Communist spies in Canada 3. Truman: a. millions of federal employees questioned b. organizations investigated and 200 fired 4. Reputations destroyed a. black lists

48 2nd Red Scare, cont. B. Protecting the United States 1. McCarran Internal Security Act a. Communist groups had to register with AG b. Truman vetoes c. Congress overrides 2. McCarran-Walter Act a. immigration quotas b. favor N and E Europe c. Truman vetoes d. Congress overrides 3. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg a. suspected in passing atomic secrets to SU b. Executed--no proof (Like Sacco and Vanzetti in the 1920’s)

49 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

50 OGT Multiple Choice The fear of communism in the United States during the 1950’s was know as the A. 2nd Red Scare B. 2nd Yellow Scare C. 2nd Green Scare D. 2nd Blue Scare

51 XI. Joseph McCarthy A. Joseph McCarthy--R-Wisconsin 1. Accused many in US gov. of bei ng Communist 2. BIG LIST--Feb. 1950 3. many feared him

52 Joseph McCarthy, cont. The fall of McCarthy (Picture on page 737) A. McCarthy goes too far 1. takes books out of libraries 2. accuses Secretary of Army of espionage 3. accuses army officer of protecting coms. B. Televison 1. hearings were televised--20 million watched 2. McCarthy was rude 3. Looked like a bully 4. people began to dislike him 5. his influence declined 6. Soon, his reign of terror ended



55 OGT Multiple Choice A Senator from Wisconsin who started accusing many people of being Communist and then put those names on a “Black List” was A. Harry S Truman B. Julius Rosenberg C. Joseph McCarthy D. Alger Hiss

56 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) McCarthyism during the early 1950’s was a result of American A. reaction to the reforms of the New Deal B. response to helping win World War II C. fear of African-Americans gaining civil rights D. fear of communism during the Cold War

57 OGT Multiple Choice Which of the following events helped cause McCarthy’s fall from power? A. Eisenhower’s farewell address B. the Army-McCarthy hearings that were televised to 20 million people C. Life magazines “Crisis In America” issue D. the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education

58 XII. Arms Race A. Arms race between US/SU –1. occurred throughout Cold War –2. each side increased weapons –3. guarantee security –4. nuclear weapons

59 XIII.Korean War Part of Containment Theory I. War in Korea A. After WWII, Korea was split up into 2 1. North--controlled by Soviet Union a. communist b. had no free elections 2. South--controlled by the U.S. a. could elect own government B. U.S. and Soviets left Korea in 1949 C. North Korea invade South Korea in 1950 1. UN said this was wrong 2. Truman sent American troops to help South Korea


61 Korean War, cont. II. The Korean War Lasted Three Years A. The U.S. was the main country that helped SK. B. Truman called it a ‘police action’ instead of war C. Goal--drive North Koreans back out of S. Korea

62 Korean War, cont. III. MacArthur’s Counterattack A. MacArthur was in charge of our troops B. N. Korea had driven us almost out of Korea C. MacArthur then counterattacks the rear of the N. Korean army D. We begin to win, and N. Korea was near defeat

63 General Douglas MacArthur


65 Korean War, cont. IV. China Enters the War A. China said that if the U.S. invaded N. Korea, they would join the war on the side of N. Korea B. MacArthur did not believe they would C. We invaded N. Korea D. MacArthur was wrong--China entered the war 1. 300,000 Chinese attacked the U.S. in 1950 E. The U.S. were pushed back into S. Korea

66 V. Truman Fires MacArthur A. General MacArthur asks Truman for permission to bomb China B. Truman feared this would bring the Soviet Union into the war--he said “no” C. MacArthur then asks Congress for permission D. This angers Truman, so he fires MacArthur in ‘51

67 Korean War, cont. VI. End of the war: A. Peace talks began in July of 1951 B. Disagreement: 1. The UN wanted prisoners to be able to choose which Korea they wanted to live in –2. The Communists wanted all prisoners to return to their homeland C. Negotiations lasted two years D. Agreement reached July of 1953. 1. Prisoners could go where they choose 2. Two different countries formed a. North Korea b. South Korea

68 Korean War, cont. VII. Aftermath of the Korean War A. A 2 1/2 mile neutral zone formed between N. and S. Korea B. U.S. troops stayed in S. Korea to protect C. U.S. gave money to S. Korea

69 Korean War, cont. D. Ike promised to end Korea “police action” E. Panmunjom--peace negotiations 1. neither side gained much 2. border put back near 38th parallel 3. 35,000 U.S. killed 4. threat of nuclear war ends

70 OGT Multiple Choice The result of the Korean War was A. The North Koreans took control of South Korea and made it communist B. The South Koreans took control of North Korea and made it free C. China took control of both Koreas D. basically a tie, with neither side gaining much land

71 OGT Multiple Choice The armistice that ended the Korean War resulted in A. all of Korea becoming Communist B. Korea being divided near the 38th parallel C. all of Korea becoming free and democratic D. the Chinese gaining control of Korea

72 OGT Multiple Choice After World War II, Korea was divided into two. Which of the following is true about Korea after World War II? A. North Korea was communist and controlled by the Soviet Union and South Korea was free and controlled by the United States. B. South Korea was communist and controlled by the Soviet Union and North Korea was free and controlled by the United States. C. North Korea was communist and controlled by the United States and South Korea was free and controlled by the Soviet Union. D. South Korea was communist and controlled by the United States and North Korea was free and controlled by the Soviet Union.

73 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) From 1950 to 1953, the United States fought a “police action” in Asia to prevent communism from spreading to A. South Korea B. South Vietnam C. Japan D. China

74 OGT Multiple Choice Who was the man in charge of our troops during the Korean War? A. Dwight Eisenhower B. George Patton C. Douglas MacArthur D. Norman Schwartzkopf

75 OGT Short Answer The Korean War was undeclared war between the United States and North Korea. How did this war prove that the foreign policy of the United States was changing? (2 points)

76 XIV. Space Race A. US/SU have space race B. Another part of Cold War C. Sputnik launched by SU –1. 1st man-made satellite –2. Oct. 4, 1957 –3. 3 months in orbit D. Sputnik II –1. carried dog to outer space –2. Nov. 1957

77 Sputnik and Sputnik II

78 Space Race, cont. E. US reaction 1. Vanguard rocket a. Dec 6, 1957 b. disaster c. millions watched on TV 2. Explorer II a. Feb. 1958 b. first American satellite c. succeeded

79 Space Race, cont. 3 US afraid 4. We feel our schools are no good 4. National Defense Education Act of 1958 a. $1 billion for more scientists 5. NASA formed a. National Aeronautics and Space Adm. --. $4 billion to start

80 Space Race, cont. F. Putting men into space –1. 1st done by SU a. April 12, 1961 b. Yari Gagarin c. circled globe 1 time –2. US a. 1st done May 5, 1961 b. Alan Shepard c. lasted 15 minutes d. Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn orbits Earth

81 Space Race, cont. G. U.S. Moon Landing –1. JFK challenges nation in 1961 a. put man on moon by 1970 –2. Apollo a. space flight to the moon b. July 1969 c. Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins d. Armstrong: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”


83 OGT Multiple Choice _____ In 1961, this President made it a goal of the U.S. to land on the moon by 1970. A. Dwight Eisenhower B. John F. Kennedy C. Lyndon B. Johnson D. Richard Nixon

84 OGT Multiple Choice Apollo 11 was the lunar landing that fulfilled JFK’s promise. Who were the astronauts who were involved in Apollo 11? A. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin B. John Glenn and Ed White C. Neil Armstrong and John Glenn D. Virgil Grissom and Robert Chaffee

85 OGT Multiple Choice The first man in space was A. Yuri Gagarin B. Neil Armstrong C. John Glenn D. Alan Shephard

86 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The first country to put a man in space was A. China B. France C. Soviet Union D. United States

87 OGT Multiple Choice As a result of the Soviet launching of Sputnik the federal government A. passed the National Defense Education Act to produce more scientists and science teachers B. appointed Robert Goddard to head the United States space program C. created NASA to coordinate United States space efforts D. both a and c

88 OGT Extended Response Explain the major domestic developments that occurred in the United States because of the space race. A. Which two countries were involved in the space race? (2 pts) B. What was the name of the Russian’s first man- made satellite? (1 pts) C. What was the Unites States’ reaction to launch of that satellite? (1 pts)

89 XV. JFK I. Election of 1960 A. 1st time campaign a lot on TV B. Candidates 1. Republicans a. Richard Nixon--Sen. from Cal and Henry Cabot Lodge--Sen. from Mass. 2. Democrats a. JFK--Sen. from Mass and LBJ--Sen. from Texas C. “Great Debates” (Pic. on page 776) 1. 4 televised debates 2. Answer report questions--2 1/2 min. 3. 70 million watched 4. JFK--younger, poised, clever answers D. The winner.......... 1. JFK wins in a close race 303-219 2. Many states were very close

90 JFK, cont. II. Background 1. Youngest elected president--43 years old (TR was younger, but not elected) 2. First Catholic 3. Naval officer during WWII 4. Senator for Massachusetts 5. “New Frontier” a. make America better b. energetic and young c. athletic--sailed and played football Quote from inaugural address: “Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.”

91 JFK, cont. III. Bay of Pigs A. Cuba 1. Leader was Fidel Castro a. At first, we supported him for overthrowing previous dictator b. He then announced he was a communist 2. Eisenhower stopped all trade with Cuba 3. Bay of Pigs invasion a. Anti-Castro Cubans wanted to overthrow Castro b. JFK approved of this, but said the U.S. would not help

92 JFK, cont. c. April 1961--American supported Cubans invaded the Bay of Pigs in Cuba d. They thought the Cuban people would support them e. They were wrong f. The invasion was a disaster g. Many were taken prisoner or killed h. JFK took full responsibility for it i. Prisoners released for $50 million in food and drugs and $3 million cash


94 IV. The Berlin Wall A. Khrushchev and Kennedy met in June 1961 1. Khrushchev felt JFK was to inexperienced and weak 2. Khrushchev told JFK to get out of West Berlin 3. JFK refused 4. Khrushchev threatened war 5. JFK got the army ready B. The S.U. responded by building the Berlin Wall 1. Separated East and West Berlin 2. To keep people from crossing

95 Nikita Khrushchev

96 Berlin Wall

97 JFK, cont. V. Arms race A. continues during JFK B. JFK builds more and more nukes –1. “mutual assured destruction” –2. US is now far ahead of SU

98 JFK, cont. VI. Space Race A. JFK’s promise of putting man on moon –1. comes true –2. 1969 –3. He’s not alive to see it

99 JFK, cont. VII. Cuban Missile Crisis A. October 1962--one of the most serious incidents of the Cold War--the Cuban Missile Crisis B. Almost led to a nuclear war between the U.S. and the S.U. C. We found out Cuba had missile bases 1. This threatened U.S. security 2. Kennedy told American people of the sit. 3. He ordered the navy to stop Soviet ships from carrying missiles to Cuba 4. Next day: Soviet ships close to Cuba a. Radio and TV kept Americans informed b. War looked inevitable 5. October 24, 1962 a. Soviet ships suddenly turn around b. They returned to S.U.

100 JFK, cont. D. October 26, 1962-Agreement between U.S. and S.U. 1. Missile bases removed if U.S. agreed not to attack Cuba 2. Kennedy called Khrushchev a peacemaker to make him save face 3. Soviets saw Khrushchev as weak 4. Khrushchev was removed one year later 5. Kennedy praised for being tough vs. the communists and Khrushchev



103 JFK, cont. IX. Assassination A. Kennedy wanted to be re-elected B. He went to campaign in Texas to get support from the Democratic Party there C. Nov. 22, 1963 1. JFK rode through Dallas 2. 3 people with him a. his wife--Jackie Onassis Kennedy b. governor of Texas--John Connally c. Connally’s wife 3. VP Lyndon Johnson was in another car 4. Gov. Connally and JFK were both shot 5. No one knew where the shots came from 6. The car sped away to a hospital D. Connally was seriously injured E. JFK was dead 1. Johnson took over as President immediately

104 JFK, cont. F. Lee Harvey Oswald 1. He was arrested and accused of killing JFK 2. He denied the charge 3. Two days later, on live TV, Jack Ruby shot and killed Oswald 4. Questions: a. Why did Oswald kill Kennedy? b. Did he act alone? c. Why did Ruby kill Oswald? Warren Commission: One year later, they concluded Oswald acted alone. This group was led by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Many still question the conclusion of the Warren Commission.

105 Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby

106 OGT Multiple Choice In dealing with the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy ordered A. an invasion of Cuba to seize the missiles B. a naval blockade on all military equipment being shipped to Cuba C. an embargo on grain to the USSR D. a general air strike on targets in Cuba

107 OGT Multiple Choice Who was the leader of Cuba during the time of the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis? A. Nikita Khrushchev B. Joseph Stalin C. Fidel Castro D. Ho Chi Minh

108 OGT Multiple Choice Kennedy’s assassination was investigated by the A. Southern Christian Leadership Conference B. Warren Commission C. RAND Corporation D. Joint Chiefs of Staff

109 OGT Multiple Choice The Bay of Pigs invasion was defeated mainly because A. Castro hid and no one could find him B. the Soviet Union threatened nuclear retaliation C. Kennedy refused to support the invasion D. the Cuban people did not join in on the revolt as was expected

110 OGT Multiple Choice The biggest question mark in Kennedy’s chances for election in 1960 was A. his religion B. his performance in the “great debates.” C. his choice of a running mate D. his competition from Hubert Humphrey

111 OGT Extended Response You have just learned about the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. How did this event show that the U.S. was taking a strong stance against Communism? What do you feel would have been the result if the Soviet ships did not turn around? (2 pts for each)

112 XVI. Vietnam War The Vietnam War is another part of the Containment--DO NOT ALLOW COMMUNISM TO SPREAD! This War stretches across the 40’s, 50’s, 60’s, and 70’s--only part of which the United States is a participant.






118 UH-1D helicopters airlift members of the 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment from the Filhol Rubber Plantation area to a new staging area, during Operation "Wahiawa," a search and destroy mission conducted by the 25th Infantry Division, northeast of Cu Chi, Vietnam.

119 I. 1940’sBackground: War in Indochina A. Indochina 1. Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia B. Vietnam liberated from Japan in 1945 1. Ho Chi Minh--Communist 2. Democratic Republic of Vietnam C. French 1. sent 15,000 troops to Vietnam 2. wanted to control Vietnam D. United States 1. containment 2. gave millions to French 3. fight war on communism

120 Ho Chi Minh

121 E. China 1. helped Ho Chi Minh F. Dienbienphu 1. Vietnmamese surround French 2. large French defeat G. May 8, 1945 1. Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland 2. France, GB, SU, China, and US 3. Vietnam split into two a. North--Communist (Ho Chi Minh) b. South--free (Bao-Dai)

122 II. 1950’s: Problems in Vietnam A. Deal from Geneva, 1954 1. Vietnam united and free elections by July ‘56 B. South Vietnam--Ngo Dinh Diem 1. did not want this 2. U.S. agreed with him 3. South Vietnam refuses elections 4. Viet Minh & Communists attack S. Vietnam C. U.S. 1. gave South Vietnam millions 2. now sent advisors to help

123 Geneva Conference

124 D. National Liberation Front (NLF) 1. want to overthrow Diem 2. reunite Vietnam 3. Diem calls them the Viet Cong a. means “Vietnamese Communists” E. JFK 1. sends more advisors--16,000 of them F. Diem overthrown 1. Nov. 2, 1963 2. Diem murdered 3. Things look bad for South Vietnam ***JFK does not live to make next move.

125 G. Viet Cong--another pro communist group. 1. They began to invade South Vietnam 2. U.S gives support & weapons to S. Vietnam H. South Vietnam could not handle the Viet Cong,so the U.S. changed from ADVISOR to PARTICIPANT

126 III. 1960’s: The Vietnam War A. History 1. Eisenhower: military weapons and economic help to South Vietnam 2. Kennedy: sent military advisors to SV 3. Johnson: Sent only non-combat troops B. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1. August 1964--two U.S. ships attacked off coast of North Vietnam 2. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution--”the right to take all necessary steps to protect American forces in Vietnam” 3. Johnson used it to increase troops 4. By 1966, there were 400,000 troops there 5. U.S. starts aerial bombs 6. Congress never declared war

127 C. Viet Cong reeked havoc in south 1. they were easily defeated 2. however, they were replenished by North Vietnamese D. 1968--Obvious the war would last long and we might not win 1. Johnson stops bombing North Vietnam 2. Sets up meeting: a. North Vietnam b. South Vietnam c. the United States 3. Meeting held in Paris, France in 1965 4. Meeting did little to end the war

128 IV. The Tet Offensive A. Tet is the Vietnamese New Year 1. They launched surprise attack 2. they did not win the battle militarily 3. this surprise attack made Americans further question why we were in Vietnam


130 V. 1970’s: The Politics of Protest A. People wondered why we were in Vietnam 1. reports of large U.S. victory 2. same day, reports of U.S. loss 3. T.V. brought home the horrors of war 4. people didn’t know who to believe 5. anti-war movement became more vocal

131 Award winning Photograph Officer shoots man (An execution of a Vietcong prisoner) February 1, 1968

132 VI. Leaving Vietnam A. Jan. 27, 1973--cease-fire between N. Vietnam and United States. 1. U.S. agreed to take all troops out of SV 2. NV agreed to release all POW’s B. “Vietnamization” did not work 1. South Vietnam was too weak 2. they could not stand alone 3. army fell apart 4. Communist NV took over SV in April of 1975

133 VII. Summary of the Vietnam War A. longest war in U.S. history B. 58,000 Americans killed; 365,000 were wounded C. Total cost was $150 billion D. The war lessened U.S citizens’ respect for their government E. The war caused confusion about the nation’s role in world affairs F. War Powers Act passed--requires the President to explain to Congress within 48 hours whenever American troops were to be sent into a foreign country


135 OGT Multiple Choice As a result of the 1954 Geneva conference, Vietnam A. was returned to French control. B. was turned over to the control of Ho Chi Minh. C. was divided into a northern Communist section and a southern free section. D. was occupied by a United Nations peacekeeping force

136 OGT Multiple Choice These 2 countries were west of Vietnam and were a part of Indochina. A. China and Hong Kong B. Japan and Korea C. Laos and Cambodia D. Manchuria and Singapore

137 OGT Multiple Choice As a result of their defeat in the battle of Dienbienphu, the A. Russians withdrew from Austria B. United States withdrew from Egypt C. Japanese withdrew from Taiwan D. French withdrew from Vietnam

138 OGT Multiple Choice Which is true about the Tet Offensive? A. The battle was not a surprise to the United States. B. The attack was a military victory by the Vietnamese. C. The attack made Americans further question why we were in Vietnam. D. The attack was not made on a Vietnamese holiday

139 OGT Multiple Choice He was a Vietnamese Communist who led the Viet Minh troops to victory. He was A. Bao-Dai B. Ho Chi Minh C. Mao Zedong D. Mossadegh

140 OGT Multiple Choice The leader of South Vietnam who was overthrown in 1963 was A. Ngo Dinh Diem B. Mao Tse-tung C. Viet Minh D. Ho Chi Minh

141 OGT Multiple Choice There was a major shift in American public opinion against the Vietnam War as a result of A. the Tonkin Gulf Resolution B. sending U.S. advisors to help the South Vietnamese army C. the 1968 Tet Offensive D. the 1965 peace offensive

142 OGT Multiple Choice Kennedy’s response to the civil war in Vietnam was to A. call for elections throughout Vietnam B. Send in American combat troops to help the South Vietnamese C. support the Viet Cong D. send in advisors to train the South Vietnamese army

143 OGT Multiple Choice ( The incident that prompted Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution was A. the first American bombing raids against North Vietnam B. the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem C. the invasion of South Vietnam by the North D. an attack by North Vietnamese gunboats on two U.S. destroyers

144 OGT Multiple Choice In regard to Vietnam in the 1950’s, the United States A. supported the existing government B. declared its neutrality C. sent American forces to put down guerrilla fighting D. sent millions of dollars to aid France

145 OGT Short Answer (2005 Practice Test) During times of war or perceived danger to the United States, groups of Americans have been singled out as potentially disloyal to the country. For example, during World War I, patriotic support for the war led to a distrust and persecution of German-Americans. In some places, German language instruction was forbidden, and German culture and heritage were subject to discrimination. Identify a group of Americans that was targeted as potentially disloyal in the years between 1940 and 1985. (1 point) Explain why this group was targeted. (1 point)

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