Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 Origins of the Cold War The United States and the Soviet Union emerge from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political."— Presentation transcript:
The United States and the Soviet Union emerge from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems. Ch. 26
The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: 1.Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] 2.Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3.Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” 4.Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Origins of the Cold War U.S.-Soviet Relations U.S., U.S.S.R. have very different economic, political systems U.S. suspicious of Stalin because he had been Hitler’s ally Stalin resents that U.S. delayed attacking Germany and hid atom bomb
Origins of the Cold War The Potsdam Conference July 1945 conference with U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union Soviets refuse to allow free elections –continue to control economics of Eastern Europe – believe that they are entitled because of the heavy losses during WWII.
The Potsdam Conference POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Spread of Communism Soviets set up communist governments throughout Eastern Europe “Once they arrive, take control, THEY DON’T LEAVE! 1946, Stalin announces war between communism, capitalism inevitable Competition between U.S. & Soviet Union: (1) US wants world to be FREE/OPEN (2) Soviets want world to be DOMINATED/CLOSED
U.S. Policy of Containment According to George Kennan and “X-Article”… U.S. policy of containment—measures to prevent spread of communism During famous speech, Churchill describes division of Europe as “Iron Curtain” [Visual-Next Slide]
U.S. Policy of CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 1.Restoration of the balance of power Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] 2.Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Exploiting the tensions in international communism. Cooperation with communist regimes; (supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia) 3.Modifying the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrot stick”; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.
The Truman Doctrine 1945–1991 Cold War— conflict between U.S. & U.S.S.R. neither nation directly confronts the other on battlefield = “Proxy War” Truman Doctrine— support against armed minorities, outsiders Cold War in Europe Truman and advisors Dean Acheson and Warren Austin after signing Truman Doctrine, March 1947 Truman Doctrine signaled the end of “U.S. isolationism”!
Cold War in Europe The Marshall Plan 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposes aid to nations in need Marshall Plan revives 16 nations
Cold War in Europe The Berlin Airlift 1948, Stalin closes highway, rail routes into West Berlin Berlin airlift—Britain, U.S. fly food, supplies into West Berlin 1949, Stalin lifts blockade Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic form
Grateful Berlin to honor airlift veterans Relief effort marked beginnings of Cold War, Western alliance May 11, 1998 Web posted at: 9:24 a.m. EDT (1324 GMT) (CNN) -- "They called me the 'Candy Bomber,'" Gail Halvorsen remembers. "But the kids in Berlin called me 'Uncle Wiggly Wings.' That's because I wiggled the wings of the airplane when I came in over Berlin." Fifty years ago, Halvorsen earned his unusual nicknames as a pilot in what many call the largest humanitarian mission ever. The Berlin Airlift brought needed supplies to the besieged city for 11 months, in one of the first confrontations of the Cold War.Berlin
The NATO Alliance Fear of Soviets leads to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) European nations, U.S., Canada pledge mutual military support
Communism Spreads China Becomes Communist Led by Mao Zedong, Peasants flock to Red Army By 1945, communists control north China
The Korean War 38th parallel (38° N latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea North of 38th parallel surrenders to U.S.S.R.; south to U.S. Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea founded
Korean War North Korea Attacks South Korea 1950, North Korea invades South, begins Korean War South Korea calls on UN to stop invasion; Security Council approves MacArthur put in command of South Korean, U.S., other forces Gen. George MacArthur “Psy-Op” Leaflet
MacArthur vs. Truman MacArthur recommends Attacking China MacArthur calls for war with China; Truman rejects request Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance north to 38th parallel
MacArthur vs. Truman MacArthur continues to push for invasion of China; Truman fires him Public outraged over hero’s dismissal Congressional committee investigation concludes Truman right
Korean War – A Dead End Settling for a Stalemate 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire 1953 armistice: Korea still divided; demilitarized zone (DMZ) established Lack of success, high human, financial costs help elect Eisenhower
Selling Atomic Secrets The Rosenbergs 1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected Physicist Klaus Fuchs admits giving information about U.S. bomb Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds conviction
McCarthy’s Tactics Senator Joseph McCarthy a strong anti-Communist activist McCarthyism— attacking suspected Communists without evidence McCarthy claims Communists in State Department "I intend doing this job until we win the war on Communism or until I die." --Sen. Joe McCarthy, 1954
Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy Race for the H-Bomb H-bomb—hydrogen bomb—nuclear weapon more powerful than atom bomb 1952, U.S. explodes first H-bomb 1953, Soviets explode one… GAME ON!
The Policy of Brinkmanship Idea of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State under Dwight D. Eisenhower Dulles proposes brinkmanship policy: “brinkmanship” – now willing to take mass retaliation to the “brink” of total nuclear war “MAD” (mutually assured destruction) What does it mean? Nuclear threat unlike any before: millions can die; nation prepares
The Warsaw Pact U.S. - Soviet relations ‘thaw’ after Stalin’s death in 1953 West Germany’s entry into NATO scares Soviets Form Warsaw Pact—military alliance with 7 Eastern European countries