2Discussion QuestionsWhat was the fundamental cause of the Cold War? Would the Cold War have happened if Roosevelt instead of Truman had been president?Was the primary threat from the Soviet Union military or ideological-that is, was the danger that the Russian army would invade Western Europe or that more and more people in Europe and elsewhere would be attracted to Communist ideas?
3Key Concepts of the Cold War Conflicting U.S. and Soviet postwar objectivesU.S. sought to contain communism in Europe, Asia, South America, and AfricaSecond Red Scare (McCarthyism) led the public to believe that there were communists seeking to undermine American institutions
4Key Concepts of the Cold War U.S. succeeded in containing communism in Europe.U.S. was unable to contain the spread of communism to China, but did so in South Korea.
5When did the Cold War Begin? Before WWII ended.Yalta Conference (February 1945)Churchill, Stalin, and RooseveltStalin pledged war on JapanU.S., U.S.S.R., and Britain would divide Germany and jointly govern BerlinStalin promised to hold free elections in conquered territoriesSoviets refused to remove troops from an oil-rich Iran
6Atlantic Charter (1941)Affirmation of the right of self-government for allEconomic securityFree access to tradeReaffirmation of Wilson’s vision of freedom of the seas, freedom from fear of aggressionEstablishment of a permanent system of general security
7George Kennan: American Diplomat Warned Truman that the Soviets would spread influence if given the opportunity.Foundation for the containment policy
10Soviet and American postwar Objectives and Priorities Reconstruction of the economy: Soviets demanded $20 billion from Germany in reparationsMilitary competition: nuclear arms raceSelf-defense: Soviets created a buffer zone known as the Soviet-blocU.S. needed cheap energy: U.S. helped to overthrow the government in Iran to insure a cheap oil supplyReconstruction of Europe: U.S. goal to help the economies of countries such as France, Britain, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, and GermanyWould be able to repay war debtsEventually benefit trade with the U.S.Containment of communism
11Responses to the Cold War Diplomatic battles over Poland and GermanyTruman DoctrineMarshall PlanNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)Formation and arming of West Germany
12Discussion QuestionsWhat was legitimate concern and what was hysterical “witch-hunting” in the postwar wave of domestic anticommunism?Why was the Korean War such a frustrating experience for Americans?