Presentation on theme: "Eisenhower and the Cold War 22.4. The Election of 1952 By 1952, Truman did not have the best track record in the Cold War Tired of criticism, Truman did."— Presentation transcript:
The Election of 1952 By 1952, Truman did not have the best track record in the Cold War Tired of criticism, Truman did not run for office again Adlai Stevenson (Dem.) and Dwight Eisenhower (Rep.) faced off The latter won in a landslide
Ike’s Approach Eisenhower determined that the key to success in the Cold War involved a strong economy because: 1.It would prove free enterprise produced a better society than communism 2. Economic prosperity would prevent Communists from gaining support Eisenhower’s view of the economy spilled over into his understanding of the military
Nuclear Weapons Eisenhower understood the costs of war Preparing for large-scale war was too expensive, using atomic weapons more cost effective Also, small wars to contain communism was too expensive and unpopular Massive retaliation-threatening to use nuclear weapons to contain communism This allowed him to cut $16 billion but caused him to increase the nuclear arsenal by 17,000 bombs Brinkmanship-the willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down
Discussion Slide Do you think Eisenhower was too willing to employ our nuclear weapons?
Korea During his campaign, Eisenhower pushed for the end of the war The war was too expensive and took too many lives Eisen. hinted at nuclear attack and this led to the armistice of 1953 –Told China the U.S. would continue the war “under our own choosing”
More Instances of Massive Brinkmanship Taiwan The Chinese threatened the Nationalists in Taiwan and Eisen. vowed to back the Nationalists He pledged U.S. Navy resistance and hinted at nuclear weapons The Chinese ceased their aggression
Brinkmanship (Continued) Suez Canal Egyptian troops seized the Suez Canal and intended to build a dam on it Brits. And French retaliated and thing escalated when Soviets threatened to launch rockets Eisen. put nuclear forces on alert and said they might have to use the arsenal The Brits. And French backed off and the Soviets won a major diplomatic victory
America Behind the Scenes Eisenhower relied on covert operations conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Developing countries wanted to emulate the Soviet Union’s development and Eisen. Worked to overthrow anti-American leaders This successfully took place in Iran and Guatemala However, it inadvertently caused riots in Eastern Europe (Hungary)
Eisenhower Doctrine With tempers flaring in the Middle East, the U.S. worried Middle Eastern countries would fall to communism Eisenhower Doctrine- essentially the Truman doctrine and containment in the Middle East
Tensions Rise Under the new leadership of Nikita Krushchev the Soviets began reasserting communism’s superiority –Triumphs such as launching Sputnik reaffirmed this belief In an effort to ease tensions, the Soviets and the U.S. planned a summit for 1960 Shortly before summit, a U.S. U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying over the U.S.S.R. The Soviets were outraged and called off the summit
Eisenenhower’s Term Ends In 1961, Eisen. prepared to leave office In his farewell address, he warned the country against the military-industrial complex that had developed Definition: the relationship between the military and the defense industry to promote greater military spending and influence government policy http://www.npr.org/2011/01/17/132942244/ikes-warning-of-military-expansion-50-years-later
Discussion Slide Is it alright for war to be profitable? What is the line between promoting security and being aggressive?