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The Cold War Cold 1945-1990. GUIDING QUESTION Why did relations between the United States and the Soviet Union devolve into a Cold War after the Second.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Cold 1945-1990. GUIDING QUESTION Why did relations between the United States and the Soviet Union devolve into a Cold War after the Second."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War Cold

2 GUIDING QUESTION Why did relations between the United States and the Soviet Union devolve into a Cold War after the Second World War?

3 Smart Start: Interpret the Cartoon

4 GUIDING STATEMENT Compare and contrast US foreign policy after the First World War and the Second World War. Consider the periods of and Compare and contrast US foreign policy after the First World War and the Second World War. Consider the periods of and

5 Goal and Outcome Analyze the success and failures of the United States Cold War policy of containment during the period

6 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR War Aims and Postwar Diplomacy

7 The Origins of the Cold War

8

9 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR Basic incompatibility of economic and political systems Basic incompatibility of economic and political systems Capitalism vs. Communism Capitalism vs. Communism History of discord and mistrust History of discord and mistrust Western response to Bolshevik Revolution Western response to Bolshevik Revolution US recognition of the Soviet Union US recognition of the Soviet Union Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

10 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR WWII Alliance of Britain and U.S. with Soviet Union was pragmatic “marriage of convenience” to defeat Germany WWII Alliance of Britain and U.S. with Soviet Union was pragmatic “marriage of convenience” to defeat Germany 1. Lack of trust of Stalin. unified wartime command unified wartime command atomic bomb atomic bomb 2. Soviets believed western allies not sharing load 3. Soviet mistreatment of eastern Europeans during WWII

11 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy “Big Three” Allied leaders were consistently unable to resolve their basic disagreements over the structure of post-war Europe Tehran Conference (November 1943) Tehran Conference (November 1943) U.S. and Britain would open a second front within six months Allies would create a post-war international organization Stalin, Roosevelt & Churchill at Tehran, 1943

12 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy Yalta Conference (January-February 1945) Yalta Conference (January-February 1945) Loose set of principles that avoided the most divisive issues. Loose set of principles that avoided the most divisive issues. Division of Germany (and Berlin) into four “zones of occupation”; Reunification of Germany at a future date; process not specified Division of Germany (and Berlin) into four “zones of occupation”; Reunification of Germany at a future date; process not specified Soviets would enter Pacific war within 3 months after Germany had been defeated United Nations Poland – free elections at some unspecified date after the war Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta, February 1945 “the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot"

13 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy San Francisco Conference - United Nations Formed (April 1945) San Francisco Conference - United Nations Formed (April 1945) Security Council Security Council 11 members 11 members Permanent seats with veto power for U.S., Britain, France, China and USSR Permanent seats with veto power for U.S., Britain, France, China and USSR General Assembly General Assembly Secretariat Secretariat Secretary-General Secretary-General International Court of Justice International Court of Justice

14 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR : Wartime Diplomacy Potsdam Conference (July-Aug. 1945) Potsdam Conference (July-Aug. 1945) Reparations: Stalin allowed to take 25% of West German industry Reparations: Stalin allowed to take 25% of West German industry Nazi leaders: to be tried as war criminals at Nuremberg Nazi leaders: to be tried as war criminals at Nuremberg Poland: Free elections Poland: Free elections Japan: Unconditional surrender Japan: Unconditional surrender Korea: to be temporarily divided Korea: to be temporarily divided Truman’s attitude Truman’s attitude Atomic bomb Atomic bomb Churchill, Truman and Stalin at Potsdam

15 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: Causes of Cold War Soviets the main cause (Original U.S. view) Soviets the main cause (Original U.S. view) Aggressive policies of expansion (in eastern Europe) and violation of Yalta agreements Aggressive policies of expansion (in eastern Europe) and violation of Yalta agreements U.S. the main cause (Revisionist interpretation) U.S. the main cause (Revisionist interpretation) By insisting that entire world be open to American trade and influence (capitalist expansionism & internationalism) By insisting that entire world be open to American trade and influence (capitalist expansionism & internationalism) Neither/Both the cause (post-revisionist interpretation) Neither/Both the cause (post-revisionist interpretation) Two most powerful nations in world bound to clash Two most powerful nations in world bound to clash Through ignorance and misconceptions, both countries helped to create an atmosphere of tension and suspicion that touched off the Cold War Through ignorance and misconceptions, both countries helped to create an atmosphere of tension and suspicion that touched off the Cold War Could the Cold War have been avoided? How? Could the Cold War have been avoided? How?

16 How did USSR and USA accomplish all this? Strategies Strategies 1. Sponsored or backed revolutions, liberations, or counterrevolutions 1. Sponsored or backed revolutions, liberations, or counterrevolutions 2. Spy Agencies: CIA = USA and KGB=USSR 2. Spy Agencies: CIA = USA and KGB=USSR Assassination attempts, secret or convert activities Assassination attempts, secret or convert activities 3. US provided: Building of schools, roads, infrastructure, military aid, volunteer work 3. US provided: Building of schools, roads, infrastructure, military aid, volunteer work 4. USSR= military aid, technical assistance 4. USSR= military aid, technical assistance

17 TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE

18 Joseph Stalin ( ) Leader of USSR or Soviet Union Leader of USSR or Soviet Union Wants communism to spread into the countries of eastern Europe after WWII Wants communism to spread into the countries of eastern Europe after WWII To protect his nation from invasion To protect his nation from invasion Help rebuild their economy and be a competitor within post-WWII world Help rebuild their economy and be a competitor within post-WWII world DQO handout (Work in groups) DQO handout (Work in groups) Based on this information: What was Stalin planning for Soviet Union Prior to WWII? Based on this information: What was Stalin planning for Soviet Union Prior to WWII?

19 Pres Truman ( ) Wants post WWII Europe to have strong democracies for governments Wants post WWII Europe to have strong democracies for governments Countries to trade with – helps our economy! Countries to trade with – helps our economy! Set up policies to stop the spread of communism Set up policies to stop the spread of communism The Presidents The Presidents

20 Quote: Interpret What does the following quote mean? What is Truman stating about the Cold War’s impact on our society? “History will remember my term of office as the years when the Cold War began to overshadow our lives.” - Pres. Truman

21 B.TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE President Harry S Truman President Harry S Truman Poland Poland Soviet “satellites” Soviet “satellites” "Iron Curtain" - Churchill (March 1946) "Iron Curtain" - Churchill (March 1946) Containment Doctrine Containment Doctrine George Kennan (more economic/diplomatic than military) George Kennan (more economic/diplomatic than military) Truman Doctrine (1947) Greece & Turkey Truman Doctrine (1947) Greece & Turkey Significance (end isolationism, Korea, Vietnam) Significance (end isolationism, Korea, Vietnam) Churchill & Truman, "Iron Curtain Speech," March 5, 1946 (Harry S. Truman Library) George Kennen ( ( Copyright 1997 State Historical Society of Wisconsin

22 Winston Churchil, “Iron Curtain Speech” 1946

23

24 Truman Doctrine, 1947

25 Truman Doctrine US says they will send military and economic aid to any country to help communist taking over that country US says they will send military and economic aid to any country to help communist taking over that country Commitment to help nations threatened by communism and Soviet expansion. Commitment to help nations threatened by communism and Soviet expansion. Used in helping Greece and Turkey Used in helping Greece and Turkey Expansion of policy of containment Expansion of policy of containment

26 B.TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE The Marshall Plan (1947) The Marshall Plan (1947) George C. Marshall George C. Marshall National Security Act of 1947 National Security Act of 1947 Atomic Energy Commission Atomic Energy Commission Department of Defense Department of Defense Central Intelligence Agency Central Intelligence Agency National Security Council National Security Council

27 B.TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE Berlin Blockade (June 1948) Berlin Blockade (June 1948) new West German Republic new West German Republic (June summer 1949) Berlin Airlift (June summer 1949) Cold War Division of Germany

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29 B.TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO ) (April 1949) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO ) (April 1949) Purpose Purpose significance significance Warsaw Pact (1955) Warsaw Pact (1955)

30 "trouble spots" appeared - map from Time Magazine, May 1945map

31 THE COLD WAR IN ASIA

32 Chinese Civil War ( ) Chinese Civil War ( ) Nationalists (Kuomintang) - Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) Nationalists (Kuomintang) - Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) Communists - Mao Zedong Communists - Mao Zedong Truman administration “loses” China (1949) Truman administration “loses” China (1949) Taiwan Taiwan “one China” policy “one China” policy Soviet A-bomb (Aug. 1949) Soviet A-bomb (Aug. 1949) NSC-68 (April 1950) NSC-68 (April 1950) U.S. Ambassador Patrick Hurley, Chiang Kai-shek & Mao Zedong, 1945 Soldiers of the victorious People’s Liberation Army entering Beijing, June Communist Revolution in China

33 Mao Zedong 1948 Civil War in China 1948 Civil War in China Mao Zedong becomes communist leader of China Mao Zedong becomes communist leader of China Going to be friends with USSR Going to be friends with USSR

34 COLD WAR IN ASIA & THE ENTIRE PLANET Mushroom cloud from hydrogen bomb on Bikini atoll Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb)

35 Song: Leningrad Leningrad Propaganda Cartoon: aMKUP3Og aMKUP3Og

36 THE COLD WAR IN ASIA Korean War ( ) Korean War ( ) Gen. Douglas MacArthur - The Martin letter Gen. Douglas MacArthur - The Martin letter Cold War significance Cold War significance Korean War - Phases 1 & 2 (June-November 1950) Korean War Phases 3 & 4 (Nov April 1951)

37 Korean War American troops advancing in Korean War Fighting with the 2nd Inf. Div. north of the Chongchon River, Sfc. Major Cleveland, weapons squad leader, points out Communist-led North Korean position to his machine gun crew. Nov. 20, 1950 > > >

38 Asia After World War II

39 U.S. Defense Spending, (in constant 1975 dollars) COLD WAR IN ASIA: IMPACT OF THE KOREAN WAR Korea Soviets UN Asia Japan Vietnam U.S. (at home)

40 DOMESTIC POST-WAR ADJUSTMENTS

41 "Saturday afternoon street scene" "Saturday afternoon street scene“, Welch, W. Va., August 1946

42 DOMESTIC POST-WAR ADJUSTMENTS Reconversion Reconversion Election of 1948 Election of 1948 Presidential Election of 1948

43 FIGHTING COMMUNISM AT HOME The Red Scare and McCarthyism

44 THE RED SCARE AND McCARTHYISM Loyalty checks (begun in 1947) Loyalty checks (begun in 1947) House Un - American Activities Committee (HUAC) House Un - American Activities Committee (HUAC) “The Hollywood 10” “The Hollywood 10” Hollywood Ten (with lawyers)

45 THE RED SCARE AND McCARTHYISM Alger Hiss Alger Hiss Whittaker Chambers Whittaker Chambers Richard M. Nixon Richard M. Nixon Chambers Makes Sensational Charges in Hiss Case. Chambers Makes Sensational Charges in Hiss Case. Acme President Truman shakes the hand of Alger Hiss, UN Conference, June 1945 Hiss Called to Testify before HUAC, 1949 Nixon Pursues Hiss

46 THE RED SCARE AND McCARTHYISM McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) Klaus Fuchs Klaus Fuchs Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (convicted of nuclear espionage in 1951) Julius Rosenberg emerging after his conviction for espionage in 1951 Ethel Rosenberg left being escorted to another day in her federal espionage trial

47 THE RED SCARE AND McCARTHYISM Joseph McCarthy (Feb. 1950) Joseph McCarthy (Feb. 1950) Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954) Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954) Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower Joseph McCarthy and Aide Roy M. Cohn McCarthy demonstrating Communist subversion in the U.S., 1950

48 Bomb Shelter

49 Duck and Cover

50 Films Reflect Cold War Themes?

51 FOREIGN AFFAIRS UNDER EISENHOWER

52 FOREIGN AFFAIRS in the 50s: CONTAINMENT WITH AN AWARENESS OF LIMITATIONS John Foster Dulles John Foster Dulles “roll back” “roll back” massive retaliation massive retaliation brinkmanship brinkmanship “more bang for the buck” “more bang for the buck” Eisenhower and Dulles Confer. 1954

53 FOREIGN AFFAIRS in the 50s: CONTAINMENT WITH AN AWARENESS OF LIMITATIONS Thirty-eighth parallel Thirty-eighth parallel Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh Dien Bien Phu Dien Bien Phu Geneva Accords Geneva Accords Ngo Dinh Diem Ngo Dinh Diem Ike Greets Diem, 1957

54 FOREIGN AFFAIRS in the 50s: CONTAINMENT WITH AN AWARENESS OF LIMITATIONS Zionists Zionists Shah of Iran Shah of Iran Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Suez Crisis Suez Crisis Israel, the Middle East and the Suez Crisis, 1956

55 FOREIGN AFFAIRS in the 50s: CONTAINMENT WITH AN AWARENESS OF LIMITATIONS Fidel Castro Fidel Castro third World third World Fidel Castro at Harvard 1959 Nikita S. Khrushchev and Fidel Castro. United Nations. 1960

56 FOREIGN AFFAIRS in the 50s: CONTAINMENT WITH AN AWARENESS OF LIMITATIONS Hungarian Revolution Hungarian Revolution Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Khrushchev U-2 U-2 Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and wives at a state dinner in U U-2 Pilot Francis Gary Powers at Hearing. 1962

57 FOREIGN AFFAIRS in the 50s: CONTAINMENT WITH AN AWARENESS OF LIMITATIONS “military-industrial complex” “military-industrial complex”

58 GUIDING QUESTION ● How and for what reasons did U.S. foreign policy change between 1920 and 1941? (To what extent did the United States adopt an isolationist policy in the 1920s and 1930s?)

59 GUIDING QUESTION  To what extent did the Second World War bring about lasting change in the American society, economy and government?

60 Sources National Archives and Records Administration National Archives and Records Administration American Journey Online American Journey Online _bank_US/1946_1954.html _bank_US/1946_1954.html _bank_US/1946_1954.html _bank_US/1946_1954.html Teaching Politics–Rutgers U. & Teaching Politics–Rutgers U. & Brinkley, American History: A Survey 10e & 11e [Instructors Resource] Brinkley, American History: A Survey 10e & 11e [Instructors Resource] Faragher, Out of Many, 3 rd Ed.; Faragher, Out of Many, 3 rd Ed.; Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7 th Ed. Divine, America Past and Present Revd 7 th Ed. Cayton, America: Pathways to the Present (2003) Cayton, America: Pathways to the Present (2003) Nash, The American People 6e, Nash, The American People 6e, Roark, American Promise 3e from Roark, American Promise 3e from J. Jones, P. Wood, et al, Created Equal :, J. Jones, P. Wood, et al, Created Equal :, Kennedy, American Pageant 13e [History Companion CD] Kennedy, American Pageant 13e [History Companion CD]


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