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The Cold War 1945-1991 IB History Review Session 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991 IB History Review Session 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War 1945-1991 IB History Review Session 2009

2 Origins: 1945- 1947 Post-War Leaders: “Big Three” –Stalin, Churchill, FDR, then Truman Post-War Order: Power Vacuum? –Yalta: Spheres of Influence USSR: Eastern Europe, US/UK: Greece, Turkey –Potsdam: Division of Germany, Berlin

3 Origins Cont… Churchill delivers “Iron Curtain”speech From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.” -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946 –“From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.” -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946 Stalin responds in Pravda

4 Origins Cont… Initial Crises: UK sphere of influence –Iran: UK and USSR still have troops on the ground, USSR refuses to leave –Turkey: Stalin courts country with control of Bosporus and Dardanelles –Greece: Communist insurgents start Civil War, Stalin refrains from assisting

5 Origins Cont… Kennan’s Long Telegram –Sent from Moscow at request of Truman administration: What is going on over there? Soviet state fundamentally weak, but strong military Will take advantage of opportunities to increase influence Propaganda an effective tool

6 Containment: 1947 - 1953 Leaders: –US Presidents Truman and Eisenhower (1950) –USSR: Stalin –John Foster Dulles: US Secretary of State

7 Containment Cont… Truman Doctrine –“The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.” –Used to assist Turkey and Greece

8 Containment Cont… Marshall Plan –Economic assistance to post-war Europe –Stave off Soviet encroachment There is no choice in being a communist eating 1500 calories a day and being a capitalist eating 1000 calories a day $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. –US loans used to buy US goods

9 Containment Cont… Berlin Airlift: June 1948-May 1949 –Soviets stop traffic in and out of West Berlin –Western Allies airlift food, coal, and other necessities (including candy) NATO formed April 1949 –Military alliance to protect against attack within Europe –East and West Germany established

10 Containment Cont… NSC – 68: 1950 –Truman Administration blueprint for foreign policy –Defend Western Hemisphere –Build up military - superiority –Destroy Soviet war-making abilities, keep off balance –Support allies

11 Containment Cont… Communist Victory in China: 1949 –Mao Zedong establishes Peoples Republic of China –Agreement of Friendship with Stalin 1950 Korean War: 1950-1953 –UN steps in to confront North Korean invasion of South Korea –China gets involved –Armistice at 38 th parallel

12 Containment cont … Arms Race: Race for Superiority –Atomic Bomb Tests: US: 1945, USSR: 1949 –Hydrogen Bomb Tests: US: 1952, USSR: 1953 Soviet technology burst leads US to look for spies (somewhat hysterically) –McCarthyism –Rosenburgs

13 Coexistence: 1953-1962 Leaders: –USSR: Khrushchev De-Stalinization Co-existence Polycentrism Berlin Wall (1961) –US: Eisenhower, Kennedy/McNamara Open Skies Defend Berlin “Ich bin ein Berliner!”

14 Coexistence Cont… Warsaw Pact: 1955 –Mutual Defense treaty for USSR and satellite states –Allows presence of Soviet troops in satellites for protection –Satellites not allowed to seek nuclear technology –Response to NATO

15 Coexistence Cont… Berlin –Heavy immigration to West Berlin, creating a ‘brain drain’ –1958 borders sealed, but still porous enough to smuggle people through –Wall goes up in 1961 International symbol of oppression Remains until 1989

16 Space Race! (and coexistence cont..) Sputnik! (it goes beep) Arms race ramps up (MAD) –US shocked at being beaten into space –What else might they have? –Soviets also put the first man in space – panic!! –Kennedy promises to be the first on the moon by end of 60’s

17 Coexistence Cont… Poland 1956 –Breaks free from some Soviet domination –Khrushchev allows some independence to avoid armed confrontation Hungary 1956 –Following Poland’s example, breaks free from Warsaw Pact –Violently crushed (West distracted by Suez Crisis)

18 Coexistence Cont… Brinksmanship… –U2 plane downed over USSR…Khrushchev wants apology –Coexistence devolving into confrontation Cuban Revolution 1959 –Fidel Castro’s Revolution replaces pro-US dictator Batista –Turns to USSR for support, declares path to socialism Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961 –JFK fails to unseat Castro, humiliated

19 Coexistence??? Cuban Missile Crisis –U2 spy plane spots missile sites in Cuba October 1962…13 days –US quarantines Soviet ships with suspected warheads –JFK receives 2 letters from Khrushchev –Promises not to invade Cuba if missiles withdrawn, ignores letter #2 –Khrushchev agrees, hails as triumph

20 Meanwhile … Crisis in Indochina –French v. North Vietnamese –Geneva accords split Vietnam in 1954 –Free elections planned for 1956 –US helps Diem win in South –French leave Non-Aligned Nations –Opting out of Cold War, led by India and Indonesia

21 Détente: 1962-1979 Leaders: –USSR: Brezhnev (Khrushchev out in ’64) Leave a plan if you go on vacation next time! –US: Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford Secretary of State Henry Kissinger foreign policy constant

22 Détente: 1962-1979 War in Vietnam –Proxy War, War of Independence depending on perspective –Escalated by LBJ in 1964 after Gulf of Tonkin Incident –Viet Cong fighting against regime in South Guerilla fighter supported by North Ho Chi Minh Trail

23 Détente: 1962 - 1979 Prague Spring: 1968 –Alexander Dubcek elected in Czechoslovakia Institutes reforms opening up personal and economic freedoms Brezhnev tries to negotiate to regain control Fails, USSR and Warsaw Pact Allies invade to quell non-violent protests Resulting disillusionment –Brezhnev Doctrine: Limited Sovereignty

24 Détente: 1962-1979 Sino-Soviet Split: –Mao and Khrushchev at odds –Trade insults in ’60s Cuban Missile Crisis humiliation –China goes nuclear in 1964 –Soviet influences purged during Cultural Revolution –Chinese troops surround USSR embassy in Beijing Both sides prepare for war

25 Détente: 1962-1979 Remember the arms race? –Too expensive –Vietnam distracts US while USSR catches up Parity, not superiority MAD! Nobody can win! –1972: SALT I Loopholes on both sides

26 Détente: 1962-1979 Helsinki: 1975 –Cold War Over?? –Ended border disputes Germany, Poland –Opened some markets outside COMECON –Friendly relations to up standard of living for everyone, within limits

27 Détente: 1962-1979 SALT II: 1979 Limits MIRVs and delivery systems Non US/USSR nukes a problem –NATO moving to modernize –Neutron bomb No fire, no heat Kills living things, no damage to structures START begins 1982, fails

28 Détente: 1962-1979 Ostpolitik –Reconciliation between West and East Germany –Willy Brandt – West Germany Foreign Minister Better relations with East (ost) Europe –Both recognize each other, greater freedoms to travel, trade US, France, UK, and USSR still take turns guarding Rudolf Hess, last Nazi criminal

29 Confrontation: 1979 - 1985 Not over yet! Arms Race Resumes –Lots of loopholes in SALT II Leaders: –US: Carter, Regan, Thatcher for UK –USSR: Brezhnev, Gorbachev (1985)

30 Confrontation: 1979-1985 Revolution in Iran –Fundamentalist leaders depose Shah –Ends US influence and access to oil Revolution in Nicaragua –Sandinistas lead revolution with help from Fidel Castro –CIA supports Contras, civil war breaks out

31 Confrontation: 1979-1985 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979 –Invasion to protect pro-Soviet Government Becomes USSR’s Vietnam Iran-Contra Affair –Israel arms moderates in Iran, US reimburses Israel –Arms sold to Iran to get hostages home from Iran –Profits diverted to Contras in Nicaragua

32 Confrontation 1979-1985 Star Wars –Laser guided missile shield in space –Big dream (and expense), little reality –Weaponizing space Korean flight 007 - 1983 –Passenger jet shot down by Soviet missiles –Perceived threat in Soviet airspace –Accidental, but no survivors

33 Confrontation 1979-1985 Martial Law in Poland 1983 –1,000s protest against communist government (Solidarity) –Massive crackdown, martial law, 1,000s of arrests without charge to quell protests Grenada 1984 –US intervenes to depose a military dictatorship –Installs pre-revolutionary government and constitution

34 Revolution 1986-1991 Leaders: –US: Regan, George Bush Sr. “Mr. Gorbachev! Tear down this wall!” –USSR: Gorbachev, Yeltsin

35 Revolution 1986-1991 Gorbachev’s reforms: –Improve standard of living –Cut costs, resume arms talks Glasnost –open-ness at home and abroad Perestroika –Restructure, decentralize, market economy –Elected leaders

36 Revolution 1986-1991 Soviet relations with satellites –Expensive liability drawing cheap energy and goods for too long –Unrest distracting and difficult to manage –Glasnost means open markets for goods and relations with west –Many begin to break free –Gorbachev reacts, tries to pull back on reforms

37 Revolution 1986-1991 Gorbachev’s reforms not raising standard of living Berlin Wall Falls –1989 Coup in USSR –1991 –Boris Yeltsin comes to power –15 independent countries –dissolution of Soviet Union

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