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The Cold War Begins. Harry S. Truman VP in the Dark Background April 12, 1945: Roosevelt dies; Truman sworn in April 1945: Creation of the UN Potsdam:

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Begins. Harry S. Truman VP in the Dark Background April 12, 1945: Roosevelt dies; Truman sworn in April 1945: Creation of the UN Potsdam:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War Begins

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3 Harry S. Truman VP in the Dark Background April 12, 1945: Roosevelt dies; Truman sworn in April 1945: Creation of the UN Potsdam: July 1945

4 Return to Normalcy? Demobilization Fear: 12 million soldiers come home to need work Shortages Strikes New Government Role: Economic Regulation Employment Act of 1946

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6 Return to Normalcy? II GI Bill of Rights: –Home or Business Loan: 2000 dollars –Higher Education Grants: 80% of Gis go back to school –But women pushed out of colleges Many Women Back to the Home –Eventually leads to Feminism in 50s and 60s

7 The Quest for Housing Levittowns Federal Loans Suburbia The Baby Boom

8 Civil Rights Committee on Civil Rights: 1946 NAACP initiates a wave of lawsuits vs. Discrimination Executive Order 9981: July 1948 desegregation of the military End of Sports Discrimination –Jackie Robinson--Brooklyn Dodgers 1947

9 Jackie Robinson

10 Truman, 1948 Election, and the Fair Deal (I) 1946 Midterms Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 Taxes Thomas Dewey: Liberal Republican

11 Truman, 1948 Election, and the Fair Deal (II) Democrats Divided –Main party chooses Truman and his Fair Deal States Rights Party: Dixiecrats: Strom Thurmond Henry Wallace and Progressive Party

12 Truman, 1948 Election, and the Fair Deal (III) The Whistlestop Campaign Truman’s Civil Rights Program The Election –“Dewey Wins” mistake –Truman: million, 303 EV –Dewey: 22 million and 189 EV –Thurmond: million and 39 EV –Wallace: 1.16 million and 0 EV

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14 Truman, 1948 Election, and the Fair Deal (IV) Conservative Resistance Extend social security Increase minimum wage Subsidize Housing Reform and trim the Bureaucracy, following recommendations by ex-President Hoover's commission.

15 Atomic Diplomacy Brief Monopoly Partition of Germany Baruch Plan Iron Curtain Speech: Churchill, Fulton Missouri Containment

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17 Crisis in Europe Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan: 17 billion in aid (120 billion in today’s money. By contrast, US spent 21 billion in aid in 2006) Rise of Soviet Bloc Berlin Airlift

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19 Collective Security 1947 National Security Act--CIA and National Security Council NATO –1949: United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and the United Kingdom –1952: Greece and Turkey ANZUS Warsaw Pact A New Era of Engagement

20 Japan McArthur in Japan –Suppressing Militarism –Build a Democratic, Capitalist Society –Educational Changes –New Constitution –Abolishing the Military

21 Fall of China: The KMT (Chiang Kai-Shek) vs. Chinese Communists (Mao Tsetung) KMT was very corrupt Communists seen as patriots due to WWII KMT Collapses; US too busy in Europe KMT flees to Taiwan US looks for scapegoats

22 The Bomb Spreads September 1949: Russian Atomic Bomb Hydrogen bomb National Security Council Paper #68: George McKennan and Containment Conservatism Shifts

23 HUAC in Hawaii

24 The Red Scare II ( ) No Normality American Communism Weak House Un-American Activities Committee –Private Persecutions –The Hollywood Ten The Hiss Case Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

25 Senator Joseph McCarthy

26 Drunken Bully from Wisconsin The List of Subversives One Man Reign of Unsubstantiated Terror Truman and Eisenhower Do Nothing The Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954) Senate Censures McCarthy McCarthy drinks himself to death by 1957

27 The Korean War Begins Syngman Rhee (South); Communists (North) War Begins: June 25, 1950 Truman Responds UN Peacekeeping: 590,000 South Koreans, 480,000 Americans, 26,000 Canadians, 15,000 UK, 7,000 Phillipinos, and thousands from 12 other countries, vs. 260,000 NK and 780,000 Chinese

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29 The Korean War, MacArthur’s Counterattack Chinese Counterattack Truman vs. MacArthur

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32 The Election of 1952 Second Term Self-Destruct Dwight D. Eisenhower / “Ike” Adlai Stevenson Election Day: Eisenhower: 55% popular, 442 EV, Stevenson: 45% and 89 EV (Most of South) Consensus Settles In


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